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File D 11.1 / 164 McCOOK FIEL h RE1'0R:13 1706 025 84862 8


, SERlAL No. 1.5'70 ~

AIR SERVICE INFORMATION CIRCULAR


(AVIATION)

PUBLISHED BY THE CHIEF OF AIR SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

Vol. III July 15, 1921 No. 259

INVESTIGATION OF CRUSHING STRENGTH


OF SPRUCE AT VARYING ANGLES
OF GRAIN
(MATERIAL SECTION REPORT No. 130)

Ralph Brown Draughon


LIBRARY

MAR 28 2013
Non·Oepoitory
Auburn University

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1921

..-" ,
INVESTIGA1 ION OF
AT VARYING

PURPOSE. gravity and moisture variable were eliminated or con-


trolled is not stated.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the
Some data on compression in which the direction of the
crushing or . compressive strength of spruce at varying
fibers was at angles of less than 15° with the direction of
angles of the grain from 0 ° to 90° .
the compressive force were available from tests made on
spiral and diagonal grain at the Forest Products Labora-
PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS ON THE SUBJECT. tory and are given in this report for comparative purposes.
Some work had been done along this l_ine by other in- (See Fig . IX.)
vestigators. Prof. H . S. Jacoby developed the following CONCLUSIONS.
theoretical formula: .,,,. · The number of tests made in this investigation was not
2
n=p sin o+q cos o 2 large, but the test data are such that quite definite con-
clusions may be drawn.
and Prof. M. A. Howe derived the following empirical The Jacoby formula gives values which may be as much
formula: as 55 per cent in excess of the true compressive value.
(O°) The Howe formula ' gives results which approximate
n=q+(p-q) ( 90o) 5/2,
closely the test results for angles from 30° to 90 ° in speci-
mens where the ratio of the unit compression perpendicu-
Prof. 0 . C. Ayres conducted an investigation, using
lar to the grain is to the unit compression stress parallel to
southern yellow pine, and arrived at the conclusion that
the.grain as 1 is to 5. For o,ther ratios and other angles,
Howe's formula applies to the crushing strength of south-
the Howe formula may vary 15 per cent or more from the
ern ye llow pine at varioi1s angles to the grain when fiber
test results.
stress at the elastic limit is considered. For the method
The empirical formula
used and · the . results obtained, see Engineering News
Record of September 30, 1920, page 653. The data ob- n ·-cP-,X,_
q- --,c--
t ained from the t ests by Prof. Ayres check very well with p sin 2 o+q cos 2 o
the formula derived in this report, when due considera- derived from this investigation approximates the test
tion is given to the type of specimen used. (See Fig. V.) data very closely.'
Mr. Thomas R. Simpson, University of California, This new formula apparently applies as well to the
conducted an investigation on inclined bearing tests on fiber stress at elastic limit in compression as to the ultimate
Douglas fir and California white pine. As a result of his strength in compression. The new formula apparently
test Mr. Simpson arrived at the conclusion that th e Jacoby applies to any species as well as to spruce.
formula is applicable to these two species when stresses Additional work should be done on de termining the
at the elastic limit are considered, and that Howe's formula ratio between compression perpendicular to the grain and
is applicable to loads giving a deformation of 0.03 inch. compression parallel to the grain for the various species
In making these t ests a bearing plate 2 inches wide was used in airplane work .
used, which is believed to be the better method but the
tests are subject to the criticism that the specific gravity MATERIAL.
of the various specimens apparently was not taken into
All material used was taken from stock and was of the
consideration. An attempt was made to eliminate the
bes t grade, straight-grained, 'k iln-dried lumber.
moisture variable by drying the specimens to a uniform
oven-dry condition. For the method of test and the re- METHOD OF PROCEDURE.
sults obtained, see Enginee ring News Record of Septem-
ber 30, 1920, page 654. A preliminary test on one specimen established the fact
Mr. R. R. Martel also worked on this problem at the that in order to have sufficient points to plot a definite
California Institute of Technology, using redwood as the curve it would be necessary to test the specimens with t he
species on whieh tests were made. His results can be applied compressive force acting at angles of 0°, 3°, 6°,
found in Engineering Ne ws Record of November 11 , 10°, 15 ° , 20°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° to the grain of
1920, page 959. .i\fr. ·Martel's conclusion was that Howe's th e specimen. This method of recording the angle fJ is
formula was applicab le to redwood . This investigation just the reverse of the method used by Prof. Ayres, .i\fr.
is open to the criticism as to the shape of the specimen Simpson, and !fr. Martel, who have taken the angle 11 as
and the lack of sufficient points 'to accurately de termine' the angle that the direction of the fibers of the wood make
the true form of the curve . Whether or not the specific: with the plane of th e bearing surface. It is believed that
53374- 21 (3)
4
the method of recording the angle as used in this report is shows the comparative results on the same specimen tested
the correct method, asit is customary to speak of end com- with a steel bearing pJate and also as a cube. Looking at
pression as compression parallel to the grain or IJ=0°, and the subject from a practical standpoint it is believed
for side compression as compression perpendicular to the that the method of the steel bearing plate more nearly
grain or IJ=90°. meets the actual conditions encountered in practice and
The next procedure was to determine the size and form especially in aircraft work . This method was accordingly
of the specimens and the manner in which they should be adopted for use in this investigation.
tested. Three different test specimens were considered, The specimens for one set of tests were cut from one
namely, (1) a short column about 2 by 2 by 8 inches long ; piece of wood in the manner shown in Figure II. In this
(2) a cube about 2 inches on each edge; (3) a specimen 2 manner the specific gravity variable was practically elimi-
by 2 by 6 to 8 inches long, the load being applied over nated, assuming that the specific gravity of the material
about 4 square inches near the center of the specimen by would vary but little in a piece 48 inches long. The
means of a steel bearing plate in the manner shown in Fig-1 bearing plate was placed as near as possible to the center
ure II. In a preliminary test it was found that the 2 by 2 of the specimen, as shown by the arrows in Figure II.

JY0te; AU Specimens cur /r(}/n tffe some


,,ev'ece . ,/-/!Jure$ on .s.,oec.,mens M<4Cafe .
()17
(11111 com,Pres:t1Ye ,stress 4 Arrows.
i,,d,ca..te {¥ o/' .s;,ecnnen Ultimate Compre.ssl>'e Stress
£.0 603 - Z6 J.0. "fZZ

PLATE Ill.

by 8 inch column and the 2-inch cube gave results which After cutting the specimens they were tested at once in
were similar. In both cases it was found that the di- order to eliminate the effect of any moisture change on the
rection of the annual rings influenced to a greater or less results. In cutting the samples an effort was made to ob-
extent the ultimate compressive stress for all specimens, tain wood in which the direction of the grain was parallel
except specimens in which the applied compressive force to the edges. The specimens were then cut, as shown in
was parallel to the direction of the grain; that is, in which Figure II, assuming that the grain was parallel to the
the angle /J was equal to 0. Plate III shows the effect edges. The specimens were then laid off at the desired
produced on the ultimate compressive stress by placing angle to the edge of the specimen and this has been desig-
the annual rings at various angles to the direction of the nated in all tables as the " nominal " angle.
applied force . When a steel bearing plate was used, so as After the specimens had been tested they were split
to distribute the load over about 4 square inches of the both radially and tangentially and the angle of slope of the
specimen, it was found that the influence of the direction fibers measured. This latter angle has been designated
of the annual rings was practically eliminated and that in all tables as the "actual" angle. It was found in a
the results were on the whole more consistent. Figure I number of cases that the "actual" angle varied materially
L

5
from the "nominal" angle; therefore, any set of experi- A test was made on one specimen in which the stress
ments in which the "\Lctual " angle of the slope of the at elastic limit was determined . (See Fig. IV.) From
fibers was not determined by splitting the specimen might these test data it would appear that the formula derived
be considerably in error. as a resµlt of this investigation applies to stress at the
elastic limit as well as the ultimate ·compressive stress.
RESULTS. The data taken at the elastic limit are more variable than
The test data obtained in this investigation, together other data. This in all probability is due to the difficulty
with the curves plotted from the test data, will be found experienced in determining the exact elastic limit from
in Tables I , II , and III, and Figures III to VIII , inclusive. the curves.
Originally it was the intention to limit this investiga-
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.
tion to determining the compressive strength of spruce
When the test data for spruce (see Tables I and II, at varying angles of the grain and as a consequence most
and Figs. III and IV) were plotted it was noted that of the work was done on this species. After the formula
the average line passing through the points was apparently derived as a result of this investigation was obtained, it
a reverse curve. It was found that the formula was thought advisable to see if the formula would apply
pXg to other species.
n= p sin 2 o+g cos 2 II One specimen each of maple, yellow pine, yellow poplar,
was the equation of a curve which was approximately white pine, and two specimens of Douglas fir were tmted.
the average line passing through the test points. In this The results indicate that the formula applies to any
formula the following notation is used : species. (See Figs. VI, VII, VIII , for curves of species
other than spruce.)
n=unit compression at th e angle II. The Forest Products Laboratory has made a very large
p=unit compressive stress when 11=0° or the unit com number of tests on spiral and diagonal grain in which
pression parallel to the grain. the slopes or direction of the fibers with the direction of
q=unit compressive stress perpendicular to the grain or the compressive force were less than 15". These results
when 11=90°. have been plotted in Figure IX. While the correspond-
ll=the angle between the direction of the applied com- ing compressive value perpendicular to the grain is not
pressive force and the direction of the grain.
known, two curves have been plotted using 1,050 and
This formula appears to answer as well for a single 1,340 pounds per square inch as this value. The data
specimen as for the average of a number of specimens. plotted on the curve (Fig. IX) indicate that the formula
In Figure IV the test data from one specimen of spruce derived from this inve3tigation comes nearer the actual
have been plotted, together with curves from the formula test conditions than the Howe formula.
stated above and from the Howe and Jacoby formula•. In prder to make practical use of the formula derived
It is apparent at once that the Jacoby formula gives values from this inve3tigation, the ratio between ultimate com-
which are 50 to 60 per cent above the actual test values pressive stress perpendicular to the grain and ultimate
when the angle between the direction of the grain and compressive stress parallel to the grain should be known.
the direction of the applied force is from 30° to 45°. The The Forest Products Laboratory has made extensive
Howe formula gives values which are much nearer the tests on these two strength properties and the data are
test data than the Jacoby formula. These values approxi- published in Bulletin No. 556, Mechanical Properties of
mate the test values closest when the ratio between the Woods Grown in the United States. These data as pub-
compres3ion perpendicular to the grain and the compres- lished give the ultimate compressive stress and stress at
sion parallel to the grain approximate 1: 5; i. e., when the elastic limit for compression ·parallel to the grain,
the ratio of q to p=l: 5, and then only for values between but only give the stress at elastic limit for compression
30° and 90°. At other ratios than 1: 5 the test data vary perpendicular to the grain. As a consequence, the ratio
considerably from the values derived from Howe's formula. between ultimate compressive stress parallel to the grain
As an illustration, see Figure IV where the ratio is 1 : 4.5 and ultimate compressive stress perpendicular to the grain
and Figure VII for maple, where the ratio is 1: 2. 7. can not be established.
· TABLE !.- Test data on compression at various angles to the grain, species spruce.

Compression at various angles of grain. Com-


Average puted by
- - - - - - - -~ - - ~ - - ~ - - ~- - - ~ - -- - --~-----
Nominal angle. ~~o~ Hankin:
622-1 622-2 622-3 622-41622-5 622-6 622-7 ! 622-8 , 622-9 , 622-171 ~;:~- table. for:~la.
- - -- - - - - - - ·I- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --- - - - '- -1- - - - - - - - - -
0...... . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 920 10, 150 9, 540 5, 530 6, 340 10, 000 6, 340 7, 720 6, 920 6, 500 7, 800 1. 0 7, 800
3............... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 9,070 9,820 9,120 5,560 6,040 9,590 6,320 7,690 6,860 6,360 7,640 3. 3 7, 700
6.............................. 8,920 9,250 8,900 5,340 5, 740 9,060 6,150 7,280 6,710 5,960 7,330 6. 6 7,310
10. ... ...... ... .. ... ........ ... 7,440 8,480 7,820 4,930 5,220 8,270 5,820 6, 740 6,060 5,390 6,620 10. 4 6, ,'.80
15.. ..... •• . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,600 7, 700 6, 190 4,520 4,970 7, 150 5, 100 6,040 5,390 4,960 5,860 14. 8 5,980
20.. ..... . ... . . ...... . . . ....... 5, 550 6,810 4,310 4, 140 4, 150 6, 740 4,600 5,460 4,900 4,480 5, 110 19. 9 5,060
30.. . .............. . .. . ... . .... 3,950 4, 730 3,040 3, 190 3,200 5,040 3, 160 4,370 4,080 3,530 3,830 30. 1 3,410
45 ..... .............. .... . ... . .
60 ..... . .. ... ..... . . . . . . .... . ..
15 .... ................ .........
2,380
1,640
1, 330
3, 220
2,310
1,800
2, 120
1,540
1,250
1,900
1, 120
890
1,935
1, 320
1,030
3,250
2, 260
1, 800
1,860
1,210
1,090
2,890
2,040
1,640
2,940
1,960
1, 630
1,910
1,320
I
2,490 I 2,500
1, 740
1,380
45. O
60. o
75. 0
2,330
1, 725
1,450
90 .... ........ ... .. . ...... ..... 1,330 1,680 ~~ 1,020 1,900 1,140 1,690 1,420 1,4801~~~
Per (!0Dt moi~ture. ....... .. ... 7. 22 6. 61 7. 46 10. 80 10. 60 8.11 10. 73 10. 30 9. 98 10. 55 \ 9. 24 ..... ............ . . .
ipec1fic graVIty.. . . . . . • . . . . . . . . 417 . 451 . 427 . 344 . 360 . 468 . 383 . 454 . 422 . 381 . 412 ... . . ..... ... ... .• ..
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FIGURE IV.

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FIGURE IX.
15
TABLE II.-Test data on compression at various angles to the grain, actual angle of slope compared with the nominal
angle.

Actual angle of slope of grain for specimens.


Nominal angle.
- - ~ - - -- - - - - -,--6_22-
_ 1_ 1_6_22-_2_ _6_2_2-_3_ _6_2_2-_4_ ··- 62_2_-5_ 1_ 6_2_2-_6_ 1_6_22-_1_ _6_2_2-_8_ _ 6_22- A_v_e r_a_ge_.
_ 9_ _6_22_-_1_1 __

0. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •. . . . . 4. 5 o. o o. 0 0.0 1. 7 I. 7 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 1. 7 1. 0
3.. .. . ..... . ........ . . ... .. . . . . 1. 0 3. 8 3. 2 3.0 6.0 4.5 2.5 2.3 3. 0 3. 7 3.3
6. . . . .......................... 2.0 8.4 8.0 7.0 6. 0 7. 5 6. 5 5. 2 6. 0 9. 5 6. 6
10. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 5 12. 0 9. 0 10. 0 11. 3 12. 0 10. 2 10. 0 11. 5 13. 0 10. 4
l;;. ................................. .... . . ................ .. . 13. 0 12. 5 16. 5 15. 0 14. 5 16. 0 16. 0 14. 8
20...... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 15. 0 22. 5 21. 5 17. 0 20. 0 21. 7 20. 5 19. 2 20. 5 21. 0 19. 9
30.... .. . . .. . . . .. ... .. . . . . . . . . . 27. 0 30. 0 30. 0 29.0 33. 0 31. 7 32. 0 28. 5 29. 0 30. 7 30. 1
45...... ......... . .. ........ .. . 47. 0 45. 0 45.0 41. 0 46. 0 46. 5 46. 0 45. 5 43. 5 45. 0 45. 0
60.............. . .............. 57.0 60.0 64.0 60.0 60. 0 60. 0 60. 0 60. 0 60. 0 60. 0 60. 0
75. .. .. . •. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73. 0 75. 0 78. 5 75.0 75. 0 75. 0 75. 0 75. 0 75. 0 75. 0 75. 0
90. ... . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90. 0 90. 0 88. 5 90. 0 90. 0 88. 0 90. 0 90. 0 90. 0 90. 0 90. 0

TABLE III.-Test data on compression at various angles to the grain.

Yellow poplar. Yellow pine. White pine.


I Maple. Douglas fir.

622-11 622-12 Average.


Nominal angle. Unit Unit Unit Unit
com-
pres-
Actual
angle.
com-
pres-
Actual
angle.
com-
p_res-
Actual
angle.
com-
p_res- Actual
angle. I Com- Com- Com-
sion. sion. Sl0Il. SLOil. p_res- Angle. pres- Angle. pres- Angle .
Sl0Il. sion. sion.
- - - - - - - ---1- -- - -- - - - · - - - - -- - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --
0 . • ••. ..• . •.•.. ••• . . . .•. ... 7,710 4.0 10,870 3. 5 8,060 1. 2 12,520 1.2 8,680 I. 5 8,250 1. 5 8,465 1. 5
3 .. ......... .. ............ . 6,730 5.5 10,470 4.0 7,540 4.0 11,930 2.5 8,280 3.0 7,830 2. 7 8,055 2. 9
6 ......... . ................ 6,360 10.0 10,000 7. 0 7,300 6.5 11, 730 3.0 7,800 5.5 7,590 6.5 7,700 6.0
10 .......... ... • ... ........ 5,610 13.5 9,460 10.5 6,360 11.0 11, 140 8.0 7,330 9. 5 6,720 12.0 7,025 10. 7
15 .... ·············· ······· 4,920 19. 5 8,370 16. 0 5,520 16. 0 10,530 13. 5 6,020 15. 0 5,440 17. 0 5,730 16.0
20 .. ······················· 4,280 23.0 7,600 22.0 4,870 20.8 9,700 20.5 5,480 21.0 4,300 22.0 4,890 21.5
30 .. ·· ···· ·· · ·············· 3,000 33.0 5,640 30. 0 3,790 30.0 8,300 30.5 3,890 31. 0 3,070 29.5 3,480 30.2
45 .. .. . ...... ..• . .. . . .. ... . 2,240 47.0 4,150 44. 0 2,400 47.0 6,700 48.5 2,440 45.0 1,985 46.0 2,210 45.5
60 . . ........ . ..... . ..... ... 1,830 63. 0 3,240 60.0 l, 675 60.0 5,310 64.0 1,570 60.0 1,710 60.0 l, 640 60.0
75. ····················· · ·· 1,685 75.0 2,500 75.0 1,425 75.0 4,660 75.0 1,435 75.0 1,340 75.0 l, 390 75. 0
90 ........ . . .. . .. .......... 1,530 90.0 2,560 90.0 1,550 90. 0 4,400 90.0 l, 170 90.0 1,460 90. 0 l, 320 90.0
- - - - -- ---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - · - - -
Percent moisture .. ........ 6. 53 7.29 ··-- ---- 8.44 . .. ..... 6.59 ···-···· 7.42 ... . .... 10. 60 ········ 9.00 ······-·
Specificgravit y .. . ......... .450 . 536 ........ .421 . ... ... . .691 ----- ·-- .499 .. ...... . 482 ··· ··-·- . 490 . . . . . .. .

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