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IEC 60044 specifies the requirements for protection CTs (in addition to

measuring CT's, VTs and electronic sensors).

The key to CT dimensioning under the standard, is the symmetrical short

circuit current and transient dimensioning factors:

 Kssc    - rated symmetrical short-circuit current factor

 K’ssc   - effective symmetrical short-circuit current factor
 Ktd     - transient dimensioning factor
Example IEC 60044 Calculation
Consider a CT with the following specification and protection requirements:

 CT: 600/1 5P20 15 VA,  Rct = 4 Ω

 CT Leads: 6 mm2, 50 m long 
- use R=2 ρ l /a to calculate = 0.0179 Ω/m
 Relay: Siemens 7SJ45, Ktd = 1
 Short circuit current, Iscc max = 30 kA

To find the lead resistance Rleads (two leads – supply, return) we can use the
standard formulae for resistivity:
Rleads = 2 ρ l /a = 2 x 0.0175 x 50 / 6 = 0.3 Ω
Numerical relays have low burdens, typically 0.1 Ω (where possible the relay
manual should be consulted).

Plugging everything into the equations:

Rb = 15 VA / 1 A2 = 15 Ω
R’b = Rleads + Rrelay = 0.3 + 0.1 = 0.4 Ω
K’scc = Kscc (Rct + Rb)/(Rct + R’b)
= 20 (4 + 15 )/ (4 + 0.4) = 86.4

Required K’scc > 1 x 30000/600 = 50

In this case the effective K’scc of 86.4 is greater than the required K’scc of 50 and the
CT meets the stability criteria.

The factor Kssc is relatively easy to understand and relates to the liner

portion of a CT characteristic.  The voltage and current across a CT are
linear only up till a certain value (normally specified as a multiple of the
nominal rating),  after which the CT will saturate and the curve will level
off.  A CT rated at say 5P20 will stay linear to approximately 20 times its
nominal current.  This linear limit is the  Kssc (i.e. Kssc = 20).  As a
reminder, the 5 [in the 5P20] would be the CT accuracy class and the ‘P’
signifies a protection class CT. 
Slightly more complicated is the effective factor, K’scc.  This is a calculated
value which takes into account the burden (resistance) of the relay,
resistance of the CT windings and resistance of the leads:

 Rct - secondary winding d.c. resistance at specified temperature

 Rb  - rated resistive burden of the relay
 R’b - Rleads + Rrelay;  this is the connected burden
CTs need to be able to supply the required current to drive the relays
during transient fault conditions.  The ability of the CT and relay to
operate under these conditions is a function of K’scc and the transient
performance of the relay, Ktd.  The factor, Ktd is supplied by the relay
manufacturer.  Correct functioning is achieved by ensuring the following
is valid:

 Issc max - maximum symmetrical short-circuit current

 Ipn - CT rated primary current
That it.  Once you have confirmed the above is ok, you know your CT is

What the Manufacturer Wants

There is a slight complication in the manufacturers know their relays
better than we (or the IEC) do.  As general advice, you should always
refer to the manufacturers information:

 firstly it is the only way to get the factor Ktd

 secondly manufacturers sometimes have additional requirements; for
example Siemens’ over current, motor protection, line differential (non-
pilot)and transformer differential are good to go with the above, while their
line differential (pilot wire) and distance relays require the above and have
additional limitations on K’scc
Connection Leads
In the sizing of protection transformers, the resistance (burden) of the
connection leads can have a considerable effect.  In calculations, the
resistance of the connection leads can be estimated from:


l is the connection lead length in m 

ρ  is the resistivity in Ω mm2  m-1 (=0.0179 for copper) 
A  is the cross sectional area in mm2

Other CT Sizing Methods and Requirements

BS 3938 and BS 7626

BS 3938 and BS 7626  are older British Standards which deal the
specification and sizing of current transformers.  Both of these have been
withdrawn and are superseded by the IEC 6044 standard.

The standards adopted the concept of knee voltage and it is still common
to find knee voltage being used as a CT sizing parameter. 

Knee voltage  is defined as the point at which a 10% increase in voltage across
the terminals, causes a 50% increase in excitation current

Utilising the British Standards, CTs were defined by the knee point
voltage UKN and the internal secondary resistance Ri. To convert an IEC
design the following can be used:

where:   I2N  is the nominal secondary current

The IEEE standard C57.13 covers the requirements for CT sizing in the
North American markets. 

Class C of the standard defines CTs by their secondary terminal voltage at

20 times nominal current (for which the ratio error shall not exceed 10%).
Standard classes are C100, C200, C400 and C800 for 5 A nominal
secondary current.

This terminal voltage can be calculated from the IEC data as follows:



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