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Muralla St. Intramuros, Manila

School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering


23 TORRES, Rodolfo Rey M. Date Performed: July 3, 2019

ME152L-E02 Date Submitted: July 19, 2019

Engr. T. A. VALLE













1. To familiarize ourselves with the Diesel engine operation
2. To be able to calculate the different parameters of our M.E. laboratory gasoline
engine when subjected to varying loads.


Like a gasoline engine, a diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine.

Combustion is another word for burning, and internal means inside, so an internal

combustion engine is simply one where the fuel is burned inside the main part of the

engine (the cylinders) where power is produced. That's very different from

an external combustion engine such as those used by old-fashioned steam

locomotives. In a steam engine, there's a big fire at one end of a boiler that heats

water to make steam. The steam flows down long tubes to a cylinder at the opposite

end of the boiler where it pushes a piston back and forth to move the wheels. This is

external combustion because the fire is outside the cylinder (indeed, typically 6-7

meters or 20-30ft away). In a gasoline or diesel engine, the fuel burns inside the

cylinders themselves. Internal combustion wastes much less energy because

the heat doesn't have to flow from where it's produced into the cylinder: everything

happens in the same place. That's why internal combustion engines are

more efficient than external combustion engines (they produce more energy from

the same volume of fuel).

Figure 1: Engine

Gasoline Engine vs. Diesel Engine

Gasoline engines and diesel engines both work by internal combustion, but in slightly

different ways. In a gasoline engine, fuel and air is injected into small metal cylinders.

A piston compresses (squeezes) the mixture, making it explosive, and a

small electric spark from a sparking plug sets fire to it. That makes the mixture explode,

generating power that pushes the piston down the cylinder and (through

the crankshaft and gears) turns the wheels. You can read more about this and watch a

simple animation of how it works in our article on car engines.

Diesel engines are similar, but simpler. First, air is allowed into the cylinder and the

piston compresses it—but much more than in a gasoline engine. In a gasoline engine,

the fuel-air mixture is compressed to about a tenth of its original volume. But in a diesel

engine, the air is compressed by anything from 14 to 25 times. If you've ever pumped

up a bicycle tire, you'll have felt the pump getting hotter in your hands the longer you

used it. That's because compressing a gas generates heat. Imagine, then, how much heat

is generated by forcing air into 14-25 times less space than it normally takes up. So

much heat, as it happens, that the air gets really hot—usually at least 500°C (1000°F)

and sometimes very much hotter. Once the air is compressed, a mist of fuel is sprayed

into the cylinder typically (in a modern engine) by an electronic fuel-injection system,

which works a bit like a sophisticated aerosol can. (The amount of fuel injected varies,

depending on how much power the driver wants the engine to produce.) The air is so

hot that the fuel instantly ignites and explodes without any need for a spark plug. This

controlled explosion makes the piston push back out of the cylinder, producing the

power that drives the vehicle or machine in which the engine is mounted. When the

piston goes back into the cylinder, the exhaust gases are pushed out through an exhaust

valve and, the process repeats itself—hundreds or thousands of times a minute!

Theory vs. Real Life

In theory, spark-plug gasoline engines should be more efficient than diesel engines. In

practice, the reverse is true: diesel engines are up to twice as efficient as gasoline

engines—around 40 percent efficient, that is. In simple terms, that means you can go

much further on the same amount of fuel (or get more miles for your money). There

are several reasons for this. First, the lack of a sparking-plug ignition system makes for

a simpler design that can easily compress the fuel much more—and compressing the

fuel more makes it burn more completely with the air in the cylinder, releasing more

energy. There's another efficiency saving too. In a gasoline engine that's not working

at full power, you need to supply more fuel (or less air) to the cylinder to keep it

working; diesel engines don't have that problem so they need less fuel when they're

working at lower power. Another important factor is that diesel fuel carries slightly

more energy per gallon than gasoline because the molecules it's made from have more

energy locking their atoms together (in other words, diesel has a higher energy density

than gasoline). Diesel is also a better lubricant than gasoline so a diesel engine will

naturally run with less friction.

Figure 2: Diagram of an engine

Difference in Fuel

Figure 3: Fuel

Diesel and gasoline are quite different. You'll know this much if you've ever heard the

horror stories of people who've filled up their car or truck with the wrong sort of fuel!

Essentially, diesel is a lower-grade, less-refined product of petroleum made from

heavier hydrocarbons (molecules built from more carbon and hydrogen atoms). Crude

diesel engines that lack sophisticated fuel injection systems can, in theory, run on

almost any hydrocarbon fuel—hence the popularity of biodiesel (a type of biofuel made

from, among other things, waste vegetable oil). The inventor of the diesel engine,

Rudolf Diesel, successfully ran his early engines on peanut oil and thought his engine

would do people a favor by freeing them from a dependency on fuels like coal and


Advantages and Disadvantages

Diesels are the most versatile fuel-burning engines in common use today, found in

everything from trains and cranes to bulldozers and submarines. Compared to gasoline

engines, they're simpler, more efficient, and more economical. They're also safer,

because diesel fuel is less volatile and its vapor less explosive than gasoline. Unlike

gasoline engines, they're particularly good for moving large loads at low speeds, so

they're ideal for use in freight-hauling ships, trucks, buses, and locomotives. Higher

compression means the parts of a diesel engine have to withstand far greater stresses

and strains than those in a gasoline engine. That's why diesel engines need to be

stronger and heavier and why, for a long time, they were used only to power large

vehicles and machines. While this may seem a drawback, it means diesel engines are

typically more robust and last a lot longer than gasoline engines.

Pollution is one of the biggest drawbacks of diesel engines: they're noisy and they

produce a lot of unburned soot particles, which are dirty and hazardous to health. In

theory, diesels are more efficient, so they should use less fuel, produce fewer carbon

dioxide emissions, and contribute less to global warming. In practice, there's some

argument over whether that's really true. Some laboratory experiments have shown

average diesel emissions are only slightly lower than those from gasoline engines,

although manufacturers insist that if similar diesel and gasoline cars are compared, the

diesels do indeed come out better. According to the British Society: "Diesel cars have

contributed massively to reducing CO2 emissions. Since 2002, buyers choosing diesel

have saved almost 3 million tonnes of CO2 from going into the atmosphere." Diesel

engines do tend to cost more initially than gasoline engines, though their lower running

costs and longer operating life generally offsets that.

Mass and Volume Flow

Many of the calculations need the mass flow of a liquid, but the instruments read

volume flow. This is because the mass flow depends on the density of the liquid, which

can vary with temperature. The relationship between mass and volume of a liquid is:

𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 × 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒


(𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 (𝑖𝑛 𝐿. 𝑠 −1 ))

𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 (𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔. 𝑠 −1 ) = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 (𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔. 𝑚−3 ) ×

Air Consumption

The Airbox includes an Orifice at its inlet. The DPT1 Instrument Module shows the

ambient air pressure (before the orifice) and the air pressure in the Airbox (after the

orifice). The difference in the pressures (Δ𝑝) and the air density (𝜌) will give you the

basic air flow velocity (𝑈):


To find the mass flow (𝑚̇𝑎 ) the air flow velocity equation is modified to separate out

the factors of density and to include the coefficient of discharge (𝐶𝑑 ) for the orifice and

the orifice diameter:

𝜋𝑑 2 2𝑝𝐴 Δ𝑝
𝑚̇𝑎 = 𝐶𝑑 √

Fuel Consumption

To find the mass fuel consumption you need the volumetric fuel flow and the fuel


𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 (𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑔. 𝑠 −1 )

𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 (𝐿. 𝑠 −1 )

= 𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 (𝑘𝑔. 𝑚−3 ) ×

To find the specific fuel consumption (work from the fuel you need the mass fuel

consumption and the mechanical power developed (measured by the Dynamometer):

𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 3600

𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 / 1000


Specific Fuel Consumption = kg kW.ℎ−1

Mass Fuel Consumption = kg.𝑠 −1

Mechanical Power = Watts

Air/Fuel Ratio

This is simply the ratio of the air mass flow against the fuel mass flow:

𝐴𝑖𝑟/𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =

Volumetric Efficiency

The four stroke engine makes two revolutions for each swept volume of air that it uses,

but the two stroke engine only rotates once for each swept volume. The four stroke

engine piston moves down to draw air/fuel mixture in, then moves up to compress and

combust the mixture. It is then forced down again by the combustion and moves up to

push out the exhaust gases. The four strokes are:

 Fresh Air/ Fuel Mixture Drawn In

 Mixture Compressed

 Mixture Ignited

 Exhaust Pushed Out

A) B)

C) D
Figure 4: The Four Stroke Cycle (A) Induction (B) Compression (C) Power (D)


The volumetric efficiency is the ratio of the measured volume of air or gas that enters

the engine against the calculated volume of air or gas that enters the engine against the

calculated volume of air that the engine should use. For this, you need to know the

engine capacity, the amount of engine strokes and its speed:

𝐸𝑛𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 × 𝑁
𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 =
𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒𝑠/2 × 60


Engine capacity is normally given in cc (cubic centimeters) or Liters. You must convert

this into cubic meters for the volume calculations.

100𝑐𝑐 = 0.0001𝑚3

𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝜂𝑉 = × 100
𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒

a) b)

c) d)

Figure 5: Diagram

a) Piston rising, compression of mixture. Crankcase suction

b) Piston rising, compression of mixture. Induction of charge into crankcase.

c) Power Stroke. Crankcase mixture compressed.

d) Exhaust of spent charge. Transferred crankcase charge to cylinder

This diagram shows the inlet and outlet parts on one side of the engine for clarity –

they are normally opposing each other (cross-flow)

Heat Energy and Enthalpy

The heat energy of combustion from the fuel (in Watts) is founded by the fuel

consumption by the fuel consumption and its calorific value:

𝐻𝐹 = 𝑚̇𝑓 𝐶𝐿 × 106

The inlet air enthalpy (in Watts) is found from the air mass flow rate and the ambient


𝐻𝐴 = 𝑚̇𝑎 𝐶𝑝 𝑇𝐴 × 103

Thermal Efficiency

This the ratio of the heat energy of combustion from the fuel against the useful

mechanical power developed by the engine:

𝑀𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝜂𝑇 = × 100

Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP)

This is the average mean pressure in the cylinder that would produce the measure brake

output. This pressure is calculated as the uniform pressure in the cylinder as the piston

rises from the top to bottom of each power stroke.

The BMEP is a useful calculation to compare engines of any size.

60 × 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 × (𝑆𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑘𝑒𝑠/2)
0.1 × 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 × 𝐸𝑛𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦


BMEP is in bar

Power = Watts

Speed = Rev.mi𝑛−1

Engine Capacity = Cubic Centimetres (𝑐𝑚3) or cc


Figure 6: Diesel Engine Test Bed

Figure 7: Engine Analyzer

1. Connect all the wires, tubes and pipes from the engine analyzer to the respective

parts of the engine test bed.

2. Make sure that they are connected properly and no leakages and bubbles are


3. Prime the machine first before starting.

4. Start the engine.

5. Adjust the speed by throttling the fuel inlet until it reaches stability.

6. Record the data from the computer when the engine had settled down to a steady

output such as speed, torque, exhaust temperature and air and fuel consumption.

7. The fuel tap beneath the pipette was operated so that the engine took its fuel from

the pipette.

8. The fuel consumption was for 8 ml markings.

9. The tap was then turned again so that the pipette could fill once again.

10. The temperature of the water flowing out of the dynamometer was observed to be

less than 80C. In the event that the temperature has exceeded, the water flow must

be increased to cool the dynamometer bearing seals.


Figure 5.1. Diesel Engine

Figure 5.2. Engine Analyzer


AVF1, DVF1 Fuel Consumption Calculated Parameters

Trial Fuel Fuel Fuel Fuel Calorific Heat Of Inlet Air
No. Consumption Consumption Density Value Combustion Enthalpy
(𝑚𝐿. 𝑚𝑖𝑛−1) (𝑘𝑔. 𝑠 −1) (𝑘𝑔. 𝑚−3) (𝑀𝐽. 𝑘𝑔−1 ) (W) (W)
1 8.3 0.00010 740 43.8 4380 679
2 8.2 0.00010 740 43.8 4380 736
3 9.1 0.00011 740 43.8 4818 815
4 9.0 0.00011 740 43.8 4818 810
5 8.8 0.00011 740 43.8 4818 804
6 8.7 0.00011 740 43.8 4818 833
7 8.6 0.00011 740 43.8 4818 810
8 8.7 0.00011 740 43.8 4818 858
9 8.7 0.00011 740 43.8 4818 843
10 8.6 0.00011 740 43.8 4818 823

DPT1 Engine Air & Exhaust

Trial Ambient Air Exhaust Gas Airbox Ambient Orifice Air Mass Flow
No. Temperature Temperature Differential Air Diameter Rate
(℃) (℃) Pressure Pressure (mm) (𝑥10 𝑘𝑔. 𝑠 −1 )

(Pa) (mbar)
1 23.5 35 85 1010 18.50 2.29
2 23.7 370 100 1009 18.50 2.48
3 23.5 122 123 1009 18.50 2.75
4 23.6 20 121 1009 18.50 2.73
5 23.7 14 119 1010 18.50 2.71
6 23.6 44 128 1009 18.50 2.81
7 23.8 55 121 1009 18.50 2.73
8 23.8 389 136 1009 18.50 2.89
9 24.0 324 131 1009 18.50 2.84
10 24.0 12 125 1008 18.50 2.77

DTS2 Engine Torque & Speed
Trial No. Torque (Nm) Speed (𝑟𝑒𝑣. 𝑚𝑖𝑛−1 ) Power (W)
1 1.8 2713 527
2 3.1 2694 888
3 3.9 2655 1095
4 3.6 2654 996
5 4.0 2641 1107
6 3.5 2651 983
7 3.7 2646 1033
8 3.8 2636 1053
9 3.9 2634 1075
10 3.5 2636 961

Calculated Parameters (Engine)

Trial Air Specific Thermal Volumetric Engine No. Of BMEP
No. Fuel Consumption Efficiency Efficiency Capacity Cycles (bar)
Ratio (𝑘𝑔. 𝑘𝑊ℎ−1 ) (%) (%) (cc) (2 or 4)
1 22.90 0.68 12.03 42.67 200 4 1.17
2 24.80 0.41 20.27 46.61 200 4 1.98
3 25.00 0.36 22.73 52.41 200 4 2.47
4 24.82 0.40 20.67 52.07 200 4 2.25
5 24.64 0.36 22.98 51.91 200 4 2.51
6 25.55 0.40 20.40 53.65 200 4 2.22
7 24.82 0.38 21.44 52.30 200 4 2.34
8 26.27 0.38 21.86 55.53 200 4 2.40
9 25.82 0.37 22.31 54.65 200 4 2.45
10 25.18 0.41 19.95 53.32 200 4 2.19


Trial 10:

A. Fuel Consumption, kg/s

𝒎𝒇 = 𝒇𝒖𝒆𝒍 𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝒙 𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆 𝒇𝒍𝒐𝒘 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒆

𝒌𝒈 𝒎𝑳 𝟏𝑳 𝟏 𝒎𝒊𝒏 𝟏 𝒎𝟑
= 𝟕𝟒𝟎 𝒙 𝟖. 𝟔 𝒙 𝒙 𝒙
𝒎𝟑 𝒎𝒊𝒏 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒎𝑳 𝟔𝟎 𝒔𝒆𝒄 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝑳

𝒎𝒇 = 𝟏. 𝟎𝟔𝟎𝟕 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟒

B. Heat of Combustion, W

𝐻𝑓 = 𝑚𝑓 𝑥 𝐻𝐻𝑉

𝒌𝒈 𝑴𝑱 𝟏 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟔
= 𝟏. 𝟎𝟔𝟎𝟕 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟒 (𝟒𝟑. 𝟖 𝒌𝒈) ( )
𝒔 𝟏𝑴𝑱

𝐻𝑓 = 4645.866 𝑊

C. Inlet Air Enthalpy

𝑯𝒂 = 𝒎𝒂 𝒄𝒑 𝑻𝒂

𝒌𝒈 𝒌𝑱 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝑾
= (𝟐. 𝟕𝟕 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟑 ) (𝟏. 𝟎𝟎𝟔 ) (𝟐𝟒 + 𝟐𝟕𝟑)𝑲( )
𝒔 𝒌𝒈 − 𝑲 𝟏 𝒌𝑾

𝑯𝒂 = 𝟖𝟐𝟕. 𝟔𝟐𝟔𝟏 𝑾

D. Brake Power

𝑩𝑷 =

𝟐𝝅(𝟑. 𝟓 𝑵 − 𝒎)(𝟐𝟔𝟑𝟔 𝒎𝒊𝒏)

𝑩𝑷 = 𝟗𝟔𝟔. 𝟏𝟒𝟒𝟓 𝑾

E. Specific Fuel Consumption

𝒎𝒂𝒔𝒔 𝒇𝒖𝒆𝒍 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒆

𝒎𝒆𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒃𝒓𝒂𝒌𝒆 𝒑𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓

𝒌𝒈 𝟑𝟔𝟎𝟎 𝒔
𝟏. 𝟎𝟔𝟎𝟕 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒔 ( )
= 𝟏 𝒉𝒓
𝟏 𝒌𝑾
𝟗𝟔𝟔. 𝟏𝟒𝟒𝟓 𝑾 (𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝑾)

𝑺𝑭𝑪 = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟗𝟓𝟐
𝒌𝑾 − 𝒉𝒓

F. Brake Thermal Efficiency

𝑴𝒆𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝑩𝒓𝒂𝒌𝒆 𝑷𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓

𝒏𝑩𝑻 =
𝑯𝒆𝒂𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑪𝒐𝒎𝒃𝒖𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏

𝟗𝟔𝟔. 𝟏𝟒𝟒𝟓 𝑾
= 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟎%
𝟒𝟔𝟒𝟓. 𝟖𝟔𝟔 𝑾

𝒏𝑩𝑻 = 𝟐𝟎. 𝟖𝟎 %

G. Calculated Volume, m3 /s

𝑬𝒏𝒈𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝑪𝒂𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝒙 𝑵
𝑪𝒂𝒍. 𝑽𝒐𝒍. =
( 𝟐 )(𝟔𝟎)

𝟏𝒎 𝟑 𝒓𝒆𝒗
𝟐𝟎𝟎 𝒄𝒎𝟑 (𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝒄𝒎) 𝒙 𝟐𝟔𝟑𝟔 𝒎𝒊𝒏

𝑪𝒂𝒍. 𝑽𝒐𝒍. = 𝟒. 𝟑𝟗𝟑𝟑 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟑 𝒎𝟑

H. Measure Volume, m3 /s

𝒎𝒂 𝑹𝑻𝒂
𝑴𝒆𝒂𝒔. 𝑽𝒐𝒍. =

𝒌𝒈 𝒌𝑱
(𝟐. 𝟕𝟕𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟑 𝒔 ) (𝟎. 𝟐𝟖𝟕 ) (𝟐𝟒 + 𝟐𝟕𝟑)𝑲
𝒌𝒈 − 𝑲
𝟏 𝒌𝑷𝒂
𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟖 𝒎𝒃𝒂𝒓 𝒙
𝟏𝟎 𝒎𝒃𝒂𝒓

𝑴𝒆𝒂𝒔. 𝑽𝒐𝒍. = 𝟐. 𝟑𝟒𝟐𝟒 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟑 𝒎𝟑

I. Volumentric Efficiency, %

𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆
𝒏𝒗 =
𝒄𝒂𝒍𝒄𝒖𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆

𝟐. 𝟑𝟒𝟐𝟒 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟑 𝒎𝟑
= 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟎%
𝟒. 𝟑𝟗𝟑𝟑 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟑 𝒎𝟑

𝒏𝒗 = 𝟓𝟑. 𝟑𝟐 %


𝟔𝟎 𝒙 𝑷𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓 𝒙
𝑩𝑴𝑬𝑷 = 𝟐
𝟎. 𝟏 𝒙 𝒔𝒑𝒆𝒆𝒅 𝒙 𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝒄𝒂𝒑.

𝟔𝟎 𝒙 𝟗𝟔𝟔. 𝟏𝟒𝟒𝟓 𝑾 𝒙 𝟐
= 𝒓𝒆𝒗
𝟎. 𝟏 𝒙 𝟐𝟔𝟑𝟔 𝒎𝒊𝒏 𝒙 𝟐𝟎𝟎 𝒄𝒎𝟑

𝑩𝑴𝑬𝑷 = 𝟐. 𝟏𝟗𝟗𝟏 𝒃𝒂𝒓


This experiment is about the performance and operation of gasoline engine. A gasoline
engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on gasoline and
similar volatile fuels.
There are four things that I learned from gathering data from the diesel test bed engine. The
amount of heat generated during combustion depends on the amount of fuel and heating value of
the fuel. The faster the rate of supply and the larger the heating value of a particular fuel, the higher
the heat of combustion. As much as possible, we would like this heat produced in combustion to
be used in useful work, however, most of the heat produced is wasted and is released out of the
The next one was that the power developed by the engine is highly dependent on torque
and speed. Torque and speed are inversely proportional. As torque and speed increases, the power
developed increases. Consequently, as the torque and speed decreases, power also decreases.
Lastly, I learned that as power developed increases, the efficiency increases until it reaches
a point of maximum efficiency where further increase in power decreases efficiency. This
maximum point of operation is the point at which the engine must be operated to assume maximum


1. Why do diesel engines smoke and what are the types of smokes produced in an engine?

 Diesel engine smoke is caused by incomplete combustion. White smoke is

caused by tiny droplets of unburned fuel as a result of low engine temperature.

This smoke should disappear as the engine warms up. Black smoke is caused by

a faulty injector, insufficient air, and overloading and/or over-fueling the engine.

Blue-gray smoke is the result of burning lubricating oil and is an indication of

poor mechanical condition.

2. What is Alpine Diesel?

 The low temperature operation of diesel engines can be improved by adding 10 to

30 percent of Heating Oil to the diesel fuel. This mixture is referred to as Alpine

Diesel. For extremely low temperatures up to 50 percent of heating oil may be


3. What is meant by diesel fuel cetane?

 The cetane number is a measure of the ignition quality of the fuel that influences

starting as well as combustion roughness. A cetane value higher than required

does not materially improve engine efficiency. Most engine builders recommend

diesel fuels of at least 40 cetane. All diesel fuels sold in Australia by BP exceed

the Australian Standard 3570 requirement of 45 minimum.

4. How does water get into diesel fuel and what problems can it cause?

 Water gets into diesel fuel storage and vehicles in several ways - by


during transportation, by leakage through faulty fill pipes or vents, and by careless

handling. Water can cause injector nozzle and pump corrosion, growth of

bacteria and fungi and plugging of fuel filters with corrosion and biological

material. Both vehicle and storage tanks should be checked regularly for water

and drained or pumped dry as necessary. In extreme cases biocides may be

required to control bacterial growth.

5. What is the major fuel related cause of poor diesel performance?

 Contamination of fuel by water and dirt entering the fuel as a result of poor

handling is the major fuel related cause of poor diesel engine performance.

Extreme care must be exercised to ensure that fuel tank caps, dispensing nozzles

and hoses should be kept clean to minimize the likelihood of contamination.

Removal of water from storage tanks, vehicle fuel tanks, and filter bowls on a

regular basis is important. Dry storage systems will prevent fuel


The following objectives of this experiment are met: to familiarize ourselves with the

gasoline engine operation, to be able to know the basic principle behind the operation, to

determine and understand the different parts and functions, to be able to calculate the different

parameters of our M.E. laboratory gasoline engine when subjected to varying torques and fuel

consumption which results to different parameters in the engine change per trial.

We were able to investigate the characteristic and parameters involve in the operation of a

gasoline engine. Gasoline engine is a kind of internal-combustion engine that generate power

by burning a volatile liquid fuel (gasoline or a gasoline mixture such as ethanol) with ignition

initiated by an electric spark. Gasoline engines are also known as spark-ignition engine. In SI

engines the air and fuel are usually mixed together in the intake system before entering to the

engine cylinder using a carburetor or fuel injection system. After the take in of flammable

mixture of air and petrol, that is ignited by a timed spark when the charge is compressed. The

four strokes of the internal combustion engine are intake, compression, combustion, and

exhaust. These four strokes require two revolutions of the crankshaft. The process continuously

repeats itself during the operation of the engine.

I also learned that heat of combustion is directly affected by the fuel consumption and heating

value. Moreover, power is affected by torque and speed. The power developed increases with

increase in torque and speed. In order for efficiency to be large, there should be a small heat of

combustion and a large power developed.



Standard Handbook of Plant Engineering, 2nd edition by Rosaler, Robert C.