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International Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry .

IJVSAH
Vol. 6(1), pp. 048-052, March, 2020. © www.premierpublishers.org ISSN: 8991-0338

Research Article

Performance by Layer upon Substitution of Soybean


Meal with Mung Bean Protein Concentrate
*1Ganga Maya Rizal and 2Jowaman Kajarern
1Animal Nutrition Division, Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Thimphu, Bhutan
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon kaen, Thailand

This experiment assessed substitution level of soybean meal by mung bean protein concentrate
(MBPC) in layer’s diet. Unsatiating demand for animal protein, the need to prudently utilize feeding
resources and minimize footprints in food chain/business, use of local raw-material is imperative.
180 ISA Brown2000 hens, assigned to 9 treatments (2 replications, 10 hens each) were fed
experimental diets for 4 periods (49-52wks) and were evaluated for their performance. Their diet
contained 2 grades of MBPC (70% CP and 75% CP). T1 was control diet. T2-T5 contained MBPC
(70% CP) at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% substitution levels, respectively. T6-T9 contained MBPC
(75% CP) at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% substitution levels, respectively. The results revealed that
egg production (%) and egg mass were not significantly different in 1st three periods but it was
in the 4th period (P<0.05). T1 had the highest egg production (%) but not significantly different in
overall periods. Progressively decreasing egg production and FCR was observed through the
periods without a significant difference. Egg weight was significantly different in 4th period.
Economic benefit returns (EBR) was not significantly different among treatments. It is concluded
that MBPC (70% & 75% CP) can substitute 25% SBM in layer’s diet without adverse effect on
performance and EBR.

Key words: mung bean protein concentrate, soybean meal, substitution, performance, layer

INTRODUCTION

Protein plays a major role in delivering the bodily functions Soybean contributes about two-thirds of the world’s protein
of stages of development. Further, in layers, egg is a high concentrate for livestock feeding (Agrawal et al, 2013)
quality protein which is often taken as one of the reference thereby easing protein deficiency around the world. Thus,
proteins (Herron and Fernandez, 2004). Therefore, rearing use of soybean has been the strongest backup to
profitable, healthy poultry means assurance of protein technological advancement in animal nutrition, enabling
source that can meet the nutritional and production production of huge quantities of animal protein. Soybean
demands of the layer. has been used as meal and fullfat soya because of its
excellent amino acid balance (Popović et al., 2015, 2016;
Poultry raised for eggs requires idle feed for it to be Rada et al, 2017; Peiretti et al, 2018). Monogastric animal
economically efficient. The NRC (1994) suggests that diets formulated with soybean meal and full fat soya are
besides balancing energy and protein ratio, focused often taken as standard/ basal in many nutritional
attention is required to balance amino acid requirement for experiments. However, its limited supply and ever-
optimized egg production and egg quality. The balance of increasing market price has been the major challenge in
amino acids is also important to safeguard health and meeting the demand for good quality plant proteins to feed
maintain desired body weight throughout her laying period.
Though balanced nutrition can be achieved by use of local *Corresponding Author: Ganga Maya Rizal, Department
legumes and food by-products, such a feed requires of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen
adequate supplementation of essential synthetic amino University, Khon kaen, Thailand.
acids for economic benefit returns (Pesti, 1991; Parsons, Email: gmrizal@gmail.com; Tel: +975-17806570
et al., 1993; Shim et al., 2013). Co-Author Email: jowaman@kku.ac.th

Performance by Layer upon Substitution of Soybean Meal with Mung Bean Protein Concentrate
Rizal and Kajarern 049

the animals (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2003; Chisoro P, Processing of mung bean in a vermicelli noodle industry
2015). In such challenging times, animal nutritionists seek consists of seed-milling, starch extracting and protein
for alternatives protein sources that are more economical segregation. The by-product (protein concentrate) of this
in formulating least cost rations (Tufarelli and Laudadio, process is called Mung Bean Protein Concentrate (MBPC)
2015). Some of such legumes already in use in animal (Feedipedia, Rungchareon et al., 2013). It is used as a
feeding are mung bean, chickpea, peas, pigeon pea, lentil, feed material (Shu et al., 2002) in some of the small farms
cowpea, groundnut, etc. (Robinson and Singh, 2001; in Thailand but is not officially documented as there is
Jansman 2005). negligible literature (Rungchareon, et al., 2013) on it.

Local legumes utilized as human food and animal feed The physical and chemical characteristics of the feeding
have lower quality protein with unbalanced amino acid materials have considerable impact in the performance by
profile. More often, sulfur-amino acids are limiting in the livestock. The MBPC is characterized by high crude
legumes (Tang et al., 2014; Koivunen E, 2016; Zhu et al., protein content (70 to 75 %), light green colour and high
2018). Therefore, local legumes can be used only for particle density (63.4% and 55.8%, respectively). In vitro
substituting soybean meal at smaller levels in the animal Pepsin digestibility was agreeable at 74.7% and 76.1%,
diet. Inclusion of local legumes in monogastric animals’ respectively, with 0.002% pepsin concentration compared
diet, at a higher substitution levels have resulted in slower to 61.40 and 61.1 % digestibility at 0.0002% pepsin (G.m
or reduced growth, FCR and hence the Economic Benefit Rizal and J. Kajarern, Khon Kaen Univeristy, individual
Return (Ivusic et al., 1994). Further, presence of Anti- communication). Quality of protein depends on seeds,
Nutritional Factors in legumes hinders their digestibility from which they are produced, and the amount of hull and/
and absorption of nutrients present in legumes. However, or seed coat included and the method of extraction Bajaj
it has been observed that processing legumes by heat (1969). Heating involved in processing lower amino acid
treatment improves its digestibility and access to its digestion and availability which adversely affects
nutrients for growth and production (Oghbaei and Prakash, nutritional value of proteins. Similarly, (Gilani et al., 2018)
2015). found that D -amino acids and lysinoalanine formed during
alkaline/heat treatment of proteins (Finley J W, 2009) are
Mung bean with 26 to 28% crude protein is rich in some poorly digestible (less than 40%), and their presence can
essential amino acids including aromatic amino acids such reduce protein digestibility by up to 28%. The study
as leucine, isoleucine, valine and glutamic acid (Tang et conducted by Rungchareon et al., (2013) reveals a similar
al. 2009). However, it has deficiencies in sulphur- feedstuff, which is a by-product of vermicelli noodle
containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine (Zhu et production. However, their experimental feed contained
al., 2018). Due to presence of high levels of proteins, only 12% crude protein. The trail resulted in poor
amino acids, oligosaccharides, and polyphenols mung performance by the broiler which is in agreement with
bean is thought to contribute to medicinal properties current study of reduced performance by the layer.
against hypertension, diabetes, inflammation and tumors
(Vanamala J, et al. 2006; Anjum N A, et al. 2011; Kanatt S Maillard reaction, also called the non-enzymatic browning
R, et al., 2011). Therefore, mung bean is demanded for reaction, is a reaction between amino groups and reducing
food as well as livestock feed. It is also extensively used in compounds. Maillard reaction is known to cause a serious
starch extraction for vermicelli noodle production deterioration of food quality during processing and storage
(Thanomsub S, 2003; Rungcharoen P et al., 2013) making (Lund and Ray, 2017). Increasing evidence show that
it an even more expensive local bean. these compounds formed under mild conditions
substantially reduce the bioavailability of amino acids and
Use of by-products as animal feed from food processing proteins. There is a significant decrease nutritional value
industries has huge potential for producing good quality of food which undergo Maillard reaction beyond that
meat, minimize wastes (Szebiotko K, 1985) and reduce accounted for loss biologically available lysine. Apart from
competition with man for food resources. Although there is the decrease in the nutritive value resulting from the
general variability in the chemical composition of by- unavailable amino acids and destruction of other food
products, feeding quality in term of crude protein and components such as ascorbic acid, some of the browning
metabolizable and net energy content, level of amino reaction products are actually toxic. Heating such amino
acids, primarily lysine and methionine must be assessed acids as lysine, glutamic acid, and alanine with glucose at
(Fomunyam T R, 1985). 100°C in presence of air can also induce the formation of
N-nitrosamines, which have been shown to be
Though there are multiple benefits in utilizing food carcinogenic (Lee and Shibamoto, 2011). Young et al.,
processing by-products, little is done to maximize the (1990) noted that the initial response to an inadequate
exploitation of these by-products as potential feed amino acids or nitrogen intake is a reduction in the rate of
sources. However, production or use of chemicals during amino acid oxidation. This is followed by or simultaneously
food processing and mixing ingredients from varied associated with a decline in the rate of specific organ and
sources can pose potential risk to younger animals and tissue protein synthesis. Protein and amino acid
feed palatability by animals (Sapkota et al., 2007). metabolism in both muscle and liver is profoundly affected

Performance by Layer upon Substitution of Soybean Meal with Mung Bean Protein Concentrate
Int. J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husb. 050

by the restricted dietary protein (amino acids) intake, with SBM + 25% MBPC (70% CP); T3 = 50% SBM + 50%
reduced rates of muscle protein synthesis and of the MBPC (70% CP); T4 = 25% SBM + 75% MBPC (70% CP);
synthesis of export proteins from liver occurring at a T5=0 % SBM + 100% MBPC (70% CP); T6 = 75% SBM +
relatively early period. These changes lead to an altered 25% MBPC (75% CP); T7 = 50% SBM + 50% MBPC (75%
pattern of body protein distribution, with skeletal proteins CP); T8 = 25% SBM + 75% MBPC (75% CP); T9 = 0%
being the most effected, to a greater extent than the body SBM + 100% MBPC (75% CP).
protein mass (Waterlow et al., 1978). The objective of the
present study is to evaluate the performance and Composition of basal diet is shown in Table 1. Feed and
substitution level of two kinds of MBPC (70% and 75% CP) water were provided ad libitum through 4 periods. Before
in place of soybean meal, in the diets of laying hen and starting the experiment, the hens were adjusted to control
their egg quality. diet for one month. Eggs were collected and weighted
daily. Feed consumption was determined weekly. Over the
entire experiment period, the following data were
MATERIAL AND METHODS collected: level of egg production, average feed intake,
egg weight and egg mass. Feed Conversion Ratio was
A total of 180 laying hens (ISA Brown 2000) were selected calculated. The experimental design was CRD. All data
at 49 weeks from a flock raised under standard were analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM)
management condition. A study was carried out for four procedures for contrast between control diet and MBPC
periods (4 x 28d = 112d), cages were randomly assigned (70% & 75% CP) and between MBPC with 70% and 75%
among nine treatments with two replicates, each with 10 CP. The variance was analyzed using ANOVA and the
hens; hens maintained on a light program of 17 h light and differences within the means were analyzed using
7h darkness. The sample MBPC (70% & 75% CP) was Duncan’s New Multiple Range Tests (SAS, 1997). The
supplied by SahaMit Company in Bangkok (K.S.D. AGRI economic benefit return was calculated based on the net
PRODUCTS CO. LTD. 2018.). The treatment diets were benefit received by feeding the experimental diet and
formulated and fed as: T1= Control (Basal diet); T2= 75% selling price of the eggs (Thai currency, Bhat).

Table 1. Composition of basal diet for laying hen


Ingredients Treatments
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9
Ground yellow corn 54.00 56.70 59.50 62.30 65.00 57.05 60.15 63.25 66.30
MBPC 70% CP - 3.50 7.10 10.60 14.20 - - - -
MBPC 75% CP - - - - - 3.30 6.55 9.80 13.10
Rice bran 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
Fish meal 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50
Rice bran oil 2.00 1.80 1.40 1.10 0.80 1.65 1.30 0.95 0.60
Soybean meal 24.00 18.00 12.00 6.00 - 18.00 12.00 6.00 -
DL-Methionine 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
L-Lysine 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08
DiCalcium-Phosphate (P-18) 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49
Salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Ground limestone 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00
Premix1 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Cost (Bhat/ kg feed) 9.78 9.84 9.88 9.93 9.98 9.85 9.92 9.99 10.06
Major components
Crude protein (%) 18.55 18.53 18.59 18.58 18.63 18.59 18.59 18.60 18.64
ME (kcal/ kg) 2831.42 2840.97 2837.99 2841.71 2844.58 2833.88 2836.77 2839.67 2842.14
Fat (%) 5.73 5.55 4.87 4.58 5.41 5.09 4.76 4.44
Fiber (%) 2.98 2.66 2.34 2.02 1.69 2.67 2.35 2.03 1.71
Ash (%) 13.66 13.42 13.19 12.96 12.73 13.40 13.14 12.88 12.62
Calcium (%) 3.69 3.74 3.81 3.86 3.92 3.75 3.82 3.88 3.95
Phosphorus (%) 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67
1A standard vitamin and mineral premix provided the following per kilogram of ration: vitamin A, 14440 IU; cholecalciferol,

2220 IU; vitamin K, 3.3mg; vitamin B1, 2.2 mg; vitamin B2, 6.7mg; nicotinic acid, 38.9mg; pantothenic acid, 15.6 mg; vitamin
B6, 6.7mg; vitamin B12, 0.028mg; folic acid, 1.1mg; biotin, 0.147mg; manganese, 50mg; iodine, 0.333mg; zinc, 88.9; iron,
66.7mg; copper, 8.9mg; selenium, 0.111mg; and antioxidant (BHT), 111.2mg.

Performance by Layer upon Substitution of Soybean Meal with Mung Bean Protein Concentrate
Rizal and Kajarern 051

RESULT AND DISCUSSION increasing inclusion levels of vermicelli waste linearly


decreased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of dry
Results on the performance by layers, fed two kinds of matter and crude fiber by broiler chicks. The growth
MBPC with four graded substitution levels (25, 50, 75 and performance was affected.
100%) are shown in Table 2. It can be seen that the egg
production (%), weight of eggs, FCR and EBR were not Pant and Tulsiani (1969) obtained similar results in 4-5-
significantly different (P<0.05) amongst treatments (T1 to week-old albino rats fed isolated globulin fractions of
T9). However, the number of egg produced and mass of mungbeans varieties to for 5 weeks. Body weight of
eggs were significantly (P<0.05) high for T1 (100% SMB). experimental animals gradually decreased under identical
There was no significant difference between the two conditions. They also suggested that amino acid in
MBPC (70% CP and 75% CP) on performance experimental varieties failed to promote growth as it
parameters. showed a total absence of tryptophan and a low level of
methionine.
In the fourth period (data not shown), all performance
parameters, except FCR, showed significant difference Thayer and Heller (1949) studied the utilization of
(P<0.05), exhibiting deterioration of production mungbeans in poultry feeds and made following
parameters. This deterioration and hence the difference recommendations: 1. satisfactory growth and production
could be attributed to limited or unavailable amino acids can be obtained when mungbeans are supplemented with
and accumulation of toxic substances (produced from animal protein and phosphorus. Ground mungbeans can
Millard reaction while processing MBPC). Since amino make up as much as 30% of poultry mash with satisfactory
acids are the building blocks of protein synthesis, their results. About 1 1/2 pounds of mungbeans are required to
presence in food/ feed in adequate quantity is important for replace 1 pound of cottonseed meal or soybean meal,
the animal to perform well. The experimental diet made out since mungbeans contain less protein.
of MBPC is unable to fully meet the amino acids
requirements of layers to perform well. Thus, from this Utilizing locally available, agricultural by-product feeding
experiment, it can be concluded that in layer’s diet, MBPC resources supports efforts put forward to reduce carbon
(70% and 75% CP) can be used at a substitution level of footprint in animal protein food chain. Use of local, by-
at least 25% without any adverse effect on performance product resources, at minimum, would reduce emissions
and for highest economic benefit returns. causing climate change without huge economic
differences. The feed material is more suitable in small to
The current experiment result is similar to those published medium scale poultry farms.
by Rungcharoen P et al., (2013). They concluded that
Table 2: Performance of laying hen fed graded levels of three sources of protein
Performance SBM (%) Levels of MBPC substituted (%) SEM MBPC
100 25 50 75 100 70% CP 75% CP SEM
% Egg production 88.07 81.63 81.42 82.17 80.92 1.52 81.40 81.66 1.48
Number of eggs 241.00a 228.55b 227.95b 230.07ab 226.56b 4.27 227.91 228.65 4.14
Weight of eggs (g) 63.72 65.87 65.35 64.20 66.23 0.94 64.90 65.92 1.08
Egg mass 54.84 53.73ab 52.59b 53.69ab 53.58ab 0.69 52.99 53.81 0.69
FCR 1.98 1.40 2.02 1.95 1.98 0.30 1.80 1.89 0.40
EBR (Thai Bhat) 1.12 1.20 1.15 1.17 1.12 0.05 1.12 1.19 0.04
MBPC = Mung Bean Protein Concentrate; SBM = Soybean Meal; T1 = Control; T2 to T5 = (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%
MBPC 70% CP) respectively; T6 to T9 = (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% MBPC 75% CP) respectively; SEM = Standard Mean
Error; FCR = Feed Conversion Ratio; EBR = Economic Benefit Return.

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Accepted 23 March 2020

Citation: Rizal GM, Kajarern J (2020). Performance by


Layer upon Substitution of Soybean Meal with Mung Bean
Protein Concentrate. International Journal of Veterinary
Science and Animal Husbandry 6(1): 048-053.

Copyright: © 2020 Rizal and Kajarern. This is an open-


access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
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provided the original author and source are cited.

Performance by Layer upon Substitution of Soybean Meal with Mung Bean Protein Concentrate