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Solutions of Exercises

Michel Le Bellac

2

Chapter 2

1. We can choose δx = 0, δy = δ. The equation of the ellipse

x = cos θ cos ωt y = sin θ cos(ωt − δ)

reads in Cartesian coordinates

x2 cos δ y2

− 2xy + = sin2 δ

cos2 θ sin θ cos θ sin2 θ

The direction of the axes is obtained by looking for the eigenvectors of the matrix

1 cos δ

−

A=

cos2 θ sin θ cos θ

cos δ 1

− 2

sin θ cos θ sin θ

which make angles α and α + π/2 with the x-axis, where α is given by

tan α = cos δ tan 2θ

The vector product of the position ~r with the velocity ~v , ~r × ~v , is easily seen to be

1

~r × ~v = ω ẑ sin 2θ sin δ

2

so that the sense of rotation is given by the sign of the product sin 2θ sin δ.

2. The intensity at the entrance of the polarizer is

I0 = k E02 cos2 θ + E02 sin2 θ = kE02

I = kE02 cos2 θ = I0 cos2 θ

The reduction of the intensity allows us to determine | cos θ|.

3. The projection of the electric field on the polarizer axis is

E0

√ cos θ cos ωt + sin θ cos(ωt − δ)

2

and the intensity is given by the time average

D E

I ′ = kE02 cos2 θ cos2 ωt + sin2 θ cos2 (ωt − δ) + 2 sin θ cos θ cos ωt cos(ωt − δ)

1 1

= kE02 (1 + sin 2θ cos δ) = I0 (1 + sin 2θ cos δ)

2 2

3

4 CHAPTER 2. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 2

From the measurement of I ′ we deduce cos δ, which allows us to deduce δ up to a sign. The remaining

ambiguities are lifted if one remarks that the ellipse is invariant under the transformations

θ →θ+π δ→δ

and

θ → −θ δ →δ+π

.

1. The components Ex′ and Ey′ are given by

Ey′ = Ex sin θ cos θ eiη + Ey sin2 θ = λ∗ µ Ex + |µ|2 Ey .

2. This operation amounts to projection on |Φi. In fact, if we choose to write the vectors |xi and |yi as

column vectors

1 0

|xi = , |yi =

0 1

then the projector PΦ

PΦ = |ΦihΦ| = λ|xi + µ|yi λ∗ hx| + µ∗ hy|

|λ|2 λµ∗

PΦ =

λ∗ µ |µ|2

hΦ|Φ⊥ i = −λ∗ µ∗ + µ∗ λ∗ = 0

1. In complex notation the fields Ex and Ey are written as

1 1 ±i

Ex = √ E0 , Ey = √ E0 e±iπ/2 = √ E0 ,

2 2 2

where the (+) sign corresponds to right-handed circular polarization and the (−) to left-handed. The

proportionality factor E0 common to Ex and Ey defines the intensity of the light wave and plays no role

in describing the polarization, which is characterized by the normalized vectors

1 1

|Ri = √ (|xi + i|yi), |Li = √ (|xi − i|yi)

2 2

1

|R′ i =

√ cos θ|xi + sin θ|yi − i sin θ|xi + i cos θ|yi

2

1

√ e−iθ |xi + ie−iθ |yi = e−iθ |Ri

=

2

and similarly |L′ i = exp(iθ)|Li. The vectors |R′ i and L′ i differ from |Ri and Li by a phase factor only,

and they do not represent different physical states.

3. The projectors on the vectors |Ri and |Li are given by

1 1 −i 1 1 i

PD = PG =

2 i 1 2 −i 1

5

and Σ is

0 −i

Σ = PD − PG =

i 0

This operator has the states |Ri and |Li as its eigenvectors, and their respective eigenvalues are +1 and

−1:

Σ|Ri = |Ri, Σ|Li = −|Li

Thus exp(−iθΣ)|Ri = exp(−iθ)|Ri and exp(−iθΣ)|Li = exp(iθ)|Li

4. From the form of Σ in the {|xi, |yi} basis we get at once Σ2 = I, and thus

(−iθ)2 (−iθ)3

e−iθΣ = I − iθΣ + I+ Σ + ···

2! 3!

The series is easily summed with the result

cos θ − sin θ

exp(−iθΣz ) =

sin θ cos θ

If we apply the operator exp(−iθΣ) to the vectors of the {|xi, |yi} basis, we get the rotated vectors |θi

and |θ⊥ i, so that this operator represents a rotation by an angle θ about the z axis.

1. If Alice uses the |xi basis, the probability that Eve guesses correctly is px = cos2 φ. If she uses the

the | ± π/4i basis, this probability is

1

pπ/4 = |hφ| ± π/4i|2 = (cos φ + sin φ)2

2

The probability that Eve guesses correctly is

1 1

2 cos2 φ + (cos φ + sin φ)2

p(φ) = (p + pπ/4 ) =

2 x 4

1

= [2 + cos 2φ + sin 2φ]

4

The maximum of p(φ) is given by φ = φ0 = π/8, which is evident from symmetry considerations: the

maximum must be given by the bisector of the Ox and π/4 axes. The maximum value is

1 1

pmax = 1+ √ ≃ 0.854

2 2

2. If Alice sends a |θi (|θ⊥ i) photon, Eve obtains the correct result with probability cos2 θ (sin2 θ), and

the probability that Bob receives the correct polarization is cos4 θ (sin4 θ). The probability of success for

Eve is

1

1 + cos4 θ + sin4 θ

ps =

2

and the probability of error

1

pe = 1 − ps = sin2 θ cos2 θ = sin2 2θ

4

Eves’s error are maximal for θ = π/4.

Heisenberg inequalities

1. The commutator of A and B is of the form iC, where C is a Hermitian operator because

6 CHAPTER 2. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 2

[A, B] = iC, C = C†. (2.1)

2. Let us define the Hermitian operators of zero expectation value (a priori specific to the state |ϕi):

A0 = A − hAiϕ I, B0 = B − hBiϕ I.

Their commutator is also iC, [A0 , B0 ] = iC, because hAiϕ and hBiϕ are numbers. The squared norm of

the vector

(A0 + iλB0 )|ϕi,

where λ is chosen to be real, must be positive:

||(A0 + iλB0 )|ϕi||2 = ||A0 |ϕi||2 + iλhϕ|A0 B0 |ϕi − iλhϕ|B0 A0 |ϕi + λ2 ||B0 |ϕi||2

= hA20 iϕ − λhCiϕ + λ2 hB02 iϕ ≥ 0.

1

(∆ϕ A) (∆ϕ B) ≥ hCiϕ . (2.2)

2

3. In a finite dimensional space, the trace of a commutator vanishes because Tr (AB) = Tr (BA), so that

the equality

[X, P ] = i~I

cannot be realized in a finite dimensional space.

Chapter 3

1. We use σx |0i = |1i, σx |1i = |0i, σy |0i = i|1i, σy |1i = −i|1i, σz |0i = |0i, σz |1i = −|1i to obtain

θ θ

σx |ϕi = eiφ/2 sin |0i + e−iφ/2 cos |1i

2 2

θ θ

σy |ϕi = −ieiφ/2 sin |0i + ie−iφ/2 cos |1i

2 2

θ θ

σz |ϕi = e−iφ/2 cos |0i − eiφ/2 sin |1i

2 2

so that

θ θ iφ

e + e−iφ = sin θ cos φ

hϕ|σx |ϕi = sin cos

2 2

θ θ

−ieiφ + ie−iφ = sin θ sin φ

hϕ|σy |ϕi = sin cos

2 2

2 θ θ

hϕ|σz |ϕi = cos − sin2 = cos θ

2 2

so that

(~σ · p̂)2 = I (~σ · p̂)3 = (~σ · p̂) · · ·

and the series expansion of the exponential reads

2 3

θ −iθ 1 −iθ 1 −iθ

exp −i ~σ · p̂ = I+ (~σ · p̂) + I+ (~σ · p̂) + · · ·

2 2 2! 2 3! 2

θ θ

= I cos − i(~σ · p̂) sin

2 2

The action of the operator exp (−iθ ~σ · p̂/2) on the vector |0i is

θ θ θ

exp −i ~σ · p̂ |0i = cos |0i + eiφ sin |1i

2 2 2

which is the same as (3.4) up to a physically irrelevant phase factor exp(iφ/2). Thus exp (−iθ ~σ · p̂/2) is

the operator which rotates the vector |0i, the eigenvector of σz with eigenvalue 1, on |ϕi, the eigenvectors

7

8 CHAPTER 3. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 3

of ~σ · n̂ with the same eigenvalue. The same result holds for the eigenvalue −1, corresponding to |1i and

the rotated vector U [Rp̂ (θ)]|1i.

3. Let us specialize the above results to the case φ = −π/2, which corresponds to rotations about the

x-axis

θ cos(θ/2) −i sin(θ/2)

U [Rx (θ)] = exp −i σx =

2 −i sin(θ/2) cos(θ/2)

A rotation about the x-axis transforms |0i into the vector

θ θ

|ϕi = cos |0i − i sin |1i

2 2

Taking θ = −ω1 t, this corresponds exactly to (3.31) with the initial conditions a = 1, b = 0.

1. Substituting in the differential equation the exponential form of λ̂(t), we get the second order equation

for Ω±

1

2Ω2± − 2δΩ± − ω12 = 0

2

whose solutions are

1 1

q

Ω± = δ ± δ 2 + ω12 = [δ ± Ω]

2 2

2. The solution of the differential equation for λ̂ is a linear combination of exp(iΩ+ t) and exp(iΩ− t)

Let us choose the initial conditions λ̂(0) = 1, µ̂(0) = 0. Since µ̂(0) ∝ dλ̂/dt(0), these initial conditions

are equivalent to

a + b = 1 and aΩ+ − bΩ− = 0,

and so

Ω− Ω+

a=− , b=

Ω Ω

The final result can be written as

e iδt/2

Ωt Ωt

λ̂(t) = Ω cos − iδ sin ,

Ω 2 2

iω1 −iδt/2 Ωt

µ̂(t) = e sin ,

Ω 2

which reduces to (3.31) when δ = 0. The factor exp(±iδt/2) arises because δ is the Larmor frequency in

the rotating reference frame. The second equation shows that if we start from the state |0i at t = 0, the

probability of finding the spin in the state |1i at time t is

ω12

2 Ωt

p0→1 (t) = 2 sin

Ω 2

We see that the maximum probability of making a transition from the state |0i to the state |1i for

Ωt/2 = π/2 is given by a resonance curve of width δ:

pmax

− = = =

Ω2 ω12 + δ 2 ω12 + (ω − ω0 )2

Chapter 4

The tensor product |iA ⊗ jB i is given by

X

|iA ⊗ jB i = Rim Sjn |mA ⊗ nB i

m,n

X

|ϕA ⊗ χB i′ =

i,j

X

=

i,j,m,n

We can now use the transformation law of the components in a change of basis

dˆj =

X X

−1 −1

ĉi = Rki ck Slj dl

k l

to show that X

|ϕA ⊗ χB i′ = cm dn |mA ⊗ nB i = |ϕA ⊗ χB i

m,n

P

1. Since the pi are real, ρ is clearly Hermitian. Furthermore Tr ρ = i pi = 1, and finally ρ is positive as

X

hϕ|ρ|ϕi = pi |hϕ|ii|2 ≥ 0

i

X

Tr (M |iihi|) = hj|M |iihi|ji = hi|M |ii

j

whence !

X X

Tr pi M |iihi| = pi hi|M |ii

i i

The expectation value of M in the state |ii appears in the sum over i with the weight pi , as expected.

9

10 CHAPTER 4. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 4

2. In the |ii basis, ρ has a diagonal form with matrix elements ρii = pi , so that ρ2 = ρ can only hold

if one ofPthe probabilities

P 2 is P one, as the equation p2i = pi has solutions pi = 1 and pi = 0. Furthermore,

2 2

Tr ρ = i pi and i pi ≤ i pi , where the equality holds if and only if one of the pi is equal to one.

Let us assume, for example, that p1 = 1, pi = 0, i 6= 1. Then ρ = |1ih1|, which corresponds to the pure

state |1i. One can also remark that ρ2 = ρ implies that ρ is a projector P, and the rank of this projector

is one, because Tr P is the dimension of the subspace on which P projects.

4.6.3 The state operator for a qubit and the Bloch vector

The condition for a Hermitian 2 × 2 matrix is ρ01 = ρ∗10 , so that

a c

ρ=

c∗ 1 − a

is indeed the most general 2 × 2 Hermitian matrix with trace one. The eigenvalues λ+ and λ− of ρ satisfy

and we must have λ+ ≥ 0 and λ− ≥ 0. The condition det ρ ≥ 0 implies that λ+ and λ− have the same

sign, and the condition λ+ + λ− = 1 implies that λ+ λ− reaches its maximum for λ+ λ− = 1/4, so that

finally

1

0 ≤ a(1 − a) − |c|2 ≤

4

The necessary and sufficient condition for ρ to describe a pure state is

The coefficients a and c for the state matrix describing the normalized state vector |ψi = λ|+i + µ|−i

with |λ|2 + |µ|2 = 1 are

a = |λ|2 c = λµ∗

so that a(1 − a) = |c|2 in this case.

2. Since any 2 × 2 Hermitian matrix can be written as a linear combination of the unit matrix I and the

σi with reals coefficients, we can write the state matrix as

I X 1 1 1+b bx − iby

ρ= + bi σi = ~

I + b · ~σ = z

2 2 2 bx + iby 1 − bz

i

where we have used Trσi = 0. The vector ~b, called the Bloch vector, must satisfy |~b|2 ≤ 1 owing to the

results of question 1, and a pure state corrresponds to |~b|2 = 1. Let us calculate the expectation value of

~σ using Tr σi σj = 2δij . We find

hσi i = Tr (ρ σi ) = bi

so that ~b is the expectation value h~σ i.

~ parallel to Oz, the Hamiltonian reads

3. With B

1

H = − γσz

2

The evolution equation

d|ϕ(t)i

i~ = H|ϕi

dt

translates into the following for the state matrix

dρ(t)

i~ = [H, ρ]

dt

11

so that

dρ 1 1

= [H, ρ] = − γB(bx σy − by σx )

dt i~ 2

which is equivalent to

dbx dby dbx

= −γBby = γBbx =0

dt dt dt

This can be put in vector form

d~b ~ × ~b

= −γ B

dt

This equation shows that the Bloch vector rotates about the Oz axis with an angular frequency ω = γB.

1. Let us write explicitly the action of σx et σy on the vectors |ε1 ε2 i

σ1x σ2x | + −i = | − +i σ1y σ2y | + −i = | − +i

σ1x σ2x | − +i = | + −i σ1y σ2y | − +i = | + −i

σ1x σ2x | − −i = | + +i σ1y σ2y | − −i = −| + +i

Furthermore, σ1z σ2z |ε1 ε2 i = ε1 ε2 |ε1 ε2 i, whence the action of ~σ1 · ~σ2 on the basis vectors

~σ1 · ~σ2 | + +i = | + +i

~σ1 · ~σ2 | + −i = 2| − +i − | + −i

~σ1 · ~σ2 | − +i = 2| + −i − | − +i

~σ1 · ~σ2 | − −i = | − −i

1

(I + ~σA · ~σB )|iA jB i = |jA iB i

2

Let us choose as a basis of HA a set {|mA i} which diagonalizes the reduced state operator ρA :

NS

X

ρA = TrB |ϕAB ihϕAB | = pm |mA ihmA |

m=1

If the number NS of nonzero coefficients pm is smaller than the dimension NA of HA , we complete the

set {|mA i} by a set of (NA − NS ) orthonormal vectors, chosen to be orthogonal to the space spanned by

the vectors |mA i. We use (4.12) to compute ρA from |ϕAB i

X

ρA = hñB |m̃B i|mA ihnA |

m,n

and with our choice of basis {|mA i} it turns out that the vectors {|m̃B i} are, after all, orthogonal. To

obtain an orthonormal basis, we only need to rescale the vectors |ñB i

|nB i = p−1/2

n |ñB i,

12 CHAPTER 4. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 4

where we may assume that pn > 0 because, as explained above, it is always possible to complete the

basis of HB by a set of (NB − NS ) orthonormal vectors. We finally obtain Schmidt’s decomposition of

|ϕAB i on an orthonormal basis of HA ⊗ HB :

X

|ϕAB i = p1/2

n |nA ⊗ nB i.

n

Any pure state |ϕAB i may be written in the preceding form, but the bases {|nA i} and {|nB i} will of

course depend on the state under consideration. If some of the pn are equal, then the decomposition

is not unique, as is the case for the spectral decomposition of a Hermitian operator with degenerate

eigenvalues. The reduced state operator ρB is readily computed from (4.12) using the orthogonality

condition hmA |nA i = δmn : X

ρB = TrA |ϕAB ihϕAB | = pn |nB ihnB |

n

The state matrix at time t is

h|λ(t)|2 i hλ(t)µ∗ (t)i

ρ(t) =

hλ∗ (t)µ(t)i h|µ(t)|2 i

where h•i stands for an average over all the realizations of the random function. Clearly h|λ(t)|2 i and

h|µ(t)|2 i are time-independent, so that the populations are time-independent. However, the coherences

depend on time. Let us compute the average of λ(t)µ∗ (t)

D Z t E

∗ ∗ ′ ′

hλ(t)µ (t)i = λ0 µ0 exp i ω(t )dt

0

1 t

Z

∗ ′ ′ ′′

= λ0 µ0 exp (i hω0 it) exp − C(t − t )dt dt

2 0

where we have used a standard property of Gaussian random functions. We thus obtain

1 t

Z

′ ′ ′′

ρ01 (t) = ρ01 (t = 0) exp (i hω0 it) exp − C(t − t )dt dt

2 0

Z t Z ∞

′ ′′

dt′ dt′′ e−|t −t |/τ

≃ 2t dte−t/τ = 2tτ

0 0

and

ρ01 (t) = ρ01 (t = 0)eihω0 it e−Cτ t

1 The evolution of |Φi during ∆t is

p √

|Φi → U |Φi = λ|0A ⊗ 0E i + µ 1 − p |1A ⊗ 0E i + µ p |1A ⊗ 1E i

In order to obtain the state matrix of system A, we take the trace over the environment

p

=

+ λ∗ µ 1 − p |1A ih0A | + (1 − p)|µ|2 |1A ih1A |

p

2

1 − p λµ∗

1−

√ (1 − p)|µ|

ρ(1) = ρ(∆t) = ∗

1 − pλ µ (1 − p)|µ|2

13

ρ(n) = ρ(n∆t) =

(1 − p)n/2 λ∗ µ (1 − p)n |µ|2

∆t→0

we get the expression given in the statement of the problem. We clearly have T1 = 1/Γ and T2 = 2/Γ, so

that T2 = 2T1 .

2. If we detect no photons, we know that we have prepared the atom in the (unnormalized) state

p

λ|0A i + µ 1 − p |1A i

The failure to detect a photon has changed the state of the atom!

We have

|yA xB i = (sin θ|θB i + cos θ|θB⊥ i)(sin θ|θB i + cos θ|θB⊥ i)

1 1

|Φi = √ (|xA xB i + |yA yB i) = √ (|θA θB i + |θA⊥ θB⊥ i)

2 2

14 CHAPTER 4. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 4

Chapter 5

1. The upper circuit of Fig. 5.4 reads in matrix form

C 0 I 0 B 0 I 0 A 0

M =

0 C 0 σx 0 B 0 σx 0 A

CBA 0

=

0 Cσx Bσx A

where the matrices have been written in block diagonal form with 2 × 2 matrices. Then we must find

three matrices, A, B and C such that

1 1

cNOT √ (|00i + |10i) = √ (|00i + |11i)

2 2

This is an entangled state (in fact it is one of the four Bell states).

2. Let us define the unitary matrix U by

α γ

U=

β δ

with

|α|2 + |γ|2 = |β|2 + |δ|2 = 1 αβ ∗ + γδ ∗ = αγ ∗ + βδ ∗ = 0

and start from the most general two-qubit state

Assume we measure the control bit and find it in the |0i state. Then the state vector of the target bit is

If we find the control bit in state |1i, then we apply U to the state |ϕi = c|0i + d|1i

= |0 ⊗ ϕ0 i + |1 ⊗ ϕ1 i

15

16 CHAPTER 5. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 5

3. It is clear that the vectors |000i and |001i are not modified by the lower circuit on the left of Fig. 5.4,

so that we may start from the vector

We apply on |Ψi the first gate on the left, the c2 U3 gate (with obvious notations)

+ d|101i + (αe + γf )|110i + (βe + δf )|111i

where the matrix U is defined in the preceding question. The transformation law is thus

a → αa + γb b → βa + δb c→c

d→d e → αe + γf f → βe + δf

We find

+ (γ ∗ c + δ ∗ d)|101i + (αe + γf )|110i + (βe + δf )|111i

Finally

2 2 2 2

+ (U11 e + U12 f )|110i + (U21 e + U22 f )|111i

2

U11 = α2 + βγ

This gives preciseley the action of the Toffoli gate TU 2 . A non trivial action is obtained only if both

control bits 1 and 2 are in the |1i state

2 2 2 2

TU 2 (|110i + |111i) = (U11 e + U12 f )|110i + (U21 e + U22 f )|111i

1. Before entering the box Uf , the two upper qubits are in the state

1 1

H ⊗2 |00i = √ (|0i + |1i) √ (|0i + |1i)

2 2

3

1 1X

= (|00i + |01i + |10i + |11i) = |xi

2 2 x=0

3

!

1X f (x) 1

Uf |Ψi = (−1) |xi ⊗ √ (|0i − |1i)

2 x=0 2

(i) f (x) = cst

1

|Ψ′ i = ± (|00i + |01i + |10i + |11i)

2

17

1

|Ψ′ i = (|00i − |01i + |10i − |11i)

2

H ⊗2 |Ψ′ i = ±|00i

while in case (ii) we may write

1

|Ψ′ i = (|0i ⊗ (|0i − |1i) + (|0i − |1i) ⊗ |1i)

2

and

1

H ⊗2 |Ψ′ i = H ⊗2 [(|0i + |1i) ⊗ (|0i − |1i)] = |01i

2

The first qubit is in the state |0i and the second in the state |1i. Note that the result of the final

measurement of the upper qubits is unambiguous only if |Ψ′ i is a non entangled state, so that we must

have

(−1)f (0)+f (3) = (−1)f (1)+f (2)

Let us first apply the oracle O on |Ψi

N −1

1 X 1 X

O|Ψi = √ (−1)f (x) |xi = √ ax |xi

N x=0 N x

√

Then we apply G = 2|ΨihΨ| − I using hΨ|xi = 1/ N

!

2 X 1 X

GO|Ψi = ay |Ψi − √ ax |xi

N y N x

" #

1 X 2 X 1 X (1)

= √ ay − ax |xi = √ ax |xi

N x N y N x

(0)

This gives us the relation, with ax = 1

!

2 X

a(1)

x = (−1)f (y) a0y − (−1)f (x) a(0)

x

N y

!

2 X

a(n+1)

x = (−1)f (y) any − (−1)f (x) a(n)

x

N y

(1) 3

(i) For xi 6= x0 , ai = 4

(1) 11

(ii) For xi = x0 , ai = 4

The probability (ii) for finding x0 is greater than the probability (i) for finding xi by a factor 121/9 ≃ 13.4.

A good check of the calculation is that the final sate vector is normalized to one: 15(3/4)2 + (11/4)2 = 1!

18 CHAPTER 5. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 5

The probability for finding yj is given by (5.45) with, in our specific case, K = 5, n = 4 and r = 3

p(yj ) = 2 =

2n K sin (πδj r/2n ) 80 sin2 (3πδj /16)

The possible values of j are j = 0, j = 1, j = 2 and j = 3. To the first value corresponds yj = 0 and

δj = 0. To the second one corresponds yj = 5 with |δj | = .33 and to the third one yj = 11 with |δj | = .33,

while there is no yj with |δj | < 1/2 for the last one. We obtain for the probabilities

5

p(0) = p(1) = p(2) = .225

16

so that

p(0) + p(1) + p(2) = 0.76 > 0.4

Assume, for example, that the measurement of the final qubits gives yj = 11. Then we deduce that j = 2

and r = 3.

Chapter 6

From exercise 3.5.1, we kow that exp(−iθ(~σ · p̂)/2) is the rotation operator by θ of a spin 1/2 about an

axis p̂. The vector n̂ being normalized (n̂2 = 1), we have

Ωt Ωt

exp(−iH̃t/~) = I cos − i(~σ · n̂) sin

2 2

with

ω1 δ

~σ · n̂ = − σx + σz

Ω Ω

so that the matrix form of exp(−iH̃t/~) is

Ωt δ Ωt ω1 Ωt

−iH̃t/~ cos 2 + Ω sin 2 i

Ω

sin

2

e =

ω1 Ωt Ωt δ Ωt

i sin cos − sin

Ω 2 2 Ω 2

1. The commutator of a and a† is, from the definition (6.26)

† M ωz ipz ipz

[a, a ] = z+ ,z −

2~ M ωz M ωz

M ωz −2i

= [z, pz ] = I

2~ M ωz

and we find

[a† a, a] = a† [a, a] + [a† , a]a = −a

1. We write the interaction Hamiltonian in terms of σ+ and σ−

1 h i

Hint = − ~ω1 [σ+ + σ− ] ei(ωt−kz−φ) + e−i(ωt−kz−φ)

2

19

20 CHAPTER 6. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 6

In the rotating wave approximation, we can neglect terms which behave as exp[±i(ω0 + ω)t] and we are

left with

~ h i

H̃int ≃ − ω1 σ+ e i(δt−φ) e−ikz̃ + σ− e−i(δt−φ) e ikz̃

2

p

2. ∆z = ~/(2M ωz ) is the spread of the wave function in the harmonic well. Thus, η = k∆z is the

ratio of this spread to the wavelength of the laser light. We may write

r

~

kz̃ = k (a + a† ) = η(a + a† )

2M ωz

The matrix element of H̃int between the states |1, m + m′ i and |0, mi is

1 †

h1, m + m′ |H̃int |mi = − ~ω1 ei(δt−φ) hm + m′ |e−iη(a+a ) |mi

2

The Rabi frequency for oscillations between the two levels is

′ †

ω1m→m+m = ω1 |hm + m′ |e−iη(a+a ) |mi|

|1, 2i

|1, 1i

|1, 0i

ω+

ω+ ω0

ω−

|0, 2i

|0, 1i

ω

|0, 0i

Figure 6.1: The level scheme. The transitions which are used are (0, 0) ↔ (0, 1) and (0, 1) ↔ (1.2):

bluesideband, ω+ = ω0 + ωz and (0, 1) ↔ (1, 1): red sideband, ω− = ω0 − ωz .

3. Writing

†

e±iη(a+a )

≃ I ± iη(a + a† )

and keeping terms to first order in η we get

i h

H̃int = η~ω1 σ+ a ei(δ−ωz )t e−iφ − σ− a† e−i(δ−ωz )t eiφ

2 i

+ σ+ a† ei(δ+ωz )t e−iφ − σ− a e−i(δ+ωz )t eiφ

21

The first line of H̃int corresponds to a resonance at δ = ω − ω0 = ωz , that is, ω = ω0 + ωz , a blue side

band, and the second line to a resonance at ω = ω0 − ωz , that is, a red sideband. The σ+ a term of the

blue sideband induces transitions from |0, m + 1i to |1, mi, and the σ− a† term from |1, mi to |0, m + 1i.

Now √

hm|a|m + 1i = hm + 1|a† |mi = m + 1

+

so that we get H̃int as written in the statement of the problem with

a a†

ab = √ a†b = √

m+1 m+1

√

The Rabi frequency is then ω1 m + 1. The same reasoning may be applied to the red sideband.

4. The rotation operators R(θ, φ) are given by

θ θ

R(θ, φ = 0) = I cos − iσx sin

2 2

π θ θ

R θ, φ = = I cos − iσy sin

2 2 2

so that π

R(π, 0) = −iσx R π, = −iσy

2

We have, for example,

π π

β β

R π, R(β, 0)R π, = (−iσy ) I cos − iσx sin (−iσy )

2 2 2 2

β β

= − I cos − iσx sin = −R(−β, 0)

2 2

√ |0, 0i ↔ |1, 1i and B the transition |0, 1i ↔ |1, 2i. The Rabi frequencies

√

are linked by ωB = 2 ωA . Thus, if the rotation √ angle is θA for transition A, it will be θB = 2 θA for

transition B. For transition A, we choose α = π/ 2 and β = π

π π π π

R √ , R(π, 0)R √ , R(π, 0) = −I

2 2 2 2

√

For transition B we shall have α = π and β = π 2

π √ π √

R π, R(π 2, 0)R π, R(π 2, 0) = −I

2 2

The state |1, 0i is not affected because the transition |0, 0i ↔ |1, 0i does not resonate on the blue sideband

frequency. Thus we have

5. R ± π, π/2 = ∓iσy so that

π π

R ± π, |0, 1i = ∓|1, 0i R ± π, |1, 0i = ±|0, 1i

2 2

Let us start from the general two ion state, where both ions are in the vibrational ground state

= a|00, 0i + b|01, 0i + c|10, 0i + d|11, 0i

22 CHAPTER 6. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 6

+(1)

Then we apply Rαβ on ion 1

+(1)

|Ψ′′ i = Rαβ |Ψ′ i = −a|00, 0i − b|00, 1i + c|10, 0i − d|10, 1i

= (−a|00i − b|01i + c|10i − d|11i) ⊗ |0i

Setting z1 = z0 + u, z2 = −z0 + v and expanding to second order in powers of u and v we get

e2 u − v (u − v)2

1

V ≃ M ωz2 2z02 + 2z0 (u − v) + u2 + v 2 + 1− +

2 z0 2z0 4z02

with e2 = q 2 /(4πε0 ). The equilibrium condition is given by the condition that the terms linear in u and

v vanish

e2

M ωz2 z0 − 2 = 0

2z0

so that 1/3 1/3

e2

1

z0 = l l=

2 M ωz2

The normal modes are obtained by examining the terms quadratic in u and v, which lead to a potential

energy

1 e2

U (u, v) = M ωz2 u2 + v 2 + 3 (u − v)2

2 4z0

The equations of motion are

e2

M ü = −M ωz2 u − (u − v) = −M ωz2 (2u − v)

2z03

e2

M v̈ = −M ωz2 v − 3 (v − u) = −M ωz2 (2v − u)

2z0

√

while the breathing mode (u − v) oscillates with frequency 3 ωz

1. We start from the expression (6.43) of the electromagnetic current

~q ~ q ~

~em = ∇θ(~r) − A(~

r ) ρ(~r)

m ~

Let us take the curl of the preceding equation, assuming ρ(~r) to be constant

2

~ × ~em = − q ρB

∇ ~

m

23

~ ×B

From the Maxwell equation ∇ ~ = µ0~em we also have

~ = µ0 ∇

−∇2 B ~ × ~em

~ == q2 ρ ~ 1 ~ m me

∇2 B B= 2 B λ2L = =

m λL µ0 q 2 ρ 2µ0 qe2 ρ

Taking a one-dimensional geometry, where the region z > 0 is superconducting, we see that the magnetic

field must decrease as

B(z) = B(z = 0)e−z/λ

~ ×B

From ∇ ~ = µ0~em , we see that the electromagnetic current must also vanish in the bulk of a super-

conductor.

2. Let us take a ring geometry and draw a contour C well inside the ring. Then we have

q2 ρ

I I I

~ ~q ~ ~ ~ · d~l

0= ~em · dl = ∇θ · dl − A

C m C m C

Since exp(iθ) is single valued, we must have θ → θ + 2πn after a full turn, and

q2 ρ

Z Z

~q ~ · dS

~

(2πn) = B n = · · · , −1, 0, 1, 2, · · ·

m m

Let us start from (6.45) and write

ψi = ρi eiθi i = 1, 2

The first of the equations (6.45) becomes

i~ dρ1 dθ1 1 √

− ~ρ1 = qV ρ1 + K ρ1 ρ2 eiθ

2 dt dt 2

with θ = θ2 − θ1 . Taking the real and imaginary parts of this equation and the corresponding equation

for i = 2, we obtain

dρ1 2K

= (ρ1 ρ2 )1/2 sin θ,

dt ~

dρ2 2K

= − (ρ1 ρ2 )1/2 sin θ,

dt ~

1/2

dθ1 K ρ2 qc V

= − cos θ − ,

dt ~ ρ1 2~

1/2

dθ2 K ρ1 qc V

= cos θ +

dt ~ ρ2 2~

and subtracting the last but one equation from the last one

dθ qc V

=

dt ~

From the relation

2π 2π

dθ dθ −i(n−m)θ

Z Z

hn|θihθ|mi = e = δnm

0 2π 0 2π

24 CHAPTER 6. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 6

we derive

2π

dθ

Z

|θihθ| = I

0 2π

Furthermore !

X ∂ X

N |θi = ne−inθ |ni = i e−inθ |ni

n

∂θ n

so that

∂

N =i

∂θ

We can also use the commutation relation

[N, Θ] = iI

to obtain

e−iΘ N eiΘ = N − i[Θ, N ] = N − I

and to derive

N eiΘ |ni = eiΘ (N − I)|ni = (n − 1) eiΘ |ni

We may then choose the phases of the states |ni such that

and thus

1

cos Θ|ni = (|n − 1i + |n + 1i)

2

1 1 1 1

Ĥ =≃ Ec I + Ec ng − |0ih0| − Ec ng − |1ih1| − EJ |0ih1| + |1ih0|

4 2 2 2

In the {|0i, |1i} basis, this can be written, omitting the (irrelevant) constant term

1 1

Ĥ ≃ Ec ng − σz − EJ σx

2 2

If ng is far enough from 1/2, the eigenvectors of Ĥ are approximately the vectors |0i and 1i, due to the

condition Ec ≫ EJ . When ng comes close to 1/2, tunneling becomes important, and at ng = 1/2, the

eigenvectors are those |±i of σx with eigenvalues ±EJ

1

|±i = √ (|0i ± |1i) σx |±i = ±|±i

2

One observes the standard phenomenon of level repulsion around ng = 1/2. It is usual to exchange the

x and z bases, so that the control parameter appears as the coefficient of σx

1 1

Ĥ ≃ − EJ σz + Ec ng − σx

2 2

Chapter 7

we immediately get

1

A01 |Ψi = √ |0A ⊗ 0B i − |1A ⊗ 1B i

2

1

A10 |Ψi = √ |1A ⊗ 0B i + |0A ⊗ 1B i

2

1

A11 |Ψi = √ |1A ⊗ 0B i − |0A ⊗ 1B i

2

Let us first examine the action of the cNOT-gate on the four states Aij |Ψi

1

cNOT A00 |Ψi = √ |0A i + |1A i ⊗ |0B i

2

1

cNOT A01 |Ψi = √ |0A i − |1A i ⊗ |0B i

2

1

cNOT A10 |Ψi = √ |0A i + |1A i ⊗ |1B i

2

1

cNOT A11 |Ψi = − √ |0A i − |1A i ⊗ |1B i

2

The measurement of qubit B has the result |0B i for i = 0 (A00 and A01 ) and |1B i for i = 1 (A10 and

A11 ), so that this measurement gives the value of i. Furthermore

1

H √ |0A i + |1A i) = |0A i

2

1

H √ |0A i − |1A i) = |1A i

2

25

26 CHAPTER 7. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 7

p + (1 − p) cos2 θ/2

(1 − p) sin θ/2 cos θ/2

ρ=

(1 − p) sin θ/2 cos θ/2 (1 − p) sin2 θ/2

and its eigenvalues are

1 1

q

λ± = 1 ± 1 − 4p(1 − p) sin2 θ/2 = (1 ± x)

2 2

This allows us to write the von Neumann entropy as (it is convenient to use ln rather than log)

1+x 1+x 1−x 1−x

−HvN = ln + ln

2 2 2 2

Let us compute the x-derivative of HvN

d 1 1+x

− HvN (x) = ln = tanh−1 (x)

dx 2 1−x

Thus HvN (x) is a concave function of x which has a maximum at x = 0: HvN (x = 0) = ln 2. For this

value of x, we have HvN = HSh . Let us write p = (1 + p)/2, so that

1+p 1+p 1−p 1−p

HSh = ln + ln

2 2 2 2

and q

x= 1 − (1 − p)2 sin2 θ/2

Now we have the inequality

p2 − x2 = −(1 − p2 ) cos2 θ/2 ≤ 0

Thus |x| ≥ p and HSh ≥ HvN .

1. Alice uses the bases {|0i, |1i} and {|+i, |−i}, while Eve uses the basis {|0i, |1i}. The conditional

probabilities p(r|i) are

p(0|0) = 1 p(1|0) = 0 p(0|1) = 0 p(1|1) = 1

and

p(0|+) = 1/2 p(1|+) = 1/2 p(0|−) = 1/2 p(1|−) = 1/2

We obtain p(r) from

X 1

p(r) = p(r|i)p(i) = ∀r

i

2

Let us now turn to the conditional probabilities p(i||r) (we use a double vertical bar to underline the

difference with p(r|i))

p(r|i)p(i) 1

p(i||r) = = p(r|i)

p(r) 2

We find

1 1 1

p(0||0) = p(1||0) = 0 p(+||0) = p(−||0) =

2 4 4

1 1 1

p(1||0) = 0 p(1||1) = p(+||1) = p(−||1) =

2 4 4

Before Eve’s measurement, the (Shannon) entropy is H(α) = 2, after Eve’s measurement, the entropy

H(α|ε) is, from (7.10)

X X

H(α|ε) = − p(r) p(i||r) log p(i||r)

r i

1 1 1 1 3

= − log − 2 log =

2 2 4 4 2

27

1

I(α : ε) = H(α) − H(α|ε) =

2

2. Eve uses a {| + π/8i, | − π/8i} basis, so that p(r|i) is given by

p(1|1) = p(1|+) = .146 p(1|1) = p(1|−) = 0.854

and X X

H(α|ε) = − p(r) p(i||r) log p(i||r) = 1.600

r i

I(α : ε) = 0.400

Let us take ρ = |ΨihΨ|, a pure state, and write σ as

X

σ= pα |αihα|

α

F(ρ, σ) = hΨ|σ|Ψi

Let us now take σ = |ΨihΨ| and use the diagonal form of ρ

X

ρ= pi |iihi|

i

Since σ = |ΨihΨ| is a rank one operator, the same is true for (ρ1/2 σρ1/2 ) whose eigenvalue equation is,

in a space of dimension N

λN − Tr(ρ1/2 σρ1/2 ) λN −1 = 0

whence

λ = Tr (ρ1/2 σρ1/2 )

is the only non zero eigenvalue. Let us decompose |Ψi on the {|ii} basis

X

|Ψi = ci |ii

i

p

Tr (ρ1/2 σρ1/2 ) = pi |ci |2 = hΨ|ρ|Ψi = λ

i

and p 2

Tr ρ1/2 σρ1/2 = λ = hΨ|ρ|Ψi = F(σ, ρ)

28 CHAPTER 7. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 7

From X|±i = ±|±i, we obtain, for example

XA XC |ΨA i = XA XC (λ| − ++i + µ| + −−i) = −|ΨA i

= λ|001i + µ|101i) = (λ|0i + µ|1i) ⊗ |01i