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Comportamento quantistico Quantum Behavior 1-1 Mosenin atomion 1-2 Unesperiamato com yallotiole 1-3 Un xperinento co onde 1-6 Osservamo gi etiron 1-7 Pai tse deta smeceance quatinica 1-4 Uncsperimeno on elettront 1-8 Tripod ineterminsione 1-5 Ineferenca delle onde sleroniche ‘Now: Quota capiolo & quasi del tutto uguale al Capitlo 37 del Volume 1-4 omic mechani 1-2 An experineat wth bles 1-3 An experinent with waves 144 Amexperimeat with electrons 1-5 The iterereace of ecto 146 Watching the lcrons 147 First priniples of qaaatom mechanics 1-8 The ueetalaty practpe "Nove: This chapter is almost exactly the mame a Chapter 37 of Volume 1-1 Meccancs atomic La“incocanic quatistica”& a desersone delcomportamento dela materia «dela ace m tut | sul deta i particolare dab che awiene st Sala Stomeaiayali st sas ats elon acon come maniac Sil posta sere deta esperinzn. Non s comporae come onde, nonst flrmporto com partial, non 8 eomporano come nave ne come pale di Fimndo © come pet attaceit'a moll, 0 ndne come una que ova dhe ma posite wer vse "Nonton ponsva che lt ice ose compos di pat, ma a pol scope he ess omporta come unfonda, In sya, ttaia ai de venesing fecol) fs trovat che i elle lace tava st compara da parcel, Pee ‘ren alo expo, una vols pensar she eatirone sl comportase ome ns parcels eat sco pl he, sotto mull apes comporta come us onda. ‘Conse, in rea, non al somporia in nessuno det due modi. Ora abbiano Tati perdere ila "Nan a Fung me Flea cosa ‘Forunatamnate ot uno spre elton somportano eatamente come la lace I comportamento qusstisico deg opp atomil (lta, proton outron,fton © son Ws) lo tes er ta somo ttl “onde part ele o qualungue str nome places dar lor. Col i ce apprendiame file propiett del cletton (che usreme ae non sem vale nehe po tte Felts “partcali* compres fotont dela ace I gradual ssumolns dinformazion! sal comportameat atomizoesuscala icroscopics durante il prim quarto del aso seolo, che aveva gto qualche {ncicaione sm come in feat 51 comporino gl ogg pocll,ingener uno Halo di cretcete confusions, che reaneInfne sperst el 192661927 da Schrodinger, Henesberg Hor, Est 1-1 Alomle mechani “Quantum mechanic” tthe description of the behavior of mater andi {in alts etl and in arcu, ofthe happenings on an atom ele, Togs ‘ona very nal ssl tee like nothing that you have any diet experince bout They do not behave ike waves, they donot behave ke parts, they do ‘ot behave like cloud, oF bila bls, oF weights on sens, or Uke anytbing {hat you have ever ee, ‘Newton thought that eh was made up of partie, but thes it was covered that i behave ike a wave. Tater, however Cn the beginning ofthe twenleth featur) twas fend tnt ight dl indeed somaines bebe ikea parte Histol, the eleton, for expt, vas though to behave ikea pert, an ‘hen twas found that in aay epost Behave like a wave. Sorel behaves lke nether, Now we bave given ep. We sy: I ke mir." "There is one lucky beak, omever—eletron beave jst Uke Hight. The quantum bebivior of atone sbjete(loron, protons, seutons, photons, nd Soon) the ate fray they are all “parle waves,” or whatever you want to ‘all then, ‘So what we era about the properties of trons (which we sal ke or ot emp) wil spply slo to all “prises,” nelading potoes of Het. "The gradual acclation of fforton about tonic and smalleale be ‘uve durag the st quarter ofthis entry, which gave some indeatons about ‘ow small things do behave, produced an increasing eonison which was Gay ‘vale 1936 and 1927 by Sebubdiage, Heienber, and Boca. They fay tiusiotoSnlente a dare una desertion coerene del ompostamento dell ‘natera sy seals meroscopica. In questo captoloconsdeeremo I placpat Steric tale dexeriione ‘Propo pert il eompertamesto atomic cos divert dala comune expe eqza” ail dilale aituaricis ed eso appare sean © miserion? ‘hinge, sa al panspiante, che al ico. ormu sperinentat, Perino Esper non lo capicono nelmoda chest dsiererebbero edt assirasionevale enon el reseuno,poieht tutto quanto guard lave eapertanea ea “ooe uman st ferise ed ogee grand. Sappiamo come # compatano gi ‘Saget ganda quel sx pieolnsalafanvoatiment Peri, pr apprendre ‘ chetngantda ques ulti, dobbinmo vere eos pista» conceal [istona che crche de! legums som In notre expetinss In goero eaptslo afrrtcremo.wito Tslamento sxenzale di qito ister compartament, va ‘una dele ae ferme she pis coipiseono, Serle: ‘emo sot un fenomeno che t impossible, asluanente impor speeare {ninesun modo informa classic, che cone beuore dla mecanlea ‘uantstin fa effet, questa fenomeno contene/ mic mistero, Non posta lina i misteo “spiegando” come aelene Cilimiteremo a dsrere come fivene e nel far questo avremo sonia le principal earstertiche dela Imosenica quasi. 2 Vnespeimento can palotole Per cerare di capt il comportamento guano degli elton, i mete ‘emo. sonfronto, una parcolae stunt perimental con prae a il amin some od exempin del ical roe e pol ane date onde per ‘rempio dele di qusle shes formano nelhaogu, Considerismn dappmai ‘omporiaments de rie ass stasonesptenile monte eke ‘Sonn Fig 1-1 Cb una mirage che ara pallotoiein continuation Nonun ivaglae molto bona, pr parse allots) Seana repone angle ptonto grande, ons isin in ara Dif ‘iraginfee ce tna prea reno peorecoraza aon past dic irl disesson appenssufilent car pssreun prokitiestravero Sao Die a pret un abalone (lao una tava eg ben spe ‘he “assrbe” | pode che ei battono sopra. Sul ubellone, drow all, Darcie eat fori ce un orto, che H potenbe ciamare un aveltore™ dt Pallstiote, Potrero con na setts empitad sabia, Tat pri Ulich enirmo nl rveatore vengonofermatied scans Quandolovogtamo, possame vaotare a scatola © contre | prolatlce conten, Iriveatore pb Ete momo aval eindiaro Gn quella che ehismeremo iu drerion = Con Sueno appreccio,poniamo Irovaresperinentaimente ta rapt sis do- Stunde: “uate le probabil che un protec pss atraveyo fr sila ate, arti sul abtlone ad una dst al cnt” Peim ut, ata Eke dabbiamo paar dt proba, perce non pomiamo re con prelon= ‘dove andra rice un actiolare prolate, Uma plots che ail uno defor pub rimalare sul borat fie cisah dove, La “prosatia’ ae crfetamo, Spe quella ehe un pole glnga al nvclaors, quella grondeen che nol Iibutmo contand'f mero de prove chesrvan sal cvenoreinuncero| {empo. poi faceno i rapportotragusto numer edilaumero ota pret ‘he urtapo tabetone dant ue intervatodtempo,O ache, ses pone ‘helumiraplatie spat sempes con fo weno nw aura e tine a consent description ofthe behavior of matter on small sale, We {ake up the mai features of that dexerpion nti chapter Because aloe bbsvoe i 0 nlite ordaay experience is vry iu to get used, and appears pelt and mysterio to everyone tothe soviet aad tthe eperencnd pict Even the experts do aot undestand It the way they woud ike fo, and iti prety caso tha they should not ‘because allo det, hun experience and of uma latuton applies to large bjets, We kaow low large abet wll act, But things o& a sal ae just Jo ‘ot at that may.” Sow have to len about ther in srt aster ag ‘nt fashion apd ot by conection with or diet experience. Ta this chapter we shall alle imoditly the bse erat ofthe mysterious ‘behavior init mos strange orm We chose to examine a phenomenon Which Impossible, alll imposible, explain in ay clascal way, and which bas inthe heart of quantum mechani. In veal, i cotuae the aly mye. Weeannot make the mysiry go avay by “explains” how it works. We wil just ‘el you how it woes ning you Bow t works we will ave told you abut the ‘ase peulries of al quanto mechani. 4-2 An expeviment with ballets To try to undestand the quantum teavior of eletons, we shall compare and contrast Weis beavir, ina parte experimental setup, with the mote familar behavior of park Uke bulls, and wih the bekaor of wes lke vyater wives. We ender St the behavior of bullets i the expeimental setup Shown dagrammatcally a Fig. I~ We havea mclae gua that shoot asters ‘ot bles Is wot a very good en, nat sea the bullets (andomly over & ‘aly lrg angular Spread ax nde i the Roe. root of the gun ne have ‘vl nade of atmo plat) tat hain ito Boke jut abou big enough tt « bul through. Beyond the wall backstop (aya thik wl of Wood which wll ‘absoeD” te bullts whe they tt In ont ofthe wal weave an objet which ‘we shal calla "detector" of bull. It might bea box containing sand. Any bult ‘hat enters the detector wil be stopped and accumulated. When we Wish, Ww ean ‘empty the bor and court the number ef bles that have en cauph “The ‘decor canbe moved beck wed fh (a what we wil ell the eatin). With thir aparetus we cand out experimentally the ane fo the question’ “What is the probabity that a bullet which pases trough the oles inthe wall wll atrve at the Bukstop atthe distance from the eat?” Fst, you should feale that we shoul tak abost probaly, baause we cangot sy deity ‘whe any purl bullet wil g. Able wiih happens fo it one of he hoes ‘nay bounce of theedges ofthe hoe, td may end up anger all By “prob- sti” wemeantheckance thatthe fl larva Uk detector, wish we ean ‘measee by couating the sumber wiih ave athe detector in certain ie ad ‘hen aking thera of hs uate to the tl number ta ithe baka ring {Bat ime Og we asume that the gun aay shoes athe sae ate dung the {Gon = Mirage Mobis dtttr = Rivelatore mobile Wall Pace Backs = Tabetione Fa 1 inteench speinnte ‘inure, a probabil che cerchamo 2 semplicemeneproporionale al umero {Tpric che asivuno al evelatre i un cesta inevalo di tmpo pois, ‘Per quel che ort of iieresenpossamo immagine un espesienea legaet- sent pl ease neu poison sano dele palotoe real, ma sano Inara che pon possano eit sper in die. Nel nostro expecesto ‘eriichamo ch ag! pallotol ee aria tu locco indivi, ecke quando ‘Se qusloors nel eltore, trata sempre i un plo itera, etl cane “onal apart a mitaliaticevewe malo diminuto, uoviao che 2d ogn dato Sane al abelione © son ava nll, oppure Wasa una plea une {uated etatumente un, Inote le dimension! dl blocs on dpendono {etic i concn tragic Disamo gn prt ‘Strivno sempre tblooc wen! e dita” Cio che maura conf osteo Tveltore la probably disrvo dl uno di tal Bloehl E questa probublith {n'misramo i funstone dx I ula di quexe misure con i nosto apps ‘ecchia Gespeimento aon Tabbiamo ancora ato, cose nota ie lmmaginandos i relat) &siporato fn grafico nalia parte &) dela Fig. 1 [Nel gratc a probaii tene poral la desta a, verialeate, costae Pawse © in corrspondenra ou la sexine dlfapparcechi. Inch fa probabith op F, petehe «prove possono proven sis dal fro I che dal foro 2. Non c' di meravglins che sia grande vcino a eno delgraco, ‘ge che den! pecola quando » & mole grande, Puotutavasorprendere che Praha valor matsimo in + 0, Possamo cape quetoato iptendai soit periment dpe er chuoo3, fas aka ancora cen meee i'Toro 1 Quando il foro? ®tappaio pros possono passe slo Mleaero Ifo Tre line In cure soenata con Py ela pate (0) dela Sears Confer preveditile i masimo di, shaper quel valore dx che glace full eta congingente Is magic edi Toro t- Quando 8 foro Lad sees chs, atenamo la curva Py, smueiica ala precedente, dsegoata eure & 2a ditebucione dt probabil per |proset che pastaoattravero {foro 2. Dal confrono dele par (0) ee) a deduce Timporante silat Le probsbith vaane sempicementesommate L'elfeto con eaamb | or spel bin somma del effet che haneo quando &aperto casio de: fr da {os nicherem gusto isuate doendo he "non sera ierforena” pet ‘ison ee sppareaaa ehare In segue. Ei tas per | prove Arvano Inn ea loro proba ol ari non presents nerterenca HET ig wiht, rere experierh measurements, the probaly we was is ist proportional to the number that reach the tector in ome standard ie ier ‘For our preset purposes we woud lke to imagine» somewhat iealied cxpecinent in whch the lta not real bulls, but are desu Bulle they canot bak ia Is ou expertmeat we a tha buts always erie in Taps, and when We fad something fv the eco, ts alvays one whole bullet. Ire rateat which the machine gun resis made ery Low, we iad tha wy en nomen elder noting uives, of oe and only one—enatly one—bult aves tthe backstop. Alo the sof the lump cera des 00! depend on the rte offing ofthe gun. We al sy: “Balt fey avin ental amp." What Wemeasue with our detector ibe probability afar ofa lump. And wemess- ‘te the rota a function of ‘The eal a uch measurements with hit fapparas (ve have not yet dove he expsiment, so we we relly imagining the ‘esl ate pote inthe raph dea in prt (6) of Fig -L- Inthe raph we plot {he probably to the right aod x verily, 50 tat the asc fits he digram of ‘he apgaratis We cal the probly Py, save the ullts may have come tier tough hole ror taugh hole 2 "You wll not be spied that Pia is large near tbe mide of the graph but gts sali 6 very Tage. You ay wonder, However, wh Ps has is masini value at ~ 0, We etn understand this a. it we do our experneat agai after covering up hole 2, apd once ore hile coving up hole When Hole 2s covered, ballets can pas oly through hole Ia we pe the cir marked Pin part () ofthe figure, As you would apt, the maxim of P; osu the ae of which on sige with the guo and hole [Whee hole Tis closed, we gt he symmetric eure Py érava Inthe figure. Ps is the probaly distbuton for bulls tht passthrough hole 2 Comparing prs (0) and (c) of Fi. II, we End th import res hat Pam Pit Ps wa ‘The probabil us ad topeter, The eet with oth hols open the sum of the effects with each bole open alone. We sala hires an observation of "no irre,” Tr eon that you wile tex. SO mc for bull. They come in unis, and thie peabablity of serial sows ao itererence 3 1-3 Unesprimeat con onde (rs voglamo considrare un esperinento con ende predate aelacqus LLappareehio ® mowratosshematicamente tn Fig. 1-2./C8 un conenfors inveraiment proposonsle ata tua agherse donde (p= W/). Conament le pints che Feettone neeve quando i foooe & dist vere inottoocene ‘Tptet da implao porta dal ftone. Aba! Sevolevamodigursare etm tele leggerens oor avremao dovuto abbasare inet del se, ai fa fence (che rena cosn she tamenare In soa lungheoa dons) Uniame una luce pit rosa. Petremmo anche use luce infaros,o onde radio (comeil nda) ©"ruadare™ per dove pasa Telttrone con Vito oh goalhe Spparesshio capac i "vedere laced quetelnghenre fonds maga. Se ‘mo una he pid "delicate fore issremo anon perbare eos tata sletcon Rifccamo Pexperiera con onde pi lnghe Seputeremo aripetere nostro tsperinento, gat volta con Tuce di magglre lagen onda, Al principio, fli sembraeambiare 1 lati Sono gh sess Fos ona com teri scade Wi ricoderet he quando abbiamodscuioil mcroncopnabbimo evatoehe, cua dla naareondelatrdr dla le, una Hstaione perl dsanea fnnima di de punt affache possano ese vis ancora came put separa ‘Questa danza defrdine ela langhezn onda della luce Cos aes, fon appenarendiamo [a lnghezza onda dela ace magi dela diana det ost for, vedlamo an grasa lanpo shueato quaedo Tac €iffsa dap ‘Sttroni: Non poosamo ib dive atravrto quale foro © pasta Teetsone! Sippiamo soi the & passtto da qualche parte! Ed proprio co ace di queso re che roviamo che le spiate cevte Gall seins sono atstaaa pleco Ai reedere Py simile a Px ot da cominlare ad otenre elle interferes a € solo per luggheese donde molto magglot dela sepaazione de de foul (aloes non ablamo pid acura possi dredadoveepasatoF elton) he alterzione dovda alla lee dvtene sbbasanzapiccola a rtencre a cava dig "Gon'i nostro eperimento troviama che 8 imposible regi lacs in modo tale d pote dire Mraverso quae Toro passa 'etone alo ess tempo ‘on petrbarn a dvrinunone: Fu rape da Helneaery che ealra noone lepgdes natura ptevano slate coereat solo se enleva na baiaelimit biome nelle noire pousbiithspeimenial, oa reosositaprecedentemente. El prope, come principio general, suo pina diindcterninasione he 01 pessiamo enuniare come segue ifeendoc al nostro espeimeato noe "bile costae unapparecshiope determiared qualeforoe pasate letrone, fhe allo weno tempo mon perart Feeivone sulleenemente da dstrassere rdrenea* Se un apparecchiocapace di deteminaredngualeforoe pssio Teletwoue, no pad esete cos deato datos alearne tn odo esc la ‘Sr impossie,« ene Ponca cost she samo i grado dl pevedee a pro- Fibint ah even diferent 8 gove neonossere che questo tan rpleamento ‘opto al soso sign sealed comprensone del nstorn,Pubdarche sus ‘pao nitro, na nessuno ha tovato modo d svar, Faccame adesto qualche considerasione sauna propota chet sata svanzata pia ote pr cesar dieviarelaeserionecheabam dat: "Forset eatin En qualche wang meceanimyo dentro di, qualche varabileitevaa, che aa ‘ncaa non conosumo, Forse questa a agione pe oul onpossiame perelere 1 che aver, Se potisimo guarare plu a vena Feletrone,saemo in inde dea eer url he esapann mp “aicbberoancota lle diffeata, Sopponimo diesere porta adassumereche ‘ear Fesetone sam quiche meseansmo che etrminidovequesio abs ‘inte, Questo’ mescaniamo deve ence Buare per quale foo eso andra 2 pase oela sn trnetona Nia son dabbiamo dinendcare che cid che dent Feetone non pu sipendere da cd che ol Taesmo, ed in paticolare dal otro api 0 chiudre no del for. Peco, san elesizone pina partir, Fis deco (a) quae Toro uses e (0) dove andr are, dovremmo trovare 1. er uel Cettoat che hanno seca Too ly. perl che Hanno slo Uo 3 enecesseriamont la Somma P, + F et quel oe arvanoarayerso F due for Non sembran entre ale aleaative Ma aa alamo eefeato sytineniene the 2 on & ta Eg so a marine fblusone per questo enigina. Perio oggiéobbiamo limiariwealolare prov Bat Selno oui a peta on arene che gts ao [coset acsomppgnerh sempre se imposible raoierequeno enim ‘hequewo snl ero modo sere dela satura 1-8 I pencpo dt indetrmfanione La formalasione originale Heisenberg del pincipodndetermiaasione& a souente: So exoguendo la mura per un oggtto guia sss a ete Imire le componente del Suo Impulo con una incertezza 3p, 0 5 Pu, onteraporanmente conossee I um coordinata dh poston, con en precisowe maggore di Alp, dove Aus en Seto aumero sso ase- nat dalla nara, Eso &deto“cratante el Planck ed eappeomimativameste {quale a 66x 10- joulesecondl. Le inceteze aaa postoneenellimpsto, fd ogni stant. dedbon0 avere prodoto magaire dla costante di lance. Guests & vn cio paricolare el principio at ndeermigacione che € ato ‘emit precodentemente i fora pl gousale, La formulazion pia generale ermuva che nom pssona cose aparece in grado di stubilve quale ‘due aenative ¢rtizat, soma, allo stew temp ditagpee ie fanged interna ‘Mostnmo in un catoparcaare che il ip i rlasione data da Heisenberg dove overs yids fined evar di trovatl we pasos. lmmagiaamo ona ‘modifica delfesperimento di Fig. 3, ln cio schermo coo fone costtuto da oa lating mogtats su cescinet ia modo da potest muoverelibersmente a in gin dienone dea), ‘tatly what would bappen, We can only pod he ods This would men, i ‘tere ue, dat pss has given upon the problem of ying to pret exactly what wil Rapp ina definite cumstances! pss hat given up. We do ot kon haw oped whi wold hae va giver cremate and We bine ow tht iti posble~ehat the only thing tat cas be peed i he probe sli of ferent evens, Kerman be recognized ha iss retrenchment ih out ‘tli ieal of understanding autre" may bea backward step, But n0 One Ins seen a way fo aed it "We make now a fev remarks on «sagpetion tha has somedimes been made oy to avoid the deserpion we bave ven "Perhaps the clctron has ore Kid ‘of nena worktme nner variable that We dono yet know abot. Perhaps ‘hat ie why we ctnnot pect what wil happen I e oa ook more cosy at the eto, we could beable oll where woud end p.” Soar as we Know, ‘Hat is imposible, We woul sil be nifty. Soppose ne were to astume tat Tnsde the eetton tere sone Kind of machinery that determines whee ts fing to cod up. Tint macne mist ho determine which hoe is woing 10 {rough ome way. But we st not forget tat what siete eletron sould not be dependent on what we do, and in patel upon whether we open or close ‘One ofthe oles. Soif an eleton, before it starts, has ead made p mind {@) woh hole Is going to we, and () wher cis oing old, we should fad for thote elton that have chose ole I, Ps for (ox ha ave chosen le 2 and necessarily the sum Py + Py Tor those tat avive though the two oles “There scm to he no ay around thi Bot we hve vered experimental that hace not the eased noone baited a way ot of thi puzele So at the rent time we mux ln ures o computing probabil, We say "atthe resent tne,” but we spet very tong tha sometheg hat wi be Wich Ue freer it npn fo eat that pzale—that thse way nature realy 1-8 The mcetanty paige ‘This is the way Heisenberg ated the uncertsity piel oily: I you ‘make the measurement on any obj, an you cen determine the rcamponeat of Its momentum with an uncertainty, you cannot, atthe sme Gime, know is ‘pasion more acurtely than dv = h/ap, where i definite Bred number piven by nar, th called "Panchyconsat” abd is approximately 663 % TO" joulesesonds, ‘Tae uncertainties in the pation and momentum of a Dare at any instant man have the product greater than Pabe’s constant. {This + spel cae ofthe woe) principle tat us stated above more erally. The more neal atement wa that one canst design equipment in fay way t0 determine which of two atleraives taken, without, atte same time, destroying the pattern of itererence ‘Lets stow fr one particular se athe Rnd freon gen by Helse berg must be tue inorder keep fom geting ino trouble. We iain a modi ‘atom of the exerinent of Fig -3,n wie the wal ih the Ble cous of « plate mounted on rolls wo tht itcan moe ety ap snd dowa athe reton, 1M Electron gen ~ Cannonsino eletronico Mosin fee Liveth dimmenimento Rollers = Canina ‘Wall Puree Deteaor = Rvelatore Basktop = Tabellone Fig. 1-6. Usespeons inc mira come» moiety in FI, Onerando atten i mol dl ei Fagin fat cos aceade quando sete ponoins =, Cidobbiame tarpette shun cetone che pasa pr Iforo 1 dba ener dls verso ‘ae amins pr pte arcarelvlatore Poh lacomponentvereale daiiopulto delfeleutone & vars, Ta hmina deve muover in derone Spo on oto nul, La anion He i wa pot ere at. SePiavese Veltrone pans ateaereo il foro ileriore, I lamina dovreoe Sabie a eta yrs bao, char che pr opm poniion dl vltore, Fimpeu ritvte Gall tamin vi on aloredcesteseccondache eeone {ves fore Toil foroz Proprio coat Sena perl perturbarelceston), tu nolo oservando alm, possiamo determine percrso sce 6a: Feetrone Ma per fare questo sore, conssereFimpubo dalla scheme, prime che Feitronelostravers, Coneche quando misunamo mpl dopo passegio Skifeletrne, posamo resis qunat vara Fmpulse dell lami Ma scordlact che, la base al principio i indetermiazione, non possi lo seno tempo conoiee con una pressone nbarara I ponone deli Inman Ma se'non sippiaio eratamonte dove ailing, "on sap Dppure dre om precnone ove sana i ue fo. Ba aranna i dive Jereion! per ogni sarone cho i aeaver Quexo tigiice che i convo {ae feng imecernan ave una posrione diferent pe vari elton Le ‘isto el grand fatreenratenderano ad appatin:Dimostereno ‘tanatvameate nel prostina captlo che, se dtetminamo Fimpubo dea Stmina cow precslone’ sfclente s eteminare, mediante Teseraione de Fimbatzo, quae foro € slo araverato sloraFinertea sla coorinata {data lamina sur, secondo i pritepo di ladctermnsrione, sulfone fare Sella su eta Ringoes 1c frangediimerernsa,onerateconi ivlaoe, STumtruto cen upale sl atnza da un masa sinimo ph pomino. Un {alomovimentcheavvene caso ¢hstosffcientea deur eonaront €grateoe quad ara che no oer pia iertrenea princi d odterassione wa aes della morcanica quatsia Heisenberg conotbe cho, e fen posible msoraresimutaneamensmpalsos none Con uon mageleeascraeza, a mexcaicnquatnieacolebbe era svanedTiptes she fowe impor. Alors he gente ot mise tava cateand a nvntae manite faa, nasesuno Ms ta orto uk tnodo di miurre a ponsione efiampuho dun oggetaqunsas-—unoschrmo, Sn eletrone one pall dbl, alo =con maggie precsione. Lx Imeceanice quantities contin la su periclosma tora isin een | Fe ae ae Sell eee seed. amelfi Bs fp Seis 1s shown in Fig. 1-6, By watching the motion of he pase caeuly we can tt tell wich holeanelecon sa through. Imagine what happens when te detstor i placed at x = 0. We wou expect that am elton which pss though bole rin be defied downward by the plate 0 reach the decctor. Since the etal ‘component ofthe cledeon mamentam f changed, the ple mst tocol wih an qual momentum in te oppose dtetion. ‘The pate wil ge an upward kick the elton goes through tbe lover hole the lt sould fel a downward kek, eich for every postion af the tector, the momentum recived by the piste wil have «ferent vale for a traveral ia Ble 1 than for ravers via bole2. So! Withotdstarbing the trons a al, but jx by watching the plate, ve can tll which put te electron wed ‘Now in onder todo this iti necessary to know what the momentum a the seren before the eton goes ough So when we measure the moments Mtr the etn ges by, we can Bure ou ow muck he plates mama has ‘hanged. But remember, accordg othe unceraaty piteple We cannot at he Sane time know the postion af he pie with an arhiary accuracy. Butif we do ‘ot know exactly here the patel we cannot sy pecs where thet hale ae. ‘They wll bein diferent place for every eletrn that gos through. ‘This metas bat the eater of our iatetereace pattern wil ave a ferent locaton for each ‘ctron. The wiggles the ittference patter wile smeared out. Wesbllsbow ‘quantitatively in the next chaper tha i we determine the momentum of the plate {lea stcuatly o determine rom the recoil measurement Which Hole wat ‘ed the the unceait n the potion ofthe plate wl acordng to te un vaity pail, be eaough fo sf the pater observed ate detctor up aad ‘fovain the edresionabost be dtane rom amaxinu ois ears main, Ssh random sll as enough to sme Otte pater so at no interference “The uncertainty prisple “protest” quantum meshaniss. Hesnbers ro nize hat it were pssibe to measure the momeam od the posiion simultane ‘owsly with a greater accuracy, the quantum mechatics would collie. So he roped tit it must be imposible. Then people sat down and redo gre out ‘raj of doing it and nobody could fire oats way to meazre the poion and {he momentum of anything—s seca, ance, abilard bal, anytbing—with ny greater accra. Quantum mechaniss mains its perilous but sill eoret