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Teacher(s) Mrs.

Delgado Subject group and


discipline
Unit title Plant and animal nutrition MYP year 2nd Media Unit duration (hrs) 13

Inquiry: Establishing the purpose of the unit

Key concept Related concept(s) Global context

photosynthesis, minerals, nitrogen, photosynthesis, carbon dioxide, water,


potassium, phosphorus, xylem, phloem, light, chloroplasts, biomass, oxygen, How conception, growth, development,
stomata, mineral salts starch, adaptation nutrition, diet, behaviour and health can be affected by diet,
Concept statements deficiency, fitness, excretion, faeces, drugs and disease
Photosynthesis is the way that plants make digestion, absorption
food, using energy from the light. protein, sugar, starch, fat, fibre,
carbohydrate, vitamin, minerals, salt
Material that is made of living cells and alimentary canal, mouth, stomach, small
tissues is called biomass.
intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus,
Chloroplasts are organelles inside the plant mastication, peristalsis, churning.
cell where photosynthesis happens.  
Nutrients are substances in food that the
body uses.
Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that we
need in only very small quantities.
Diet is the food that you eat each day.
Absorption the movement of food from the
alimentary canal to the body cells.
Digestion is the breakdown of large
molecules into small ones, so they can be
absorbed.

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Enzymes chemicals that allow the breaking of
food.
Catalyst is a substance that speeds up a
chemical reaction.

Statement of inquiry

 Students will identify the constituents of a balanced diet and the functions of various nutrients.
 Students will understand the relationship between diet and fitness
 Students will discuss how conception, growth, development, behaviour and health can be affected by diet, drugs and disease
 Students will understand the function of enzymes as biological catalysts in breaking down food to simple chemicals
 Students will recognise the organs of the alimentary canal and know their functions.

Inquiry questions

Factual—
 What are the elements needed for photosynthesis?
 What are the organs of the alimentary canal?
 What are the main constituents of a balanced diet?

Conceptual—
 What are the conditions needed for photosynthesis to take place?
 What is the purpose of photosynthesis?
 What is the part of the plant where photosynthesis takes place?
 What is the function of enzymes?

Debatable—
 How are diet and fitness related?
 How can diet, drugs and disease affect conception, growth, development, behaviour and health?

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Objectives Summative assessment

Scientific Inquiry Outline of summative assessment task(s) including Relationship between summative assessment task(s)
assessment criteria: and statement of inquiry:
Ep Plan investigative work
Ep5 Suggest and use preliminary work to  Lab Report
 Lab Reports
decide how to carry out an investigation
Students will write a lab report after The lab report will serve as an
8Ep6 Make predictions using scientific researching the question ‘How does evidence of students’ scientific enquiry
knowledge and understanding nutrient deficiency affect the growth of and discuss the impact of the lack of
duckweed?’. A Lab Report format will mineral salt in plants.
Eo Obtain and present evidence be given to fill in with information about Students will explore how plants need
variables, data, analysis of data, and carbon dioxide, water and light for
8Eo1 Take appropriately accurate conclusions.
measurements photosynthesis in order to make
biomass and oxygen
8Eo2 Use a range of equipment correctly
 End of the unit test
8Eo4 Present results as appropriate in tables
Students will work on a test that  End of the unit test
and graphs
involves concept questions and range The end of the unit test will provide the
of problem-based questions to allow students with the opportunity of
Ec Consider evidence and approach opportunities to put into practice in real demonstrate their level of knowledge
life examples what they have learned. at the end of the unit.
8Ec2 Identify trends and patterns in results
(correlations) Students will identify the constituents
of a balanced diet and the functions of
8Ec3 Compare results with predictions various nutrients.
Students will understand the
8Ec6 Discuss explanations for results using relationship between diet and fitness
scientific knowledge and understanding. Students will discuss how conception,
Communicate these clearly to others growth, development, behaviour and

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health can be affected by diet, drugs
and disease
Biology
Students will understand the function
8Bp1 Explore how plants need carbon dioxide,
of enzymes as biological catalysts in
water and light for photosynthesis in order to breaking down food to simple
make biomass and oxygen. chemicals
8Bh1 Identify the constituents of a balanced diet Students will recognise the organs of
and the functions of various nutrients. the alimentary canal and know their
8Bh2 Understand the effects of nutritional functions.
deficiencies.
8Bh3 Recognise the organs of the alimentary
canal and know their functions.
8Bh4 Understand the function of enzymes as
biological catalysts in breaking down food to
simple chemicals.
8Bh6 Understand the relationship between diet
and fitness.

Approaches to learning (ATL)

1. Thinking skills
Discuss parts of the leaf involved in photosynthesis.
Identify indicated parts of a specimen under the light of a microscope.

2. Communication skills
Efficiently communicates the link between two related ideas such as diet and fitness using appropriate terms.
Communicate the result of experimentation through a Lab Report.
Explain results using scientific knowledge and understanding. Communicate this clearly to others

3. Research skills

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Make use of food labels to identify the constituents of the food we consume.

Action: Teaching and learning through inquiry

Content Learning process


Learning experiences and teaching strategies
Biology  Prior knowledge: Revise the seven life processes from Stage 7 (movement,
 Plant nutrition reproduction, sensitivity, nutrition, respiration, excretion, growth). Ask: Where do plants
o Photosynthesis get their nutrition from?.
o Leaves
o Investigating photosynthesis  Show learners a tree seed and a section of wood from the same type of tree.
Ask: Where did the particles which made the wood as the tree grew, come
 Animal nutrition from?
o Nutrients  Elicit from learners what is needed for the photosynthesis process to occur (carbon
o A balance diet dioxide, water and sunlight) and what is produced (sugar and oxygen) during the
o Digestion and absorption process. Summarise with a word equation of this process:
o The human digestive system
light
o Teeth carbon dioxide + water chloroplasts biomass + oxygen
o Enzyme →
Scientific Enquiry
 Importance of developing empirical Show learners a diagram of the basic structure of a leaf. Ask learners to
questions which can be investigated, discuss:
collecting evidence, developing  Which cells have chloroplasts?
explanations and using creative
 How does carbon dioxide get to these cells?
thinking
 How does water get to these cells?
 Make predictions using scientific  How does light get to these cells?
knowledge and understanding
 Use a range of equipment correctly Learners then discuss which cells they think will do the most photosynthesis and
 Variables in the scientific method how they are adapted for this process.
Then learners discuss:

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 How does waste oxygen leave these cells?
 How does sugar travel from the leaves to other parts of the plant?

Scientific Enquiry activity


Which surface has the most stomata_
Students take a fresh, green leaf. Push the leave into warm water. Watch carefully to
see where air bubbles appear on the leaf surface.
Students answer the following questions:
 On which surface of the leaf did most bubbles appear?
 The bubbles contained gas that came out from inside the leaf. Which part of the
leaf do you think the gas came from?
 Suggest how the gas got out of the leaf
 Use what you know about the effect of heat on gases to explain why the gases
came out of the leaf when it was put into warm water.

Nail varnish impressions


Students use nail varnish and a microscope to get a good view of the lower
surface of a leaf.

Ask learners: How could you prove that plants require water and light?

Oxygen production
Ask learners to suggest how they could demonstrate that plants produce
oxygen when they photosynthesise. Elicit that it is normally difficult to see
the oxygen being produced because it is a colourless gas.

Scientific Enquiry activity


Show learners a water plant which produces bubbles of oxygen when it
photosynthesises (e.g. Cabomba, Elodea).
Elicit the idea that the plant will produce bubbles of oxygen.
Ask learners to suggest ways that they could:

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 demonstrate that the gas is oxygen
 measure the amount of gas produced.

For a demonstration, submerge the plant in water or in a 1% sodium hydrogen


carbonate solution. Put the plant in a glass funnel with an inverted test tube on
top. This allows the oxygen to be collected in the test tube and subsequently
tested. Demonstrate ways for measuring the amount of gas produced (e.g.
counting bubbles, measuring the volume of gas in a pipette or very small
syringe).

Scientific Enquiry activity


Learners put a sprig of pond weed in a boiling tube. By putting the boiling tube at
different distances from a light source, they can measure the effect of light
intensity.
As part of this scientific enquiry activity learners should:
 predict the effect of changing the light intensity, using the word equation for
photosynthesis to explain their prediction
 collect results in a table
 identify a trend in their results
 compare their results with their predictions
 explain their results using scientific knowledge.

Ask learners: How are plant and animal nutrition similar? How are they different?
Learners identify as many similarities and differences as they can between plant and
animal nutrition.
Elicit the idea that plants make their food from carbon dioxide and water in the presence
of light, but that animals must break down food to obtain chemical energy.

Ask learners questions about the food they eat such as:
What is your favourite meal?
Which foods do you like or dislike?

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Ask learners to define the word ‘diet’. Explain that the scientific term ‘diet’ means
the food that an organism regularly eats (rather than a way to lose weight).

Learners collect and study food labels from packaging to discover how foodstuffs
are divided into carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.
 They compare the protein, sugar, fat, fibre and salt content of foods with the
recommended daily intake for adults. (It is difficult to find recommended daily
intake values for adolescents.)
 What combinations of food would give you the recommended daily intake of
protein and fibre?
 What is the maximum number of snacks you could eat before you had more
than the recommended daily intake of sugar and fat?
 Learners identify the foods with the highest energy content (for growth,
movement and keeping warm). Discuss Are these ‘healthy’ foods?

Demonstrate each of the food tests for protein, sugar, starch and fat using control samples
to ensure a positive result.

Scientific Enquiry activity


Give learners a range of foods to test.

Learners should design a table to present the results in a logical manner. They can
compare their results with the nutritional information on the food packaging.
In conclusion to the activity, learners should comment on the foods they have tested
and discuss the idea of a balanced diet.

Describe the main functions of each of the main nutrients:


 protein is used for growth and repair
 fats store energy
 carbohydrates (sugar and starch) provide an energy source.
Ask learners to suggest other components of a healthy diet.

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Ask learners to chew a piece of bread for a few minutes and notice the changes that take
place. Ask: Why does food need to be chewed? What gets added to the bread as it is
chewed? What do you notice about the taste of the bread between the start and end of
chewing?

Explain to learners that a chemical change is occurring in the mouth as well as the food
being broken up by the teeth and the chewing process. Use diagrams to show that large
molecules of starch are broken into small molecules of sugar.

Scientific Enquiry activity


Investigate the effect of the enzyme amylase on starch solution. Have learners discuss the
questions they could investigate.
Show learners dialysis tubing and explain that the surface of the tube has lots of holes that
are too small to see.
 Provide groups of learners with a mixture of starch and amylase. They place the mixture
inside a piece of dialysis tubing tied at one end. They then place the tubing inside a
beaker of water, held in place with an elastic band and leave for 20 minutes.
 Learners predict the results they expect if they test the water around the dialysis tubing.
 Learners test the water for starch (using iodine solution) and glucose (using Benedict’s
solution or glucose test strip).
 Learners compare their observations with their prediction.
 Learners explain the results using ideas about large polymers such as starch not being
soluble but being broken down into smaller soluble molecules. Only the smaller
molecules can pass through the dialysis tubing into the water.

Learners may have previously seen a model of the functions of the organs in the
alimentary canal. Progression is achieved by using a wider variety of scientific
vocabulary and identifying the role of enzymes in many organs.

 Grind up some cereal and pieces of white bread with some water using a pestle and
mortar to form a paste. This represents chewing or mastication. Elicit the idea that there
are enzymes in the saliva.

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 Pour the mixture through a funnel attached to a tube that leads to a clear plastic bag
containing malt vinegar. Show peristalsis by squeezing the food down the tube.
 Squeeze the bag to show the action of the stomach churning the food with the stomach
acid (represented by the malt vinegar). Explain that the chemicals in the food are being
digested. Explain that there are enzymes in the stomach as well as acid.
 Use a nylon stocking (or tights) with string tied around it about half-way down to stop the
food. Pour the mixed up food into the stocking. Do this over a tray or lots of newspaper
to collect the liquid containing the digested food that is being absorbed into the body.
(There are more digestive enzymes in the small intestine.)
 Cut the string. Move the mixture of food by peristalsis into the lower parts at the bottom
of the stocking. Squeeze as much of the liquid out of the stocking as possible. This
shows the water being absorbed in the large intestine. By wrapping the tights in a tea
towel, more water can be absorbed.
 Cut the end of the tights to create an anus. Squeeze the solid waste onto the tray or
newspaper to represent defecation (removal of faeces) and egestion (removing
undigested waste) from the body.

Ask learners: Does this model show excretion? Identify that there are no waste
products in the ‘faeces’ in this model.

Formative assessment

 Learners draw a diagram summarising the important solids (e.g. sugar and starch),
liquids (water) and gases (carbon dioxide and oxygen) in photosynthesis.
 Learners draw a labelled diagram of a plant cell. They identify the structure of
chloroplasts and their function. Explain that chloroplasts contain a green pigment called
chlorophyll.
 Learners observe the slides and draw diagrams of the cells
 Learners need to find the answer to the questions:
o Why do plants need nitrogen? What are the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency?
o Why do plants need phosphorus? What are the symptoms of phosphorus
deficiency? Why do plants need potassium? What are the symptoms of

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potassium deficiency?
 Learners write a report of their investigation. They should describe their results and
explain them using their understanding of the role of minerals in plant growth.

Differentiation
Language needs: a different criterion will be used for students with limited proficiency.

Resources

Books
 Cambridge Checkpoint Science Coursebook
 Cambridge Checkpoint Science Workbook

Practical activities resources


 Oxygen production: Pond weed (e.g. Cabomba, Elodea), water or 1% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, large beaker, light
source, glass funnel, test tube, boiling tubes.
 Nail varnish impressions: onion, microscope, nail varnish.
 Food tests: A range of foods to test (e.g. fruit, starchy vegetable, dairy products, boiled egg, oil). Starch test: iodine solution.
Protein test: biuret solution. (made of sodium hydroxide, hydrated copper(II) sulfate and potassium sodium tartrate), test tubes or
spotting tile Sugar test: Benedict’s solution, test tubes, heating bath. Fat test: filter paper.
 Alimentary canal model: Cereal/white bread, water, pestle and mortar/bowl and spoon, funnel, tube, clear plastic bag, malt vinegar,
nylon stocking/tights, string, tray/newspaper, scissors, tea towel.
 Effect of the enzyme amylase on starch solution: Beaker, dialysis tubing, elastic band, starch suspension, glucose solution, teat pipette,
white spotting tile. Starch test: iodine solution Sugar (glucose) test: Benedict’s solution, test tubes, heating bath.

Other resources
 Diagram of a transverse section of a model leaf.
 Food labels showing nutritional information from common food items.
 Small piece of bread for each learner.

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 Supplies: pens, markers, pencils, whiteboard markers.
 www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgWE5m7xUJs
 www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-biology/evaluating-visking-tubing-model-gut

Reflection: Considering the planning, process and impact of the inquiry

Prior to teaching the unit During teaching After teaching the unit

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