Sei sulla pagina 1di 13

UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS

English IV

Modulo # _9_

I. Datos Generales
Nombre de la Asignatura: _English IV_____Código: __INE207____
Unidades valorativas: 4 Duración del Modulo: 10 días

Overview:
 The focus of this unit is on things that people do in their free time.

Specific Objectives:
1. The student will be able use present perfect with ever and never.
2. The student will be able to use present perfect and simple past.
3. Students will learn vocabulary and use it.

Skills to develop:
 Practice the use present perfect with ever and never.
 Practice the use present perfect and simple past.

Brief Description of the Forum:


After reading the material, the student will be able to participate in the
discussion forum and practice the reading segments of conversations use it
in conversation form in the forum.

Brief Description of Activities:


The student will practice conversations using the vocabulary learned.

Homework Description:
Workbook Activities from your Textbook Personal Best Level A2- Unit 12 using
the Richmond Learning Platform by doing practice exercises of skills / self-
study and assignments.
UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

II. Content:
Language:
- present perfect with ever and never
- Present perfect and simple past

Content Development:

Present perfect with Ever - never –

In English, the present perfect is often used to introduce past experiences.  The
present perfect with “ever” and “never” is a more specific sentence structure to
talk about something that has or has not happened at any time.

Structure: Present Perfect with “Ever” and “Never”

Statement → [Subject] + has/have + never + [verb phrase].

Question → Have/Has + [subject] + ever + [verb phrase]?

So why is this kind of structure necessary?  On the surface it may seem that
these pairs of sentences have the same meaning:

 Have you been to London?

 Have you ever been to London? 

 I have not been to London.

 I have never been to London.

However, consider that you can use the present perfect with current time
phrases to talk about experience within a specific period of time.  For example:

 Have you been to London this year?

 Incorrect: Have you ever been to London this year?


UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

In the first example, the speaker realizes that the listener may have visited
London in the past.  But the speaker wants to know if the listener has visited
London this year.  When using “ever” in a present perfect question, the
meaning is “Have you been to London at any time (this year or previously).”

 I haven’t been to London lately.

 Incorrect: I have never been to London lately.

Choosing the correct sentence

So when should you use the basic present perfect vs. the present perfect with
“ever” or “never”?  Recall that “ever” and “never” mean “at any time.” 
Therefore, native speakers often use “ever” sentences to ask about events or
experiences that are uncommon, or that the speaker doubts the listener has
encountered.  “Never” sentences are often used to emphasize that something
has “not happened even once,” especially in situations where this fact might be
unexpected or impressive.  For example:

Unusual experiences

 Have you ever gone skydiving?

 Have you ever visited the pyramids in Egypt?

 Has she ever missed work before?

 Has he ever been this angry?

 Has work ever been so busy before?


UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

Unexpected/Impressive situations

 I have never had a tooth cavity.

 I live in New York, but have never visited the Statue of Liberty.

 She has never gotten below a B on a test.

 He has never tried sushi.

 They have never been late to work.

 I have never been to a McDonalds.

Language Tips:

Note: Don’t use “ever” in answers to questions or other non-question


sentences.  For example:

 Have you ever seen the Great Wall?

 Correct: No, I have never seen the Great Wall.

 Correct: Yes, I have seen the Great Wall.

 Incorrect: Yes, I have ever seen the Great Wall.

Exception: When responding to an “ever” question, you can use “never ever” to
emphasize the sense of “not even once.”  However, be careful.  This type of
sentence is very strong and also has the sense of, “not even once, and I would
not want to.”  For example:

 Have you ever eaten snake?

 Correct: No, I have never ever eaten snake!


UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

 Incorrect: No, I have never ever eaten snake! But I would like to


try it. (these two sentences are grammatically correct, but they don’t make
sense logically)

EVER NEVER

USED WITH THE PRESENT PERFECT

Ever means 'at any time', the specific time is Never is originally a


unknown or unnecessary, and is used contraction of 'not ever'.
in questions.

> Have you ever met a famous person ?

(Did you meet a famous person at any time in


the past.)

Ever is also used with nothing, nobody for Never means the subject


things that haven't happened before. hasn't had a certain
experience before.
> - Nobody has ever travelled through time.
> Have you ever been abroad?
No, I've never been abroad.

(I've never had that experience


before.)

Ever is also used with 'the first time' for first Never can be used
experiences. in negative questions to
show the surprise that you've
> This is the first time I've ever eaten snake
never had a certain experience
soup.
before.

> Have you never played
soccer?
UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

Perfect Present and Simple Past:

Differences and similarities in the Present Perfect and the Simple Past

Use

Present Perfect Simple Past

result of an
action in the past is
important in the present
action finished in the past
recently
completed actions series of completed actions in the past

actions beginning together with Past Progressive/Continuous –

in the past and still The Simple Past interrupted an action which was in
continuing progress in the past.

together
with lately, recently, yet

Signal words

Present Perfect Simple Past

just yesterday

yet last week

never a month
ago
already
in 2012
ever
UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

Present Perfect Simple Past

so far

up to now

recently

since

for

Present Perfect Simple Past

regular verbs → infinitive + ed


have/has + past
irregular verbs → 2nd column of the table
participle *
of the irregular verbs

* past participle:

 regular verbs → infinitive + -ed

 irregular verbs → 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs

Affirmative sentences

Present Perfect Simple Past

I have played football. I played football.

You have played football. You played football.
UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

Present Perfect Simple Past

He has played football. He played football.

Negative sentences

Present Perfect Simple Past

I have not played football. I did not play football.

You have not played football. You did not play football.

He has not played football. He did not play football.

Questions

Present Perfect Simple Past

Have I played football? Did I play football?

Have you played football? Did you play football?

Has he played football? Did he play football?

Spelling (Present Perfect and Simple Past)

 stopped (Double the consonant after a short vowel.)

 loved (one -e at the end of the word → Add only -d.)

 worried (consonant before -y → Change to -i.)


UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

Simple Past

We use this tense for things that happened at a definite time in the past. 
E.g. "I met my best friend when I was fifteen."
It is formed by adding '-ed' to regular verbs.

Present Perfect

This tense describes something that happened in the past, but that is related
to something in the present. 
E.g. "I have read three books by Charles Dickens."

It is also used to talk about life experiences, recent events or states or things
that started in the past and hasn't changed. 
E.g:
"I have been to America." 
"I have just finished my dinner." 
"I've worked for EC since 2008."

The important thing to remember is that the present perfect is related to the
present in some way. Whereas, the past simple happened at a specific time in
the past and is a finished action.

Remember:

1. We use the past simple for past events or actions which have no
connection to the present.

2. We use the present perfect for actions which started in the past and are
still happening now OR for finished actions which have a connection to the
present.

3. We CAN'T use the present perfect with a finished time word:

o NOT: I've been to the museum yesterday.


UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple

irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column
irregular verbs of irregular verbs

Example: Example:

I spoke I / you / we / they have spoken

he / she / it has spoken

regular verbs: infinitive + ed regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed

Example: Example:

I worked I / you / we / they have worked

he / she / it has worked

Exceptions

Exceptions when adding 'ed':

 when the final letter is e, only add d

Example:

love - loved

 after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled

Example:

admit - admitted

 final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)


UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

Example:

travel - travelled

 after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel)

Example:

worry - worried

but: play - played

USE THE PRESENT PERFECT + EVER TO ASK QUESTIONS ABOUT


EXPERIENCES IN SOMEONE’S LIFE.

 “Have you ever taken dance classes?”

“Yes, I have. I took 6 weeks of lessons before my wedding!”

 “Has your brother ever been to India?”

“No, he hasn’t.”

 “Have your friends ever helped you move to a new apartment?”


“Yes – twice!”

Don’t use ever in the answer. Only use it in questions.

If you want, you can use before in the answer:


UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

 Yes, I’ve ever taken dance classes.

Yes, I’ve taken dance classes before.

USE THE PRESENT PERFECT + NEVER TO TALK ABOUT THINGS YOU


HAVE NOT DONE AT ANY TIME IN YOUR LIFE.

 I’ve never failed a test. I’ve always gotten 80% or more.

 He’s never heard of Michael Jackson. I can’t believe he doesn’t know


the King of Pop!

 Samantha has never been surfing. She’s afraid of the ocean.

 We’ve never studied Italian. We studied French and Spanish in school,


but Italian wasn’t available.

 They’ve never told a lie. I know we can trust them.

Conversation Tip:

Many conversations begin with a question in the present perfect, and then


continue with more specific questions about the experience in the simple
past:

 “Have you ever taken dance classes?”

 “Yes, I have. I took 6 weeks of lessons before my wedding last year.”

 “Wow! So did you dance well on the big day?”

 “No, I didn’t – I forgot everything I’d learned in the classes, and


I stepped on my wife’s feet many times!”

 “Oh no! Was she angry?”


UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DE HONDURAS
English IV

 “No – she said she still loved me!”

Bibliography
1. Textbook: Personal Best Level 2B , Editorial Richmond.
2. Diccionario de Ingles / Español o www.dictionary.com
3. Laboratorio de Idiomas - Personal Best: https://richmondlp.com