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The items shown in the insert are namely paper, tins and cans, glass, textile and shoes

related to land
pollution. These items/waste can be disposed through a number of ways such as landfill, burning in
incinerator and 3R methods namely reuse, reduce and recycle.

With recycle of all the items/waste means that they are first collected at recycling points where the
items are sorted out according to types. This reduces the volume of waste at incinerators and landfill
sites. It also has the benefits of reducing air pollution when the wastes are burned at incinerator. At
landfill site the waste are left unattended and if it rains will cause toxic or chemical to be washed into
the soil and later will pollute ground water. With recycling of waste material will be reduced waste
thrown away and reduce the energy needed to make/reconstituted the product for example aluminum
drinks can the energy needed will be reduced by 5% in smelting of bauxite to make new can.

Other examples is with recycling of paper, more trees can be save/not cut down. Recycling too can avoid
people from throwing the rubbish or waste into the water/sea which can cause water pollution and
contaminate for drinking.

-reduce problem of air, water pollution.

(b)

The ‘polluter pays’ approach depends on being able to identify and call to account the polluter(s) in any
given environment, context or event. This may be easier in the case of an isolated incident, such as the
oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, than for ongoing, routine or complex situations, e.g. along a major
river such as the Rhine, where there are many potential polluters in several countries and fault may be
difficult to establish. Reference may be made to other issues such as corruption, a ‘pollute and pay’
approach by some companies, and to the cost and difficulty of the legal process involved.