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Automobile Security And Safety System Using Labview


Asst.Prof., Dept of Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering VNR VJIET , Bachupally- Andhra Pradesh , India

Abstract- The presented project aims at building a virtual instrument that adds protection to an automobile driver by
avoiding unwanted closeness to other vehicle moving ahead, and dipping of head light, thus providing anti-collision safety.
An Ultrasonic Sensor (of proximity detection range of 6 inches to 20 feet) is used to get output voltage signal when an object
is within the specified range. Face recognition is one of the few biometric methods that possess the merits of both high
accuracy and low intrusiveness. It has the accuracy of a physiological approach without being intrusive. The second part of
the project is used to switch over from high beam head lights to low beam head lights. Whenever the high light beam falls
on the front mirror of the vehicle, the LabVIEW program detects the light intensity level using sensor through DAQ cards,
by taking thisvaluecontroller(LabVIEWProgram) switchesoverfrom high beam head lights to low beam head lights, by
operating the relay for certain period of time (duration in seconds).


As India sees a sharp rise in sale of personal vehicles,

it is witness to another unfortunate rise, in number of
deaths in road mishaps — around 1,05,000 every
year, reports World Health Organization in its report
on “Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-
2020”.WHO report claims that all these accidents are
primarily due to bad infrastructure and rash driving..
Active Safety is increasingly being used to describe
systems that use an understanding of the state of the
vehicle to both avoid and minimize the effects of a
crash. These include braking systems, like brake
assist, traction control systems and electronic stability Fig 1 – Block Diagram for Automobile Security and Safety
control systems, that interpret signals from various System Using LabVIEW
sensors to help the driver control the vehicle.
Additionally, forward-looking, sensor-based systems The main user requirement for functional and
such as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems control system.
including adaptive cruise control and collision  Selection of face recognition system for
warning/avoidance/mitigation systems are also authentication from the camera by NI IMAQ dx
considered as active safety systems under this  Ultrasonic sensor for obstacle detection
definition.  LDR for light sensing of opposite vehicle
and respond low beam of own vehicle.

The proposed Automobile Security and Safety Facial recognition systems are computer-based
System in this paper is based upon user suggested by security systems that are able to automatically detect
security with respect to virtual instrumentation and identify human faces. Face recognition
concept. technology involves analyzing certain facial
 Initialization of data acquisition hardware. characteristics storing them in a database and using
 GUI for interaction between user and them to identify users accessing systems. There are
instruments. various recognition methods that emphasize
 Development of algorithms and procedure identification based on the areas of the face that don’t
for security like recognition for authentication change, including: Upper sections of eye sockets,
Area surrounding cheek bones, Sides of mouth. There
are various steps involved in face recognition starting
from detection that is the first step for a facial
recognition system is to recognize a human face and
extract it from the rest of the scene. A multi-scale
algorithm is used to search for a face in the picture.
Then comes the alignment where once a face is

IRAJ International Conference-Proceedings of ICRIEST-AICEEMCS, 29th December 2013, Pune India. ISBN: 978-93-82702-50-4

Automobile Security And Safety System Using Labview

detected, the system determines the head’s position, Virtual instrumentation (VI) is an application of
size and pose. Once this is done Normalization takes general purpose digital PCs for the measurement and
place that is the image of the head is scaled and control of various physical variables. The VI program
rotated so that it can be registered and mapped into an mimics the control processes, which are in a remote
appropriate size and pose. The system then translates area, on the PC screen. Ongoing process control
the facial data into a unique code. This coding automation can be visualized by the experimentalist
process allows for easier comparison of the newly through PC screen. VI program provides inexpensive
acquired facial data to stored facial data this is called and yet a powerful platform for the control and data
registration. The newly acquired facial data is then acquisition of process variables. These programs is
compared to the stored data and (ideally) linked to at easy to implement with graphic languages (G-
least one stored facial representation. language). The “G”language implements the data
flow technique. The usage of “G”language VIs
The process flow is as follows: provides easy interfacing with PCs under the
 Perform a sample capture Windows environment. The “G” language provides
 Perform a feature extraction built in function libraries for a variety of application
 .Perform a template comparison requirements as graphic palletes, which in turn
 Perform matching supports the required DLLs for the functions to run
under windows environment. Usually the “G”
Many approaches to the overall face recognition language VI programs consist of two frames
problem have been devised over the years, but one of viz…panel diagram and functional diagram. In the
the most accurate and fastest ways to identify faces is panel diagram, programmers can assign various
to use what is called the “eigenface” technique. As a controls and indicators (i.e., input and output
general view, this algorithm extracts the relevant variables) as per their requirements and in the
information of an image and encodes it as efficiently functional diagram, the designers can implement the
as possible. For this purpose, a collection of images required functions available as a function library in
from the same person is evaluated in order to obtain LabVIEW. The output from the DAQ board is given
the variation. Mathematically, the algorithm to the PC through buffers. These buffers provide the
calculates the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix electrical isolation along with the unity gain to the
of the set of face images. Each image from the set signal. LabVIEW using driver software of National
contribute to an eigenvector, these vectors Instruments treats the signal received. In LABVIEW
characterize the variations between the images. When user interface is known as front panel and we can add
we represent these eigenvectors, we call it eigen code using icons of functions to control the front
faces. Every face can be represented as a linear panel object. The block diagram contains the requisite
combination of the eigen faces; however, we can code.
reduce the number of eigen faces to the ones with
greater values, so we can make it more efficient. The IV. SIGNAL ACQUISITION SETUP
basic idea of the algorithm is to develop a system that
can compare images. The algorithm can be reduced to The signal acquisition has greatly advanced over the
the next simple steps. years. With the increasing performance of the
personal computer, PC based signal processing
1. Acquire a database of face images, calculate the systems are becoming an efficient and cost-effective
eigen faces and determine the face space with all way of acquiring and analyzing these signals. Here
them. It will be necessary for further recognitions. are many software packages available for the
2. When a new image is found, calculate its set of acquisition and analysis of Bio Medical signals in
weights. general. Of these packages NI LabVIEW is a
3. Determine if the image is a face; to do so, we have graphical development environment for creating
to see of it is close enough to the face space. flexible and scalable test, measurement, and control
4. Finally, it will be determined if the image applications rapidly and at minimal cost. With
corresponds to a known face of the database of not. LabVIEW, engineers and scientists interface with
real-world signals, analyze data for meaningful
information, and share results and applications.
Regardless of experience, LabVIEW makes
development fast and easy for all users.

Figure-3 Program for automobile safety system for light

Figure 2: Eigen faces dimmer and obstacle detection

IRAJ International Conference-Proceedings of ICRIEST-AICEEMCS, 29th December 2013, Pune India. ISBN: 978-93-82702-50-4

Automobile Security And Safety System Using Labview

 Adding other features to the system provides

warning of impending accident, while the hazard
warning lights are activated, the side windows and
sunroof are closed and the front seat belts are
tensioned. In the second phase, the warning is
followed by light braking, strong enough to win the
driver's attention.
 To include a radar-based system to monitor
the situation ahead and provide automatic braking if
Figure-4 Program for Face Recognition for security system
the driver does not react to a warning in the
CONCLUSION instrument cluster and a tightening of the seat belts
 To integrate a system that monitors the
The face recognition system is able to acquire images driver's face to determine where the driver is looking.
from the webcam connected to computer and give out If the driver's head turns away from road and a frontal
the histogram values for those. It then is comparing obstacle is detected the system will alert the driver
the histogram of the image taken with the histogram using a buzzer and if necessary pre-charge the brakes
of the images in the database. It tries matching them and tighten the safety belts
up. And if they match system will give output,
the image of that person present in the database. If he
[1] Rafiquzzaman, M., Microprocessors and microcomputer
is not present in the database the message “FACE based system design, 2nd edition, CRC Press, Inc., 1995
RECOGNITION FAILED” as output . The time [2] Ronald J.Tocci , Neal S. Widmer, Digital Systems and
taken for recognition is very less. The project aims at Applications, 2000 Millennium edition, Prentice Hall
developing a prototype for the anti-collision system International, Inc. 2000
[3] Albert D. Helfrick & William D. Cooper, Electronic
and also incorporating some more aspects into the Instrumentation & Measurement Techniques, 4th Edition,
prototype for secured and damage free driving. Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd. Reprinted in January 1996
The prototype has been developed by using [4] A. K. Sawhney, A Course on Electrical and Electronic
LabVIEW software, Measurements and Instrumentation, Edition 2001, Dhanpat
Rai & Co. (P) Ltd., 2001
The prototype can be developed further by: [5], DAQ 653X User Manual, January 2001
 Incorporating a system designed to Edition, National Instruments Inc.
determine if the driver is late in decelerating at an [6] P. Ryff, Electric Macinery, 2nd edition, McGra Hill
approaching stop sign. Such a system will then sound [7], User Manual LabVIEW 6i, 2001
Edition, National Instruments Inc.
an alert and can also precharge the brakes to provide
optimum braking force if deemed necessary.


IRAJ International Conference-Proceedings of ICRIEST-AICEEMCS, 29th December 2013, Pune India. ISBN: 978-93-82702-50-4