Sei sulla pagina 1di 14

SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

2.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION

2.1 Description and Assembly

4
1

2
5

Figure 1 a: Assembly Diagram (Front View) for Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

Figure 1 b: Assembly Diagram (Back View) for Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

1
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

1. Spring Balance
2. Pelton Turbine
3. Tensioning Screw
4. Pressure Gauge
5. Spear Valve (Nozzle)
6. Pulley

a) Turbine
Material : Bronze
Impeller External Diameter : 5 inch
Width of Vane : 35 mm (17 Vanes)
Pulley Radius : 40 mm

b) Force Balance
Range : 0 – 2 kg x 10g

c) Pressure Gauge
Range : 0 – 2 kgf/cm2

d) Tachometer
Measurement Range : 5 to 99999 rpm (optical)
Resolution : 0.1 rpm
Accuracy : ± 0.05%
Sensing Range : 50 to 150 mm

2.2 Experimental Capabilities

i) Determination of the operating characteristics of a Pelton Turbine such as


power, efficiency and torque at various speeds
ii) Determination of typical Turbine Curve

2.3 General Requirements

Hydraulics Bench (Model: FM110)

2
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

3.0 SUMMARY OF THEORY

Turbines are classified into two general category impulse and reaction. In both types the
fluid passes through a runner having blades. The momentum of the fluid in the tangential
direction is changed and so a tangential force on the runner is produced the runner
therefore rotates and performs useful work, while the fluid leaves with reduced energy.
The important feature of the impulse machine is that there is no change in static pressure
across the runner. In the reaction machine the static pressure decreases as the fluid
passer through the runner.

For any turbine the energy held by the fluid is initially in the form of pressure. i.e. a high
level reservoir in a hydroelectric scheme. The Impulse turbine has one or more fixed
nozzles, in each of which this pressure is converted to the kinetic energy of an unconfined
jet. The jets of fluid then impinge on the moving blades of the runner where they lose
practically all their kinetic energy.

In a reaction machine the changes from pressure to kinetic energy takes place gradually as
the fluid moves through the runner, and for this gradual change of pressure to be possible
the runner must be completely enclosed and the passages in it entirely full of the working
fluid.

The general relationship between the various forms of energy, based on the 1st Law of
Thermodynamics applied to a unit mass of fluid flowing through a control volume (such as
the turbine it self), is expressed as:

v2 
 2 

 Ws  d    g dz  VdP  F (1)

where,

 Ws = Work performed by the fluid on the turbine.

v2 
d   = Change in kinetic energy of the fluid

 2 

g dz = Change in potential energy of the fluid

 VdP = Change in pressure energy

where V is the volume per unit mass of the fluid.

dP p1  p 2
For an incompressible fluid of constant density ϱ, the term  VdP =   , where
 
p2 refers to the turbine discharge outlet and p1 to the turbine inlet

F = Frictional energy loss as heat to the surrounding or in heating the fluid itself as it
travels from inlet to outlet

3
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

The first three terms of the right hand side represent the useful work Wa i.e.

v1  v 2 p p
2 2
Wa   g z1  z 2   1 2 (2)
2 

where subscript 2 refers to the turbine outlet and subscript 1 to the inlet

The term Wa represents the actual work produced in changing the energy stages of a unit
mass of the fluid. This may alternatively be presented as the total dynamic head H of the
turbine, by converting the units from work per unit mass to head expressed as a length:

v1  v 2 p p
2 2
H  z1  z 2   1 2 (3)
2g g

It can be assumed for the purposes of the following practical experiments that the fluid is
incompressible (i.e.   is constant)

The operating characteristics of a turbine are often conveniently shown by plotting torque T,
brake power Pb and turbine efficiency Et, against turbine rotational speed N for a series of
volume flow rates Qv, as shown in Figure 2. It is important to note that the efficiency
reaches a maximum and then falls, whilst the torque falls constantly and linearly. In most
cases a turbine is used to drive a generator in the production of electricity. The speed of
the generator is fixed to produce a given frequency of electricity. The optimum conditions
for operation occur when the maximum turbine efficiency coincides with the rotational
speed of the generator. As the load on the generator increases then the flow of water to
the turbine must increase to maintain the required operating speed.

Qv3

Qv2
Efficiency

Qv1
Brake Power

Torque

Qv1 Qv2 Qv3


Rotational Speed (Hz)
Figure 2: Example characteristics of a turbine at different flow rates

4
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

The basic terms used to define, and therefore measure, turbine performance in relation to
rotational speed includes:

i) Volume flow rate


ii) Head
iii) Torque, power output and efficiencies

Volume Flow Rate, Q

The volume flow rate of fluid through the turbine is the volume passing through the system
per unit time. In SI units, this is expressed in cubic meters per second (m3 /s).

Volume flow rate of fluid can be measured using the SOLTEQ Hydraulics Bench (Model:
FM110) or any volumetric calibration tank. The unit is in liter per unit time. Therefore a
conversion is necessary.

Head, H

The term head refers to the elevation of a free surface of water above or below a reference
datum. In the case of a turbine we are interested in the head of the water entering the rotor,
which of course has a direct effect on the characteristics of the unit.

Power Output and Efficiencies

The brake power Pb produced by the turbine in creating torque, T on the brake at rotor
speed N is given by Equation 4:

Pb  2  N T Nm / s  Watt (4)

The torque itself is given by the equation:

T  Fb r (5)

Where Fb is the brake force reading on the balance and r is the pulley radius.

However, the fluid friction losses in the turbine itself, represented as F in Equation 1,
require a hydraulic efficiency Eh to be defined as:-

Power absorbed by rotor Pr 


Eh  100% (6)
' Useful' Power Supplied Ph 

Further, the mechanical losses in the bearing, etc require a mechanical efficiency E m to be
defined as:

Power sup plied by rotor Pm 


Em  100% (7)
Power absorbed by rotor Pr 

5
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

The Pelton turbine units do not include the direct measurement of mechanical power P m,
but indeed measures brake force applied to the rotor via pulleys. A further efficiency is
therefore required expressing the friction losses in the pulley assembly Eb:

Power absorbed by the brake Pb 


Eb  100% (8)
Power sup plied by rotor Pm 

The overall turbine efficiency Et is thus:

Power absorbed by the brake Pb 


Eb  100%
' Useful' Fluid Power Ph 
2    N T
 100% (9)
W  g  H i  QW

Thus,
Et  Eh  Em  Eb (10)

In general the efficiency of the turbine is provided as isoefficiency curves. They show the
interrelationship among Q, w, and h. A typical isoefficiency plot is provided in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Isoefficiency curve for a laboratory-scale Pelton turbine

6
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

Figure 4 shows the form taken by the curve relating hydraulic efficiency and the ratio of
rotor bucket to jet speed.

100

80

hydraulic
efficiency (%)

60

Maximum
efficiency
40

20

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Bucket Speed
Jet Speed
Figure 4: Hydraulic efficiency versus bucket/jet speed ratio

The graph shows how the curve rises to a relatively sharp peak, and hence for a high
hydraulic efficiency it is essential for the ratio of bucket to jet speed to remain close to the
theoretical value of one half (the velocity of the jet being twice that of the bucket).

The rotational speed (and hence the bucket speed) of the rotor is required to remain
constant in a generating installation in order to produce power at the correct frequency. It
then follows that for the hydraulic efficiency to remain high, the jet speed must also remain
the same. This is so even when the power demand falls off and the flow rate passing
through the turbine is therefore reduced (or vice-versa).

With a standard throttle valve, the area of the outlet jet remains the same as the volume
flow rate changes. This causes a change in the jet velocity (Qv/A).

With the Pelton Turbine a spear valve is usually used for control. Power production is
lowered by moving the spear further into the nozzle. This decreases the volume of liquid
passing through the turbine), but due to the smaller area of the jet impacting on the bucket
its speed remains the same as illustrated in Figure 5.

7
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

Figure 5: Spear Valve Operation

8
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

The Figure 6 demonstrates the different characteristics obtained:

Qv3
Qv2
Nozzle Control

Qv1

Rotational speed(Hz)

Qv3

Throttle Valve Control

Qv2

Qv1

Rotational speed(Hz)
Figure 6: Typical brake power –speed curves for throttle and nozzle (spear valve) control

9
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

4.0 INSTALLATION AND ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTION

1. Unpack the Hydraulics Bench and Demonstration of Pelton Turbine Unit. Check that
the units are still in proper condition.
2. Place the Demonstration of Pelton Turbine Unit on top of the Hydraulics Bench top
channel as shown in Figure D2 (Appendix D).
3. Connect the water supply from Hydraulics Bench to Demonstration of Pelton Turbine
Unit as shown in Figure D3 (Appendix D).
4. Install the Force Balances and Braking Belt as shown in Figure D4 (Appendix D). Make
sure that the belt is placed correctly on the pulley.
5. Before start the experiment, make sure all the valve are close and pipe are connected
properly.
6. Switch on the motor and open the spear valve until half of the maximum value. Open
the valve gradually until reach desire value.
7. If no water flows out after open valve, release air trapped in the motor by relief valve.

10
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

5.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

5.1 General Start-up Procedures

1. Connect the power plug to the nearest power supply.


2. Fill up the water reservoir of Hydraulics Bench up to 80% full.
3. Slacken the tensioning screw and belt to apply minimum force to the pulley.
4. Close the throttle valve then switch on the water pump.
5. Slowly open the throttle valve and spear valve to allow water to circulate.
Note: If water is not flowing after the pump is on, loosen the air bleed valve
at the centrifugal pump to bleed the air.
6. The unit is now ready for experiments.

5.2 Experiment 1.1 : Turbine Characteristics

Objectives:
To study the characteristic curves of a Pelton turbine operating at a different fluid
flow rates with high head

Procedures:
1. Perform the general start-up procedures.
2. Then, fully open the throttle valve and allow the water to circulate until all air
bubbles have dispersed.
3. Open and adjust the spear valve until 1.5 kgf/cm2 of inlet water head shown on
P1 pressure gauge.
4. Tighten up the tensioning screw on the pulley wheel until the turbine is almost
stalled (rotor just turning).
5. Note the value of the pulley brake on F1 value (this will be the maximum brake
force value). Decide on suitable increments in force to give adequate sample
points (typically 8 points between minimum and maximum brake force).
6. Slacken off the tensioning screw so no force is being applied to the turbine, i.e.
Fb at almost minimum. Record the volumetric flowrate (Q), force reading (Fb),
water head (P1) and turbine rotational speed (N), into the experimental data
sheet. This represents the first point on the characteristic curve.
7. Note that the value read from the tachometer using photo method for turbine
rotational speed will be divided by half to get the actual speed value. This is
because there are 2 reflective stickers on the surface of the pulley.
8. Tighten the screw to give the first increment in force for the brake. When
readings are steady enough, record all the readings again.
9. Repeat step 7 above for a gradually increasing set of F b values, i.e. increasing
values of torque. The final sample point will correspond to the turbine stalling.
10. The recorded set of data may now be used for analysis and to plot the Pelton
turbine characteristics curve.
11. Now decrease the volume flow rate by closing the bench control valve slightly
to a new setting by changing the throttle valve position and at the same time
also change the spear valve position to maintain the pressure at 1.5 kgf/cm2.
Repeat the taking of samples for gradually increasing values of torque, as in
Steps 4 - 10 above. Repeating this step will produce a series of result sets for
comparison.

11
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

Experiment 1.2 : Turbine Characteristics

Objectives:
To study the characteristic curves of a Pelton turbine operating at a different flow
rates with low head

Procedures:
1. Perform the general start-up procedures.
2. Then, fully open the throttle valve and allow the water to circulate until all air
bubbles have dispersed.
3. Open and adjust the spear valve until 1.0 kgf/cm2 of inlet water head shown on
P1 pressure gauge.
4. Tighten up the tensioning screw on the pulley wheel until the turbine is almost
stalled (rotor just turning).
5. Note the value of the pulley brake on F1 value (this will be the maximum brake
force value). Decide on suitable increments in force to give adequate sample
points (typically 8 points between minimum and maximum brake force).
6. Slacken off the tensioning screw so no force is being applied to the turbine, i.e.
Fb at almost minimum. Record the volumetric flowrate (Q), force reading (Fb),
water head (P1) and turbine rotational speed (N), into the experimental data
sheet. This represents the first point on the characteristic curve.
7. Note that the value read from the tachometer using photo method for turbine
rotational speed will be divided by half to get the actual speed value. This is
because there are 2 reflective stickers on the surface of the pulley.
8. Tighten the screw to give the first increment in force for the brake. When
readings are steady enough, record all the readings again.
9. Repeat step 7 above for a gradually increasing set of F b values, i.e. increasing
values of torque. The final sample point will correspond to the turbine stalling.
10. The recorded set of data may now be used for analysis and to plot the Pelton
turbine characteristics curve.
11. Now decrease the volume flow rate by closing the bench control valve slightly
to a new setting by changing the throttle valve position and at the same time
also change the spear valve position to maintain the pressure at 1.5 kgf/cm 2.
Repeat the taking of samples for gradually increasing values of torque, as in
Steps 4 - 10 above. Repeating this step will produce a series of result sets for
comparison.

12
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

5.3 Experiment 2: Comparison of Spear Valve Performance

Objectives:
To compare the spear valve control in turbine performance

Procedures:
1. Perform the general start-up procedures.
2. Then, fully open the throttle valve and allow the water to circulate until all air
bubbles have dispersed.
3. Open and adjust the spear valve until 1.0 kgf/cm2 of inlet water head shown on
P1 pressure gauge.
4. Tighten up the tensioning screw on the pulley wheel until the turbine is almost
stalled (rotor just turning).
5. Note the value of the pulley brake on F1 value (this will be the maximum brake
force value). Decide on suitable increments in force to give adequate sample
points (typically 8 points between minimum and maximum brake force).
6. Slacken off the tensioning screw so no force is being applied to the turbine, i.e.
Fb at almost minimum. Record the volumetric flowrate (Q), force reading (Fb),
water head (P1) and turbine rotational speed (N), into the experimental data
sheet. This represents the first point on the characteristic curve.
7. Note that the value read from the tachometer using photo method for turbine
rotational speed will be divided by half to get the actual speed value. This is
because there are 2 reflective stickers on the surface of the pulley.
8. Tighten the screw to give the first increment in force for the brake. When
readings are steady enough, record all the readings again.
9. Repeat step 7 above for a gradually increasing set of Fb values, i.e. increasing
values of torque. The final sample point will correspond to the turbine stalling.
10. The recorded set of data may now be used for analysis and to plot the Pelton
turbine characteristics curve.
11. Now partially close the spear valve. Repeat the taking of samples for
gradually increasing values of torque, as above.
12. Continue until several sets of result have been obtained. Repeating this step
will produce a series of result sets for comparison.

5.4 General Shut-down Procedures

1. Slowly fully close the throttle valve and spear valve.


2. Switch off the water pump.
3. Disconnect the main water supply.
4. Retain the water in the reservoir tank for next experiment.

13
SOLTEQ Demonstration of Pelton Turbine (Model: FM 41)

6.0 MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

1. It is important to drain all water from the apparatus when not in use. The apparatus
should be stored properly to prevent damage.
2. The apparatus should not be exposed to any shock and stresses.
3. Always wear protective clothing, shoes, helmet and goggles throughout the
laboratory session.
4. Always run the experiment after fully understands the unit and procedures.

7.0 REFERENCES

Applied Fluid Mechanics 5th Edition, Robert L. Mott, Prentice-Hall

Elementary Fluid Mechanics 7th Edition, Robert L. Street, Gary Z. Watters, John K.
Vennard, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Fluid mechanics 4th Edition, Reynold C. Binder

14