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Classification: Internal Use

Addendum to SES Addendum No: 2

E02-G03 Date: Dec 2018


Guidelines for Power System
Page: 1 of 1
ENGINEERING STANDARD
Analysis

S.N. SES No.:E02-G03 Rev. No.:0 Paragraph No.:6.9


1 Original Text:

6.9 Power Factor compensation Methodology: PF compensation is required so as to provide a PF of


0.95 at the Point of coupling with SEC. The downstream MV and LV buses shall be limited to PF not
less than 0.85.

New Text:

6.9 Power Factor compensation Methodology: PF compensation is required so as to provide a PF of


0.96 at the Point of coupling with SEC. The downstream MV and LV buses shall be limited to PF not
less than 0.85.

Notes:
1. Template shall be repeated for each addendum proposal
2. Separate forms shall be used for different standards.
Z01-X06-04 Rev 4 Mar 2016 SES Addendum Proposal Form
Classification: Internal Use

Addendum to SES Addendum No: 01

E02-G03 Date: Dec 2017


Guidelines for Power System
Page: 1 of 2
ENGINEERING STANDARD
Analysis

S.N. SES No.: E02-G03 Rev. No.: 0 Paragraph No.:


1 Original Text:
5.4 Load Flow Violations Analysis methodology:
Violations shall be analyzed as follows:
a. Bus bar (Switchgear, Switch rack) loading: Loading shall be above 80% for Normal loading but
within 100% of continuous rating of the Bus bars for Worst case
b. Bus Duct loading: Loading shall be above 80% for Normal loading but within 100% of continuous
rating of the Bus bars for Worst case
c. Transformer loading: Loading shall be above 90% and within 100% of the Self cooled rating for
Normal loading. Loading shall be within 100% of the Forced cool rating for Worst case loading
d. Cable loading based on laying conditions and voltage drop criteria: Cable loading shall be
analyzed by ampacity checks and by Underground thermal analysis. The loading shall be within 95%
of the cable de-rated ampacity and within temperature limits based on the cable insulation (for e.g.
90deg C for XLPE insulated cables)
e. Switchgear loading such as Circuit Breaker, Fuse, and Disconnect Switch: Switchgear loading
shall be within the continuous rating. Loading shall be above 80% for Normal loading but within
100% of continuous rating of the equipment for Worst case

New Text:

5.4 Load Flow Violations Analysis methodology:


Violations shall be analyzed as follows:
a. Bus bar (Switchgear, Switch rack) loading: Unless otherwise agreed, current loading shall be
compliant with transformer rating as well as requirements of SES E02-E01/IEC-E02-E01, Clause
16.3.
b. Bus Duct loading: Unless otherwise agreed, current loading shall be compliant with the
transformer rating as well as requirements of SES E02-E01/IEC-E02-E01, Clause 16.3.
c. Transformer loading: Refer SES E02-E01/IEC-E02-E01, Clause 16.2 Transformer Capacity.
Loading shall be within all the requirements to satisfy the sizing calculations such as:
 loading shall be within 70% of the maximum transformer (self or forced cooled) rating for
worst case loading, considering 10% load growth and 20% spare.
 de-rating for site ambient temperature
 kVAR loading due to Synchronous motors
 adherence to minimum transformer sizes for LV and MV radial or secondary selective
systems
 adherence to Captive transformer sizing based on motor starting requirements
 adherence to NEC article 695 for fire pump duty
 de-rating of dry type transformer as applicable

d. Cable loading: Refer SES E02-E01/IEC-E02-E01, Clause 16.7: Loading shall be within all the
requirements to satisfy the cable sizing calculations such as adherence to:
 de-rating factors
 future loading
 transformer feeder requirements
 lighting feeder requirements
 motor feeder requirements
 adherence to underground thermal analysis requirements for cables laid underground

Notes:
1. Template shall be repeated for each addendum proposal
2. Separate forms shall be used for different standards.
Addendum SES E02-G03-Power System Analysis
Classification: Internal Use

Addendum to SES Addendum No: 01

E02-G03 Date: Dec 2017


Guidelines for Power System
Page: 2 of 2
ENGINEERING STANDARD
Analysis
e. Switchgear loading such as Circuit Breaker, Fuse, and Disconnect Switch: Refer SES E02-
E01/IEC-E02-E01, Clause 16.3: Loading shall be within all the requirements to satisfy the cable
sizing calculations such as adherence to:
 Transformer size
 Individual and group motor loads
 Generator rating
Refer SES E02-E01/IEC-E02-E01, Clause 16.4 for MCC bus bar rating requirements.

S.N. SES No.: E02-G03 Rev. No.: 0 Paragraph No.: 7.15


2 Original Text:
7.15 Case studies: Following Short circuit studies shall be carried out:
Ultimate (Maximum) Short Circuit: With maximum grid fault level, bus tie CLOSED, all running motors
contributing, all generations including stand-by (in-case applicable), pre-fault voltage of 102% at all
buses.
Minimum Short Circuit: With minimum grid fault level, bus tie OPEN, motors not contributing, with
load flow voltage as pre-fault voltage at all buses.
Emergency generation short circuit: With only emergency generation, in case of normal supply failure
– this data is to be used for protection co-ordination study with emergency generation.
New Text:
7.15 Case studies: Following Short circuit studies shall be carried out:
Ultimate (Maximum) Short Circuit: With maximum grid fault level, bus tie CLOSED, all running motors
contributing, all generations including stand-by (in-case applicable), pre-fault voltage:
 102% at all buses for ANSI/IEEE based projects.
 Voltage factor ‘c’ as per Table 1 of IEC 60909-0 reproduced below:

Minimum Short Circuit: With minimum grid fault level, bus tie OPEN, motors not contributing, with
load flow voltage as pre-fault voltage at all buses.
Emergency generation short circuit: With only emergency generation, in case of normal supply failure
– this data is to be used for protection co-ordination study with emergency generation.

Notes:
1. Template shall be repeated for each addendum proposal
2. Separate forms shall be used for different standards.
Addendum SES E02-G03-Power System Analysis
NUMBER E02-G03
REV. No. 0
ENGINEERING STANDARD DATE SEPT 2017
PAGE 1 OF 16

Guidelines for Power System Analysis

This document is issued by Engineering Standards Section, SABIC E&PM, Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The information
contained in this document is the confidential property of SABIC. It cannot be disclosed, copied or used for any purpose without approval from
SABIC. If you are not authorized to possess this document, please destroy it immediately.
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Contents

1. OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................................3
2. REFERENCES....................................................................................................................3
3. GENERAL ...........................................................................................................................4
4. SEQUENCE OF WORK AND APPROVAL ........................................................................4
5. LOAD FLOW CALCULATIONS ..........................................................................................5
6. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION .....................................................................................6
7. SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS ...................................................................................7
8. MOTOR STARTING & RE-ACCELERATION STUDIES ....................................................9
8.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................9
8.2 Required Case studies: .............................................................................................10
8.3 Methodology of analysis: ...........................................................................................10
8.4 Report content : .........................................................................................................10
9. PROTECTIVE DEVICE CO-ORDINATION ......................................................................11
9.1 Purpose: ....................................................................................................................11
9.2 Required Case studies: .............................................................................................11
9.3 Methodology: .............................................................................................................11
9.4 Report content: ..........................................................................................................11
10.ARC FLASH STUDIES .....................................................................................................12
10.1 Purpose .....................................................................................................................12
10.3 Required Case studies ..............................................................................................13
10.4 Methodology ..............................................................................................................13
10.5 Report content ...........................................................................................................13
10.6 Recommendations ....................................................................................................13
11.GROUND GRID STUDY ...................................................................................................13
11.1 Purpose .....................................................................................................................13
11.3 Recommendations: ...................................................................................................14
12.UNDERGROUND CABLE THERMAL ANALYSIS ...........................................................14
12.1 Purpose .....................................................................................................................14
12.2 Required Case studies: .............................................................................................14
12.3 Methodology ..............................................................................................................14
12.4 Report content: ..........................................................................................................14
13.HARMONIC ANALYSIS (AS APPLICABLE) ....................................................................14
13.8 Purpose: ....................................................................................................................15
13.9 Required Case studies: .............................................................................................15
13.10 Methodology ...........................................................................................................15
14.STABILITY STUDIES (AS APPLICABLE) ........................................................................15
14.2 Purpose: ....................................................................................................................15
14.3 Report content: ..........................................................................................................15
15.REVISION HISTORY ........................................................................................................16
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1. Objective
This guideline will define the methodology of study, case studies to be conducted, and report
content of Power System Analysis for SABIC projects.
The following is the list of studies covered in this practice:
a. Load Flow
b. Power factor correction
c. Short Circuit
d. Motor Starting
e. Protection and Coordination
f. Arc Flash
g. Ground Grid
h. Underground Cable Thermal Analysis
i. Harmonic
j. Stability

2. References
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
141 Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants
399 Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power System Analysis
142 Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power
Systems
242 Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and
Commercial Power Systems
80 Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
1584 Guide for performing Arc Flash Hazard calculations
519 Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical
Power Systems
551 Calculating Short-Circuit Currents in Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
C37.012 Application Guide for Capacitance Current Switching for AC High-Voltage Circuit
Breakers
InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA)
NETA/ATS Standard for Acceptance testing Specifications for Electrical Power Equipment and
Systems
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
70 National Electrical Code
70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace
Process Industry practices (PIP)
ELEGL03 Guidelines for Power System Analysis
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
60909 Short circuit currents in three-phase a.c. Systems
60949 Calculation of thermally permissible short-circuit currents
60986 Short circuit temperature limits of electric cables with rated voltages from 6 kV
(Um-7,2 kV) up to 30 kV ) (Um=36 kV)
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SABIC Engineering Standards (SES)


IEC-E02-E01 Power System and Equipment Design Calculations (IEC)
IEC-E02-G01 Electrical System Design Criteria (IEC)
E02-E01 Power System and Equipment Design Calculation (NEC)
E02-G01 Electrical System Design Criteria (NEC)

3. General
3.1 This document is for general guidance for the application of the power system studies. The
IEEE documents referred to provide a more detailed procedure for each study. NETA ATS
Section 6 provides additional guidance. PIP ELEGL03 also provides additional guidelines
which can be used as required.
3.2 Power System Analysis (PSA) Studies and Calculations shall be performed using ETAP
Software program latest version. Any other software to be used is subject to approval by
SABIC. In such case, all databases for PSA shall be handed over to SABIC with a
compatible format to ETAP.
3.3 The power system analysis shall performed as per this guideline. In case of conflict or for
additional information, refer to PIP ELEGL03, IEEE 141 and 399.
3.4 Existing plants will normally have an established electrical system data base. In most cases
the calculations shall be made using the analysis program previously used for the plant. In all
cases SABIC shall approve the software package before calculations are performed.
3.5 Calculation methods are related to the testing requirements for the equipment. Calculations
for systems using IEC are different than for systems using ANSI/NEMA equipment. ETAP is
capable of performing both type calculations but is important to select the appropriate mode
of calculation. The reference standards for each standard systems shall be applied as
relevant.
3.6 For new transformers +/-7.5% impedance tolerance shall be used as per IEEE 141 for power
system studies. The positive tolerance shall be used for Load Flow and Motor Starting
studies and Negative tolerance used for Short Circuit & Arc Flash Studies.

4. Sequence of Work and Approval


4.1 Electrical system calculations for most projects are an iterative process. Sufficient data is not
available at the beginning of a project to make final calculations. However, calculations must
be made early in the project to properly specify the electrical equipment and to insure that
use of large electrical drive motors is feasible.
4.2 A number of preliminary calculations must be performed using various assumptions to arrive
at an over-all one line diagram. Once the over-all one line diagram has been selected these
calculations must be further refined using updated load estimates to allow procurement of
major long-lead-time electrical equipment.
4.3 As more information becomes available the calculations are updated and expanded to more
detail levels to define the electrical equipment at the secondary level.
4.4 The data base is continuously updated until at the completion of the project it accurately
represents the as-built electrical system.
4.5 The Contractor must work closely with SABIC in performing the calculations and developing
the electrical power system design. SABIC shall approve the basis for calculations and
approve the completed work at each stage before the contractor proceeds to the next level.
4.6 The affiliate shall request the Utility short circuit and other relevant information required for
building the model. The Utility data shall include Ultimate, Maximum and Minimum short
circuit levels.
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4.7 Unless otherwise specified, the model shall be built in detail with all individual loads up to 50
HP shown. Loads below 50 HP can be lumped at the low voltage level.
4.8 Unless otherwise specified, the complete power system including normal, emergency, UPS
and DC power system shall be modeled.

5. Load Flow Calculations


5.1 A load flow study shall be run immediately after completion of data entry as a first check on
the electrical system and to de-bug data in case errors were made. Once the system model
has been confirmed, system load flow cases can be run or other calculations such as short
circuit analysis can be started.
5.2 Purpose:
The purpose of Load Flow calculations is to analyze the power system and arrive at Bus and
Branch violations namely:
 Bus bar (Switchgear, Switchrack) loading
 Bus Duct loading
 Transformer loading
 Cable loading based on laying conditions and voltage drop criteria
 Switchgear loading such as Circuit Breaker, Fuse, Disconnect Switch
 Under and over voltage
 Spare availability
5.3 Case Studies: The following case studies shall be considered
5.3.1 Normal Load flow study:
a. Minimum grid fault level (maximum grid impedance) shall be considered.
b. Normal Loading with both incomers in a secondary selective system ON, Bus tie
OPEN.
c. All normal running motors, HVAC loads, Static loads such as lighting and small
power ON. The loading shall be the 8 hour Demand load.
d. Diversity factor may be considered as required and agreed with Process &
Operation sections
e. Power factor correction capacitors or Synchronous motors used for power factor
correction shall also be switched ON, if available.
5.3.2 Worst case/ Peak Load flow study:
a. Minimum grid fault level (maximum grid impedance) shall be considered.
b. Single feeder loading with one incomer of a secondary selective system ON, Bus
tie CLOSED.
c. All normal running and those stand-by motors which come ON due to additional
demand, HVAC loads (worst of the two-heating or cooling), Static loads such as
Lighting and small power ON. The loading shall be the peak 1 hour loading.
d. Diversity factor may be considered as required and agreed with Process &
Operation sections.
e. Power factor correction capacitors or Synchronous motors used for power factor
correction shall also be switched ON, if available.
5.3.3 Emergency Load flow study:
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a. Normal power from grid switched OFF.


b. Emergency generators ON
c. Emergency loads only ON
5.4 Load Flow Violations Analysis methodology:
Violations shall be analyzed as follows:
a. Bus bar (Switchgear, Switch rack) loading: Loading shall be above 80% for Normal
loading but within 100% of continuous rating of the Bus bars for Worst case.
b. Bus Duct loading: Loading shall be above 80% for Normal loading but within 100% of
continuous rating of the Bus bars for Worst case.
c. Transformer loading: Loading shall be above 90% and within 100% of the Self cooled
rating for Normal loading. Loading shall be within 100% of the Forced cool rating for
Worst case loading.
d. Cable loading based on laying conditions and voltage drop criteria: Cable loading shall
be analyzed by ampacity checks and by Underground thermal analysis. The loading shall
be within 95% of the cable de-rated ampacity and within temperature limits based on the
cable insulation( for e.g. 90deg C for XLPE insulated cables)
e. Switchgear loading such as Circuit Breaker, Fuse, and Disconnect Switch: Switchgear
loading shall be within the continuous rating. Loading shall be above 80% for Normal
loading but within 100% of continuous rating of the equipment for Worst case
f. Under and over voltage:
The allowable voltage drops are based on the use of transformer taps to maintain 100%
voltage at the secondary terminals under normal loading conditions. Permissible steady
state voltage drops shall be as follows:
i. Medium Voltage Distribution System. The total voltage drop to motors or unit
substation transformers shall not exceed 5% under normal loading conditions and +/-
2% of the rated Motor terminal voltage.
ii. Systems Rated 480 Volts and Below. The total voltage drop from the unit substation
secondary terminals to the utilization equipment shall not exceed 5%.
Transformer tap setting shall be used to limit the voltage drops such that the voltage
profile is within the +/-5% limits for all expected load conditions.
g. Spare availability: Unless otherwise specified, a 20% spare capacity shall be ascertained
for all major equipment such as Transformers, Switchgears, MCC, Feeder cables,
Emergency Generators, UPS and DC systems.
5.5 Report content: The report shall contain the following sections:
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
 Assumptions
 Scenario description
 Results
 Recommendations

6. Power Factor Correction


6.1 Refer to SES E02-G01 for the requirements for power factor correction.
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6.2 Early load flow studies can indicate if power factor correction may be needed. As soon as
the need for correction is indicated, correction can be added to the study in the form of
capacitors and utilization of synchronous motor operating with leading power factor.
6.3 As soon as synchronous motors are identified, their effect at both unity and leading power
factor should be studied.
6.4 It should be understood that the existence of synchronous motors does not necessarily
guarantee that all power factor problems are resolved. The location and the size of the
motor(s) will determine where and how much the motor improves the power factor. It shall
also be noted that dependence on Synchronous Motors for power factor correction shall not
jeopardize the power factor correction when the motor trips or is taken for maintenance.
6.5 Once the system load has been firmed up, the load flow study will confirm that the desired
correction has been obtained and the effect on bus voltages and equipment loading.
6.6 Power factor improvement can be studied by changing the following system parameters:
a. Adding capacitors to the system at different locations
b. Changing an induction motor to synchronous motor
c. Changing the power factor on a synchronous motor
d. Changing the loading on a motor
e. Changing the taps of a transformer
f. Changing the impedance of a transformer
6.7 Purpose: The purpose of the study is to arrive at size and location of PF compensation
equipments like Capacitor banks and Synchronous motors.
6.8 Case Studies: Normal load flow profile studies shall be used to decide power factor
compensation. If the worst case load profile with the power factor compensation in place
leads to a PF value which is less than 0.85 at the targeted bus/busses, then PF
compensation shall be provided by usage of additional (or by switching ON additional units )
Capacitor banks. PF compensation is not required for Emergency load profiles.
6.9 Power Factor compensation Methodology: PF compensation is required so as to provide a
PF of 0.95 at the Point of coupling with SEC. The downstream MV and LV buses shall be
limited to PF not less than 0.85.
6.10 Report content: The report shall contain the following sections:
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
 Assumptions
 Scenario description
 Results
 Recommendations

7. Short Circuit Calculations


7.1 Purpose: The purpose of the study is to arrive at the fault levels of the switchgears, and
circuit breaker duty. Short circuit studies shall be run to determine preliminary equipment
rating and confirm required equipment ratings for purchase.
7.2 The relevant standards either ANSI/IEEE or IEC shall be applied according to the chosen
project standard. In the inadvertent case of both types of equipment used in the power
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system, the calculations shall be carried out sing bot ANSI/IEEE and IEC methods and
checked with each type of equipment rating, as applicable.
7.3 Refer IEEE 141,399,551, C37.012 and IEC 60909, 60949, 60986 as relevant for the project.
7.4 The secondary of the 480 volt transformers shall be modeled with motor load equivalent to
the kVA rating of the transformer.
7.5 Buses with medium voltage motors shall be modeled with the actual motors at their
nameplate rating plus additional motors to represent the capacity provided for future
additions.
7.6 Fault calculations for equipment selection shall be based on the system operating
configuration that will result in the maximum available fault current. For secondary selective
systems with momentary paralleling (closed-transition) during transfer, only a single source
need be considered for short circuit calculations. In such closed-transition systems, if both
sources are paralleled for an extended length of time (in a range of >100 msec), then both
sources may need to be considered.
7.7 Standard transformers impedances shall be used; deviations must be approved by SABIC.
Transformers shall be modeled with maximum allowed negative impedance tolerance (-
7.5%).
7.8 Unless otherwise approved, the utility supply to the plant shall be modeled using Ultimate,
Maximum and Minimum short circuit levels as per information in BEDD. For short circuit
studies the ultimate short circuit level shall be used and the power system shall be modeled
in its strongest configuration. If Ultimate or Maximum Short Circuit Utility data is not available
then an infinite bus with Short circuit MVA > 999 and X/R reactance ratio OF 17 may be
assumed for preliminary calculations.
7.9 Short circuit studies shall also be conducted for Emergency systems as well. These results
shall be sued for protection co-ordination studies of emergency power systems.
7.10 For protective device co-ordination the whole range of short circuit levels shall be plotted on
the co-ordination curves.
7.11 For revamp, de-bottle necking, and expansion projects, the downstream switchgears and
equipment short circuit ratings shall be determined considering maximum short circuit rating
of upstream switchgear, MCC or distribution boards.
7.12 Refer to SES E02-E01; Section 16.3 & 16.4 for Switchgear & MCC rating requirements.
7.13 For power systems with capacitor banks, special consideration shall be given on circuit
breaker Momentary (Close & Latch) ratings and Capacitor switching ratings. Refer IEEE
C37.012 for details.
7.14 In network systems where the X/R ratio is greater than 17, at the point of short circuit
interruption, the asymmetrical current should be evaluated to properly size the interrupting
rating of the circuit breaker.
7.15 Case studies: Following Short circuit studies shall be carried out:
Ultimate (Maximum) Short Circuit: With maximum grid fault level, bus tie CLOSED, all
running motors contributing, all generations including stand-by (in-case applicable), pre-fault
voltage of 102% at all buses.
Minimum Short Circuit: With minimum grid fault level, bus tie OPEN, motors not contributing,
with load flow voltage as pre-fault voltage at all buses.
Emergency generation short circuit: With only emergency generation, in case of normal
supply failure – this data is to be used for protection co-ordination study with emergency
generation.
7.16 Short Circuit Analysis methodology
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The following short circuit currents shall be calculated and reported, as defined by ANSI and
IEEE C37 standards OR IEC 60909 as per the standard applied to the respective project. In
case there are equipment of both code on the scope of the study, two studies shall be done
one as per IEEE and one as per IEC.
 First cycle currents (1/2 cycle after fault initiation; Close and latch)
 Interrupting currents (3 to 5 cycle after fault initiation; Contact-parting currents)
 Time delayed currents (6 to 30 cycle after fault initiation)
Violation analysis shall be as follows:
 For LV Circuit breakers-3-phase duty currents-both rms and peak shall be within the
Circuit breaker rating
 For MV Circuit breakers-3-phase duty currents-both rms and peak shall be within with the
Circuit Breaker Closed and Latch (or Momentary) and Interrupting currents.
 3-phase duty currents shall also be compared with the Bus bar and Bus duct ratings.
 Unbalanced currents shall be reported and verified with equipment rating if there are any
violations.
 Time delayed currents (6 to 30 cycle) shall be used for Relay co-ordination studies.
For further details refer to IEEE 551 for guidelines related to short circuit calculations in
Industrial systems.
7.17 Report content:
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
 Assumptions
 Scenario description
 Results
 Recommendations

8. Motor Starting & Re-Acceleration Studies


8.1 Purpose
8.1.1. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of voltage dip at motor terminal and
MCC bus due to Motor Starting. Acceptable voltage for motor-starting depends on
motor and load torque characteristics. Static and Dynamic analysis shall be carried
out.
8.1.2. Static Analysis- ‘Snap-shot’- is used to study the voltage dip at Motor and bus
terminals before, during and after the Motor starting. In this analysis the Machine
Inertias, Torque characteristics and other transient criteria are ignored. Static studies
shall be done for large individual motor starting as well as group starting of motors.
8.1.3. Dynamic Analysis is to study not only the voltage dip but also the ability of the motor
to accelerate due its own and Load inertia, Torque characteristics and other transient
criteria effecting the study. Dynamic studies shall be done for large individual motor
starting only.
8.1.4. For LV systems, unless otherwise specified, dynamic motor starting studies shall be
conducted for the largest LV motor on a bus.
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8.1.5. Dynamic motors starting studies shall also be conducted for large MV motors (500
HP and larger) started on the bus with other motors.
8.1.6. For very large MV motors, when required, a transient stability program shall be
employed to recognize the effect on all loads on the bus.
8.1.7. When required due to process requirements, Dynamic Re-acceleration studies shall
be done to study the effects of the inrush and voltage dips due to groups of motor re-
accelerating after loss and restoration of power supply. The group of motors and
sequence of groups shall be decided as per Process/operation priority.
8.1.8. Reacceleration studies shall be performed to determine the impact of automatically
restarting or riding-through of designated process drive motors after a brief power
interruption. The time required for ride-through depends upon Process & Operations
Process Immunity Time (PIT) considerations.
8.1.9. The group re-acceleration study is made to determine whether the motors can
restarted simultaneously. If not, additional studies shall be made to establish group
sizes and required time delay between groups.
8.1.10. This study is a specialized motor starting study with the motors starting
simultaneous, modeled as an equivalent single motor. It shall be noted that such
motors designated for re-starting, riding through and re-accelerating, especially MV
Motors, shall have necessary capability to do so. This should be ascertained with the
motor vendor.
8.2 Required Case studies:
8.2.1 All motor starting studies shall be done with minimum grid fault level, bus tie
CLOSED, and load flow voltage at all buses. Individual and group starting studies
shall be separately labeled as separate case studies and reports generated
accordingly.
8.2.2 Emergency motor starting study shall also be done to under emergency condition
with normal supply out of service and Generator working. Static (large individual and
group) and Dynamic) large individual) study shall be done under emergency
conditions.
8.3 Methodology of analysis:
Violations shall be analyzed as follows:
 For medium voltage motors the voltage dip at the terminals shall be within 20% and at the
bus with other loads it shall be 15%.
 For Low voltage motors the voltage dip at the terminals shall be within 15% and at the
bus with other loads it shall be 10%.
 If solid state control devices are used and the devices cannot accept 15% voltage drop,
then the bus voltage drop shall be limited to 10%. The maximum voltage drop at an LV
bus due to motor starting on an MV bus shall be restricted to 10%.
 For motors on captive transformers, the voltage drop at the bus supplying the captive
transformer shall not exceed 10%. The voltage at motor terminals shall be at least 10%
above the minimum value required to accelerate load.
8.4 Report content:
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
 Assumptions
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ENGINEERING STANDARD PAGE 11 OF 16

 Scenario description
 Results
 Recommendations

9. Protective Device Co-ordination


9.1 Purpose:
The purpose of study is to study whether the existing relay settings are properly done-to
achieve reliable, and selective isolation of faulty circuits. Time Current Curves (TCC) shall be
produced and sequence of operation of relays shall be studied. A setting table shall be
developed showing the existing setting, the problem if any, and the recommended settings.
A separate set of TCC and Sequence of operation reports shall be generated for the
recommended changes. Refer IEEE 242 for further details.
9.2 Required Case studies:
TCC shall identify the minimum and maximum fault levels at each bus. The sequence of
operation shall be conducted based on minimum fault conditions. As recommended by PIP
ELEGL03, the following cases shall be studied:
a. Alternate sources
b. Main-tie-main configurations
c. Utility vs. local generation, or a combination of the two
d. Start-up and commissioning cases
e. Abnormal operating conditions.
9.3 Methodology:
9.3.1 All equipment like Transformer, cable, motors, bus ducts and bus bars protection
shall be confirmed. The time grading between two (2) levels of protective devices
shall be kept 250 millisecond (ms) as a minimum. Cases where this minimum time
grading cannot be maintained shall be identified and solutions proposed along with
SABIC approval. As recommended by PIP ELEGL03, zone based protection (e.g.,
differential or zone based interlocking) shall also be shown on the TCC, although the
ETAP software does not typically cover zone-based protection. However, a user
defined curve or notation shall be used to illustrate the zone protection performance
and co-ordination with time-current devices. For such relays the relay manufacturer
data should be used for showing the settings, and clearing times.
9.3.2 Low-voltage distribution such as UPS & DC supplies shall also be modeled and
coordinated.
9.4 Report content:
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
 Assumptions
 Scenario description
 Results
 Recommendations
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TCC shall be produced with the following information shown as a minimum. Each TCC shall
be restricted to maximum of two (2) bus levels. TCCs shall be easily readable with number of
devices restricted.
The following information shall be shown on TCC:
 Device identification including manufacturer type, class and rating in case of fuses.
 Device function and setting
 Zone based protection settings (e.g., differential or zone based interlocking)
 Voltage and current ratio
 Transformer damage curves
 Transformer inrush points.
 Motor starting curves with motor hot and cold stall points.

10. Arc Flash Studies


10.1 Purpose
The purpose of the study is to determine the Arc Flash energy available at each bus in case
an Arc Flash occurs. The Arc flash energy value will then dictate the appropriate PPE
(Personal Protective Equipment) that needs to be worn by employees approaching the
switchgears to work.
These calculations shall be performed as per IEEE 1584 using ETAP Arc Flash study
module. In case of simple systems, calculations using the IEEE 1584 arc-flash calculator
program may be acceptable, based on justification. Use of IEEE 1584 arc-flash calculator
program is subject to SABIC prior written approval.
A label is displayed on the Switchgear describing the likely Arc Energy value and the PPE to
be worn to work on Switchgear. This is an Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA), National Electric Code (NEC) requirement.
Arc Flash studies require complete model and system studies i.e. the Short circuit and
Protective device co-ordination studies.
10.2 The Arc Flash Study report as produced in ETAP shall be put in a narrative format with the
following sections:
a. Tabular data from the study:
The input data, results and recommendations shall be put in tabular format showing
relevant data for the study.
b. Protective device duty analysis:
Protective device duties shall be tabulated identifying devices at or near their Interrupting
duty ratings.
c. Incident energy calculations:
Incident energy values at the buses shall be tabulated. Incident energy levels exceeding
10 cal/cm2 shall be highlighted since a 10 cal/cm2 result in third degree burns (from
exposures to 10.7 cal/cm2 (unprotected skin) or more).
d. Recommended engineering interventions:
Revised breaker/relay settings when those changes will result in satisfactory outcomes
with reference to Arc Flash Incident energy shall be provided. This section shall also
include a cost-benefit section for recommended interventions that necessitate either
equipment replacement or significant retrofitting of equipment to lower incident energy
exposure levels.
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Analysis DATE SEPT 2017

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e. Equipment labeling:
The NEC (110.16) and NFPA 70E Article 130.5 (C) requires that all equipment with arc
flash hazard potential (i.e., >1.2 cal/cm2) be field marked to warn electrical workers of the
hazardous condition. This label normally includes the calculated incident energy value
and other important safety information as per NFPA 70E Article 130.5 (C) including the
required Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to be worn by the Technician/Operator.
Contractor shall provide such labels of durable materials such as ‘DuraLabel’ or approved
equal, along with the report to be pasted on to the equipment. The list of equipment to be
labeled shall be submitted along with the Arc Flash Study.
10.3 Required Case studies
The Maximum short circuit study model shall be used for Arc Flash Studies.
10.4 Methodology
The guidelines given in IEEE 1584-Guide for performing Arc-Flash Hazard calculations shall
be adhered to.
10.5 Report content
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
 Assumptions
 Scenario description
 Results
Arc Flash calculations along with Arc Flash labels shall be provided. Arc Flash labels shall
be printed on adhesive labels for e.g. Brady labels or approved equal.
10.6 Recommendations
Recommendations to modify protection type and protective device settings shall be provided
to reduce Arc Flash energies from Arc Flash Hazard Risk Category 3, 4 to 2 or below. The
resulting PPE labels as per NFPA 70E shall be submitted along with the report. Refer SES
E02-G02, section 6 and IEC-E02-G02, section 6 – ‘Reducing Incident Energy’.

11. Ground Grid study


11.1 Purpose
The purpose of this study is to determine the grounding system and grounding grid design.
Refer to IEEE-142 for details.
11.2 The study shall be performed as per IEEE-80 using ETAP. The report content shall be :
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
 Assumptions
 Scenario description
 Results
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Analysis DATE SEPT 2017

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11.3 Recommendations:
Recommendations shall include the most suitable ground grid design to limit the Step and
Touch potentials, Ground Potential Rise (GPR) and Resistance to ground (Rg) to tolerable
values.

12. Underground Cable Thermal Analysis


12.1 Purpose
The purpose of the study is to determine the cable temperature for cables laid underground.
12.2 Required Case studies:
The Worst case Load flow model shall be used for the study. All worst case underground
direct buried and duct bank arrangements installed at site shall be modeled. The actual
cable cross section including outer sheath, armor, and insulation material used at site,
grounding of armor at one or both ends shall be modeled.
12.3 Methodology
Neher-McGrath cable thermal analysis shall be used.
12.4 Report content:
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
 Assumptions
 Scenario description
 Results
 Recommendations
Recommendations shall include modifications in cable laying arrangement or
improvement in soil thermal resistivity to reduce the cable operating temperatures, in
case cable temperatures are beyond rated limits.

13. Harmonic Analysis (as applicable)


13.1 Harmonic currents and voltages have undesirable effects on operation of the electrical power
system including overheating of equipment and overvoltage failures. Further, the utility
generally has strict limits on harmonics since they flow back into the power grid.
13.2 Harmonics are produced by rectifiers and frequency converters. The larger the loads are,
the greater problem they create, so special attention must be given to large adjustable
frequency drives and electrolytic process equipment.
13.3 A Harmonic analysis study shall be performed for the plant including all harmonic producing
loads and calculating the effect on all buses. Typically, harmonic studies will be required if
the non-linear loads are more than 30% of the total system loads.
13.4 Even though power factor improvement/VAR compensation equipment do not generate
harmonics, they can influence the magnitudes of harmonic voltages and currents due to
resonance conditions. The Harmonic Analysis study shall include the analysis of system
frequency response characteristics and ascertain whether resonance conditions occur due to
the combination of harmonic producing equipment and the power factor improvement/VAR
compensation capacitors.
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13.5 Harmonic filters shall be provided when equipment, building or plant buses exceeds the
limits of IEEE 519 for Total Harmonic Distortions (THD) and Total Demand Distortion (TDD).
The design and supply of the filters shall be included with the harmonic study.
13.6 The value of THD & TDD at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) are meant to be net value
for the entire system. For a given power system, if a defined point is available, other than the
overall PCC to the grid, where all non-linear loads are coupled to only linear loads, a
measurement of THD at that point is sufficient.
13.7 Harmonic studies should be typically be accompanied with actual measurements at site,
after implementation, to validate the results.
13.8 Purpose:
The purpose of the study is to ensure that Total Harmonic Current and Voltage shall be
within the allowable limits as per IEEE 519 Section 8, at any LV and MV bus, using ETAP
Harmonic Analysis study module.
13.9 Required Case studies:
The harmonic studies shall be done for normal & worst case bus configuration and minimum
SEC grid fault level.
13.10 Methodology
For green field projects, the study shall consider input data from equipment vendors for the
harmonic content introduced into the power system. For existing plants, the existing
harmonic content at each MV and LV Switchgear/ MCC bus shall be measured at site.
Violations and its cause shall be identified. With the given data of harmonic content in
components a Harmonic study shall be done recommending solutions to overcome the high
harmonics.
13.11 Report content
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
 Assumptions
 Scenario description
 Results
 Recommendations

14. Stability studies (as applicable)


14.1 Refer PIP ELEGL03 for guidelines related to Stability Studies. These studies are further
classified as Steady-state and Transient stability studies.
14.2 Purpose:
The purpose of the study is to ensure that the synchronous machines in a power system with
interconnected generation remains in synchronism under steady state and transient
conditions. Refer E02-E01 section 11 for the cases to apply Transient stability studies.
14.3 Report content:
 Scope of Study
 Executive Summary
 Input Data
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Analysis DATE SEPT 2017

ENGINEERING STANDARD PAGE 16 OF 16

 Assumptions
 Scenario description
 Results
 Recommendations

15. Revision history


Revision No.0, September 2017 New guideline