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Bufer (larutan penyangga)

Bufer : larutan yang pH tidak berubah jika diencerkan, dan hanya


berubah sedikit ( dianggap tidak berubah jika ditambah sedikit
asam kuat / basa kuat).
How a Buffer Works: The Common-Ion Effect
Pada bab ini kita akan membahas larutan yang berisi 2 solute yang
memiliki ion yang sama ( bisa kation ataupun anion).

Pada larutan yang mengandung asam asetat dan sodium asetat.

Komponen penyusun bufer.


Yang dapat membentuk bufer
Pasangan asam-basa konjugasi (selisih 1 buah H+ di rumusnya)
 Asam lemah dengan basa konjugasi nya
 Basa lemah dengan asam konjugasi nya
1. Which of the following solutions can act as a buffer?
(a) KCl/HCl, (b) KHSO4/H2SO4,
(c) Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4, (d) KNO2/HNO2.

2. Which of the following ions can act as a buffer? Determined the acid-
base properties of the buffer!
CO32─ ; H2CO3 ; CN─ ; PO43─ ; HCO3─ ; HCN
pH larutan bufer
 bufer asam
HX ⇌ H+ + X―
R-COOH ⇌ R-COO― + H+

Persamaan Henderson-Hasselbalch

 Bufer basa.
NH3 + H2O ⇌ NH4+ + OH-
R-NH2 + H2O ⇌ R-NH3+ + OH-

Batasan keefektifan larutan bufer


- [asam lemah / basa lemah] dan [ basa konjugasi / asam konjugasi] >
100 × Ka / Kb
- 0,1 < < 10
3. A student is asked to prepare a buffer solution at pH = 8.60, using one
of the following weak acids:
HA (Ka = 2.7 x 10─3), HB (Ka = 4.4 x 10─6), HC (Ka = 2.6 x 10─9).
Which acid should she choose? Why?
4. Calculate the pH of the following buffer solutions:
a. 2.0 M CH3COONa / 2.0 M CH3COOH, Ka of acetic acid =
2,0 x 10─5
b. 2.4 M sodium phenolate (C6H5ONa) and 1.2 M phenol (C6H5OH)
(pKa of phenol =10.00).

5. A buffer is prepared by mixing 200,0 mL of 0.5 M NaOH and 0.50 L


of 0.40 M Nitrous acid (Ka = 5 x 10─4)
(a) What is the pH?
(b) Would this solution be an effective buffer? Explain.

6. A buffer is prepared by mixing 500,0 mL of 0.005 M Ca(OH)2 and


500,0 mL of 0.040 M phenol (C6H5OH) (pKa of phenol =10.00)
(a) What is the pH?
(b) Would this solution be an effective buffer? Explain.

Perubahan pH pada larutan bufer


 Bufer asam
Penambahan asam kuat.
X― / R-COO― + H+ → HX/ R-COOH
Penambahan basa kuat.
HX / R-COOH + OH- → X―/ R-COO― + H2O
 Bufer basa
Penambahan asam kuat.
NH3 / R-NH2 + H+ → NH4+/ R-NH3+
Penambahan basa kuat.
NH4+/ R-NH3+ + OH- → NH3 / R-NH2 + H2O
7. You prepare a buffer solution by dissolving 61.0 g of benzoic acid
(C6H5COOH, Molar mass = 122, Ka = 7 x 10─5), and sodium 144.0 g
of sodium benzoate (Na C6H5COO, Molar mass = 144 ) in 1000.0
mL of water. (log 2 = 0.3 ; log 5 = 0.7 ; log 7 = 0.85)
(a) What is the pH of this buffer? Assume that the solution volume is
1000.0 mL.
(b) What is the pH after 0.25L of 1.0 M HCl is added to 0.25 L of this
solution.
(c) What is the pH after 0.25L of 1.0 M NaOH is added to 0.25 L of
this solution.