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1

Solutions of Exercises

from ‘A Short Introduction to Quantum

Information and Quantum Computation’

Michel Le Bellac
2
Chapter 2

Exercises from Chapter 2

2.6.1 Determination of the polarization of a light wave


1. We can choose δx = 0, δy = δ. The equation of the ellipse
x = cos θ cos ωt y = sin θ cos(ωt − δ)
reads in Cartesian coordinates
x2 cos δ y2
− 2xy + = sin2 δ
cos2 θ sin θ cos θ sin2 θ
The direction of the axes is obtained by looking for the eigenvectors of the matrix
1 cos δ
 

A=
 cos2 θ sin θ cos θ 
cos δ 1 
− 2
sin θ cos θ sin θ
which make angles α and α + π/2 with the x-axis, where α is given by
tan α = cos δ tan 2θ
The vector product of the position ~r with the velocity ~v , ~r × ~v , is easily seen to be
1
~r × ~v = ω ẑ sin 2θ sin δ
2
so that the sense of rotation is given by the sign of the product sin 2θ sin δ.
2. The intensity at the entrance of the polarizer is
I0 = k E02 cos2 θ + E02 sin2 θ = kE02


where k is a proportionality factor. At the exit of the polarizer it is


I = kE02 cos2 θ = I0 cos2 θ
The reduction of the intensity allows us to determine | cos θ|.
3. The projection of the electric field on the polarizer axis is
E0  
√ cos θ cos ωt + sin θ cos(ωt − δ)
2
and the intensity is given by the time average
D E
I ′ = kE02 cos2 θ cos2 ωt + sin2 θ cos2 (ωt − δ) + 2 sin θ cos θ cos ωt cos(ωt − δ)
1 1
= kE02 (1 + sin 2θ cos δ) = I0 (1 + sin 2θ cos δ)
2 2

3
4 CHAPTER 2. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 2

From the measurement of I ′ we deduce cos δ, which allows us to deduce δ up to a sign. The remaining
ambiguities are lifted if one remarks that the ellipse is invariant under the transformations

θ →θ+π δ→δ

and
θ → −θ δ →δ+π
.

2.6.2 The (λ, µ) polarizer


1. The components Ex′ and Ey′ are given by

Ex′ = Ex cos2 θ + Ey sin θ cos θ e−iη = |λ|2 Ex + λµ∗ Ey ,


Ey′ = Ex sin θ cos θ eiη + Ey sin2 θ = λ∗ µ Ex + |µ|2 Ey .

2. This operation amounts to projection on |Φi. In fact, if we choose to write the vectors |xi and |yi as
column vectors    
1 0
|xi = , |yi =
0 1
then the projector PΦ
PΦ = |ΦihΦ| = λ|xi + µ|yi λ∗ hx| + µ∗ hy|
 

is represented by the matrix


|λ|2 λµ∗
 
PΦ =
λ∗ µ |µ|2

3. Since PΦ = |ΦihΦ|, we clearly have PΦ |Φi = |Φi and PΦ |Φ⊥ i = 0, because

hΦ|Φ⊥ i = −λ∗ µ∗ + µ∗ λ∗ = 0

2.6.3 Circular polarization and the rotation operator


1. In complex notation the fields Ex and Ey are written as
1 1 ±i
Ex = √ E0 , Ey = √ E0 e±iπ/2 = √ E0 ,
2 2 2
where the (+) sign corresponds to right-handed circular polarization and the (−) to left-handed. The
proportionality factor E0 common to Ex and Ey defines the intensity of the light wave and plays no role
in describing the polarization, which is characterized by the normalized vectors
1 1
|Ri = √ (|xi + i|yi), |Li = √ (|xi − i|yi)
2 2

2. Let us compute |R′ i. We have


1
|R′ i =

√ cos θ|xi + sin θ|yi − i sin θ|xi + i cos θ|yi
2
1
√ e−iθ |xi + ie−iθ |yi = e−iθ |Ri

=
2
and similarly |L′ i = exp(iθ)|Li. The vectors |R′ i and L′ i differ from |Ri and Li by a phase factor only,
and they do not represent different physical states.
3. The projectors on the vectors |Ri and |Li are given by
   
1 1 −i 1 1 i
PD = PG =
2 i 1 2 −i 1
5

and Σ is  
0 −i
Σ = PD − PG =
i 0
This operator has the states |Ri and |Li as its eigenvectors, and their respective eigenvalues are +1 and
−1:
Σ|Ri = |Ri, Σ|Li = −|Li
Thus exp(−iθΣ)|Ri = exp(−iθ)|Ri and exp(−iθΣ)|Li = exp(iθ)|Li
4. From the form of Σ in the {|xi, |yi} basis we get at once Σ2 = I, and thus

(−iθ)2 (−iθ)3
e−iθΣ = I − iθΣ + I+ Σ + ···
2! 3!
The series is easily summed with the result
 
cos θ − sin θ
exp(−iθΣz ) =
sin θ cos θ

If we apply the operator exp(−iθΣ) to the vectors of the {|xi, |yi} basis, we get the rotated vectors |θi
and |θ⊥ i, so that this operator represents a rotation by an angle θ about the z axis.

2.6.4 An optimal strategy for Eve?


1. If Alice uses the |xi basis, the probability that Eve guesses correctly is px = cos2 φ. If she uses the
the | ± π/4i basis, this probability is

1
pπ/4 = |hφ| ± π/4i|2 = (cos φ + sin φ)2
2
The probability that Eve guesses correctly is
1 1
2 cos2 φ + (cos φ + sin φ)2

p(φ) = (p + pπ/4 ) =
2 x 4
1
= [2 + cos 2φ + sin 2φ]
4
The maximum of p(φ) is given by φ = φ0 = π/8, which is evident from symmetry considerations: the
maximum must be given by the bisector of the Ox and π/4 axes. The maximum value is
 
1 1
pmax = 1+ √ ≃ 0.854
2 2

2. If Alice sends a |θi (|θ⊥ i) photon, Eve obtains the correct result with probability cos2 θ (sin2 θ), and
the probability that Bob receives the correct polarization is cos4 θ (sin4 θ). The probability of success for
Eve is
1
1 + cos4 θ + sin4 θ

ps =
2
and the probability of error
1
pe = 1 − ps = sin2 θ cos2 θ = sin2 2θ
4
Eves’s error are maximal for θ = π/4.

Heisenberg inequalities
1. The commutator of A and B is of the form iC, where C is a Hermitian operator because

[A, B]† = [B † , A† ] = [B, A] = −[A, B].


6 CHAPTER 2. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 2

We can then write


[A, B] = iC, C = C†. (2.1)

2. Let us define the Hermitian operators of zero expectation value (a priori specific to the state |ϕi):

A0 = A − hAiϕ I, B0 = B − hBiϕ I.

Their commutator is also iC, [A0 , B0 ] = iC, because hAiϕ and hBiϕ are numbers. The squared norm of
the vector
(A0 + iλB0 )|ϕi,
where λ is chosen to be real, must be positive:

||(A0 + iλB0 )|ϕi||2 = ||A0 |ϕi||2 + iλhϕ|A0 B0 |ϕi − iλhϕ|B0 A0 |ϕi + λ2 ||B0 |ϕi||2
= hA20 iϕ − λhCiϕ + λ2 hB02 iϕ ≥ 0.

The second-degree polynomial in λ must be positive for any λ, which implies

hCi2ϕ − 4hA20 iϕ hB02 iϕ ≤ 0.

This demonstrates the Heisenberg inequality

1
(∆ϕ A) (∆ϕ B) ≥ hCiϕ . (2.2)
2

3. In a finite dimensional space, the trace of a commutator vanishes because Tr (AB) = Tr (BA), so that
the equality
[X, P ] = i~I
cannot be realized in a finite dimensional space.
Chapter 3

Exercises from Chapter 3

3.5.1 Rotation operator for spin 1/2


1. We use σx |0i = |1i, σx |1i = |0i, σy |0i = i|1i, σy |1i = −i|1i, σz |0i = |0i, σz |1i = −|1i to obtain

θ θ
σx |ϕi = eiφ/2 sin |0i + e−iφ/2 cos |1i
2 2
θ θ
σy |ϕi = −ieiφ/2 sin |0i + ie−iφ/2 cos |1i
2 2
θ θ
σz |ϕi = e−iφ/2 cos |0i − eiφ/2 sin |1i
2 2
so that
θ θ iφ
e + e−iφ = sin θ cos φ

hϕ|σx |ϕi = sin cos
2 2
θ θ
−ieiφ + ie−iφ = sin θ sin φ

hϕ|σy |ϕi = sin cos
2 2
2 θ θ
hϕ|σz |ϕi = cos − sin2 = cos θ
2 2

2. From (3.8) we derive the identity

(~σ · ~a)(~σ · ~b) = ~a · ~b I + i~σ · (~a × ~b)

so that
(~σ · p̂)2 = I (~σ · p̂)3 = (~σ · p̂) · · ·
and the series expansion of the exponential reads
     2  3
θ −iθ 1 −iθ 1 −iθ
exp −i ~σ · p̂ = I+ (~σ · p̂) + I+ (~σ · p̂) + · · ·
2 2 2! 2 3! 2
θ θ
= I cos − i(~σ · p̂) sin
2 2
The action of the operator exp (−iθ ~σ · p̂/2) on the vector |0i is
 
θ θ θ
exp −i ~σ · p̂ |0i = cos |0i + eiφ sin |1i
2 2 2

which is the same as (3.4) up to a physically irrelevant phase factor exp(iφ/2). Thus exp (−iθ ~σ · p̂/2) is
the operator which rotates the vector |0i, the eigenvector of σz with eigenvalue 1, on |ϕi, the eigenvectors

7
8 CHAPTER 3. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 3

of ~σ · n̂ with the same eigenvalue. The same result holds for the eigenvalue −1, corresponding to |1i and
the rotated vector U [Rp̂ (θ)]|1i.
3. Let us specialize the above results to the case φ = −π/2, which corresponds to rotations about the
x-axis    
θ cos(θ/2) −i sin(θ/2)
U [Rx (θ)] = exp −i σx =
2 −i sin(θ/2) cos(θ/2)
A rotation about the x-axis transforms |0i into the vector

θ θ
|ϕi = cos |0i − i sin |1i
2 2
Taking θ = −ω1 t, this corresponds exactly to (3.31) with the initial conditions a = 1, b = 0.

3.5.2 Rabi oscillations away from resonance


1. Substituting in the differential equation the exponential form of λ̂(t), we get the second order equation
for Ω±
1
2Ω2± − 2δΩ± − ω12 = 0
2
whose solutions are  
1 1
q
Ω± = δ ± δ 2 + ω12 = [δ ± Ω]
2 2

2. The solution of the differential equation for λ̂ is a linear combination of exp(iΩ+ t) and exp(iΩ− t)

λ̂(t) = a exp(iΩ+ t) + b exp(iΩ− t).

Let us choose the initial conditions λ̂(0) = 1, µ̂(0) = 0. Since µ̂(0) ∝ dλ̂/dt(0), these initial conditions
are equivalent to
a + b = 1 and aΩ+ − bΩ− = 0,
and so
Ω− Ω+
a=− , b=
Ω Ω
The final result can be written as
e iδt/2
 
Ωt Ωt
λ̂(t) = Ω cos − iδ sin ,
Ω 2 2
iω1 −iδt/2 Ωt
µ̂(t) = e sin ,
Ω 2
which reduces to (3.31) when δ = 0. The factor exp(±iδt/2) arises because δ is the Larmor frequency in
the rotating reference frame. The second equation shows that if we start from the state |0i at t = 0, the
probability of finding the spin in the state |1i at time t is

ω12
 
2 Ωt
p0→1 (t) = 2 sin
Ω 2

We see that the maximum probability of making a transition from the state |0i to the state |1i for
Ωt/2 = π/2 is given by a resonance curve of width δ:

ω12 ω12 ω12


pmax
− = = =
Ω2 ω12 + δ 2 ω12 + (ω − ω0 )2
Chapter 4

Exercises from Chapter 4

Basis independence of the tensor product


The tensor product |iA ⊗ jB i is given by
X
|iA ⊗ jB i = Rim Sjn |mA ⊗ nB i
m,n

Let us define |ϕA ⊗ χB i′ by using the {|iA i, |jB i} bases

ĉi dˆj |iA ⊗ jB i


X
|ϕA ⊗ χB i′ =
i,j

ĉi dˆj Rim Sin |mA ⊗ nB i


X
=
i,j,m,n

We can now use the transformation law of the components in a change of basis

dˆj =
X X
−1 −1
ĉi = Rki ck Slj dl
k l

to show that X
|ϕA ⊗ χB i′ = cm dn |mA ⊗ nB i = |ϕA ⊗ χB i
m,n

Thus the tensor product is independent of the choice of basis.

4.6.2 Properties of the state operator


P
1. Since the pi are real, ρ is clearly Hermitian. Furthermore Tr ρ = i pi = 1, and finally ρ is positive as
X
hϕ|ρ|ϕi = pi |hϕ|ii|2 ≥ 0
i

Let us first compute Tr (M |iihi|)


X
Tr (M |iihi|) = hj|M |iihi|ji = hi|M |ii
j

whence !
X X
Tr pi M |iihi| = pi hi|M |ii
i i

The expectation value of M in the state |ii appears in the sum over i with the weight pi , as expected.

9
10 CHAPTER 4. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 4

2. In the |ii basis, ρ has a diagonal form with matrix elements ρii = pi , so that ρ2 = ρ can only hold
if one ofPthe probabilities
P 2 is P one, as the equation p2i = pi has solutions pi = 1 and pi = 0. Furthermore,
2 2
Tr ρ = i pi and i pi ≤ i pi , where the equality holds if and only if one of the pi is equal to one.
Let us assume, for example, that p1 = 1, pi = 0, i 6= 1. Then ρ = |1ih1|, which corresponds to the pure
state |1i. One can also remark that ρ2 = ρ implies that ρ is a projector P, and the rank of this projector
is one, because Tr P is the dimension of the subspace on which P projects.

4.6.3 The state operator for a qubit and the Bloch vector
The condition for a Hermitian 2 × 2 matrix is ρ01 = ρ∗10 , so that
 
a c
ρ=
c∗ 1 − a

is indeed the most general 2 × 2 Hermitian matrix with trace one. The eigenvalues λ+ and λ− of ρ satisfy

λ+ + λ− = 1, λ+ λ− = det ρ = a(1 − a) − |c|2 ,

and we must have λ+ ≥ 0 and λ− ≥ 0. The condition det ρ ≥ 0 implies that λ+ and λ− have the same
sign, and the condition λ+ + λ− = 1 implies that λ+ λ− reaches its maximum for λ+ λ− = 1/4, so that
finally
1
0 ≤ a(1 − a) − |c|2 ≤
4
The necessary and sufficient condition for ρ to describe a pure state is

det ρ = a(1 − a) − |c|2 = 0.

The coefficients a and c for the state matrix describing the normalized state vector |ψi = λ|+i + µ|−i
with |λ|2 + |µ|2 = 1 are
a = |λ|2 c = λµ∗
so that a(1 − a) = |c|2 in this case.
2. Since any 2 × 2 Hermitian matrix can be written as a linear combination of the unit matrix I and the
σi with reals coefficients, we can write the state matrix as

I X 1  1 1+b bx − iby

ρ= + bi σi = ~
I + b · ~σ = z
2 2 2 bx + iby 1 − bz
i

where we have used Trσi = 0. The vector ~b, called the Bloch vector, must satisfy |~b|2 ≤ 1 owing to the
results of question 1, and a pure state corrresponds to |~b|2 = 1. Let us calculate the expectation value of
~σ using Tr σi σj = 2δij . We find
hσi i = Tr (ρ σi ) = bi
so that ~b is the expectation value h~σ i.
~ parallel to Oz, the Hamiltonian reads
3. With B
1
H = − γσz
2
The evolution equation
d|ϕ(t)i
i~ = H|ϕi
dt
translates into the following for the state matrix

dρ(t)
i~ = [H, ρ]
dt
11

so that
dρ 1 1
= [H, ρ] = − γB(bx σy − by σx )
dt i~ 2
which is equivalent to
dbx dby dbx
= −γBby = γBbx =0
dt dt dt
This can be put in vector form
d~b ~ × ~b
= −γ B
dt
This equation shows that the Bloch vector rotates about the Oz axis with an angular frequency ω = γB.

4.6.4 The SWAP operator


1. Let us write explicitly the action of σx et σy on the vectors |ε1 ε2 i

σ1x σ2x | + +i = | − −i σ1y σ2y | + +i = −| − −i


σ1x σ2x | + −i = | − +i σ1y σ2y | + −i = | − +i
σ1x σ2x | − +i = | + −i σ1y σ2y | − +i = | + −i
σ1x σ2x | − −i = | + +i σ1y σ2y | − −i = −| + +i

Furthermore, σ1z σ2z |ε1 ε2 i = ε1 ε2 |ε1 ε2 i, whence the action of ~σ1 · ~σ2 on the basis vectors

~σ1 · ~σ2 | + +i = | + +i
~σ1 · ~σ2 | + −i = 2| − +i − | + −i
~σ1 · ~σ2 | − +i = 2| + −i − | − +i
~σ1 · ~σ2 | − −i = | − −i

Then one obtains immediately


1
(I + ~σA · ~σB )|iA jB i = |jA iB i
2

4.6.5 The Schmidt purification theorem


Let us choose as a basis of HA a set {|mA i} which diagonalizes the reduced state operator ρA :
NS
X
ρA = TrB |ϕAB ihϕAB | = pm |mA ihmA |
m=1

If the number NS of nonzero coefficients pm is smaller than the dimension NA of HA , we complete the
set {|mA i} by a set of (NA − NS ) orthonormal vectors, chosen to be orthogonal to the space spanned by
the vectors |mA i. We use (4.12) to compute ρA from |ϕAB i
X
ρA = hñB |m̃B i|mA ihnA |
m,n

On comparing the two expressions of ρA we see that

hñB |m̃B i = pm δmn ,

and with our choice of basis {|mA i} it turns out that the vectors {|m̃B i} are, after all, orthogonal. To
obtain an orthonormal basis, we only need to rescale the vectors |ñB i

|nB i = p−1/2
n |ñB i,
12 CHAPTER 4. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 4

where we may assume that pn > 0 because, as explained above, it is always possible to complete the
basis of HB by a set of (NB − NS ) orthonormal vectors. We finally obtain Schmidt’s decomposition of
|ϕAB i on an orthonormal basis of HA ⊗ HB :
X
|ϕAB i = p1/2
n |nA ⊗ nB i.
n

Any pure state |ϕAB i may be written in the preceding form, but the bases {|nA i} and {|nB i} will of
course depend on the state under consideration. If some of the pn are equal, then the decomposition
is not unique, as is the case for the spectral decomposition of a Hermitian operator with degenerate
eigenvalues. The reduced state operator ρB is readily computed from (4.12) using the orthogonality
condition hmA |nA i = δmn : X
ρB = TrA |ϕAB ihϕAB | = pn |nB ihnB |
n

4.6.6 A model for phase damping


The state matrix at time t is
h|λ(t)|2 i hλ(t)µ∗ (t)i
 
ρ(t) =
hλ∗ (t)µ(t)i h|µ(t)|2 i
where h•i stands for an average over all the realizations of the random function. Clearly h|λ(t)|2 i and
h|µ(t)|2 i are time-independent, so that the populations are time-independent. However, the coherences
depend on time. Let us compute the average of λ(t)µ∗ (t)
D  Z t E
∗ ∗ ′ ′
hλ(t)µ (t)i = λ0 µ0 exp i ω(t )dt
0
1 t
 Z 
∗ ′ ′ ′′
= λ0 µ0 exp (i hω0 it) exp − C(t − t )dt dt
2 0

where we have used a standard property of Gaussian random functions. We thus obtain

1 t
 Z 
′ ′ ′′
ρ01 (t) = ρ01 (t = 0) exp (i hω0 it) exp − C(t − t )dt dt
2 0

If we assume that t ≫ τ , then


Z t Z ∞
′ ′′
dt′ dt′′ e−|t −t |/τ
≃ 2t dte−t/τ = 2tτ
0 0

and
ρ01 (t) = ρ01 (t = 0)eihω0 it e−Cτ t

4.6.7 Amplitude damping channel


1 The evolution of |Φi during ∆t is
p √
|Φi → U |Φi = λ|0A ⊗ 0E i + µ 1 − p |1A ⊗ 0E i + µ p |1A ⊗ 1E i

In order to obtain the state matrix of system A, we take the trace over the environment

TrE (U |ΦihΦ|U † ) (|λ|2 + p|µ|2 )|0A ih0A | + λµ∗ 1 − p |0A ih1A |


p
=
+ λ∗ µ 1 − p |1A ih0A | + (1 − p)|µ|2 |1A ih1A |
p

or, in matrix from √


2
1 − p λµ∗
 
1−
√ (1 − p)|µ|
ρ(1) = ρ(∆t) = ∗
1 − pλ µ (1 − p)|µ|2
13

After n iterations we get

1 − (1 − p)n |µ|2 (1 − p)n/2 λµ∗


 
ρ(n) = ρ(n∆t) =
(1 − p)n/2 λ∗ µ (1 − p)n |µ|2

Using in the limit ∆t → 0 the relation

lim (1 − Γ∆t)t/∆t = e−Γt


∆t→0

we get the expression given in the statement of the problem. We clearly have T1 = 1/Γ and T2 = 2/Γ, so
that T2 = 2T1 .
2. If we detect no photons, we know that we have prepared the atom in the (unnormalized) state
p
λ|0A i + µ 1 − p |1A i

The failure to detect a photon has changed the state of the atom!

4.6.8 Invariance of the Bell states under rotation


We have

|xA xB i = (cos θ|θA i − sin θ|θA⊥ i)(cos θ|θB i − sin θ|θB⊥ i)


|yA xB i = (sin θ|θB i + cos θ|θB⊥ i)(sin θ|θB i + cos θ|θB⊥ i)

and an explicit calculation immediately gives


1 1
|Φi = √ (|xA xB i + |yA yB i) = √ (|θA θB i + |θA⊥ θB⊥ i)
2 2
14 CHAPTER 4. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 4
Chapter 5

Exercises from chapter 5

5.10.1 Justification of the figures of Fig. 5.4


1. The upper circuit of Fig. 5.4 reads in matrix form
     
C 0 I 0 B 0 I 0 A 0
M =
0 C 0 σx 0 B 0 σx 0 A
 
CBA 0
=
0 Cσx Bσx A

where the matrices have been written in block diagonal form with 2 × 2 matrices. Then we must find
three matrices, A, B and C such that

CBA = I Cσx Bσx A = U

Action of the cNOT gate  


1 1
cNOT √ (|00i + |10i) = √ (|00i + |11i)
2 2
This is an entangled state (in fact it is one of the four Bell states).
2. Let us define the unitary matrix U by
 
α γ
U=
β δ

with
|α|2 + |γ|2 = |β|2 + |δ|2 = 1 αβ ∗ + γδ ∗ = αγ ∗ + βδ ∗ = 0
and start from the most general two-qubit state

|Ψi = a|00i + b|01i + c|10i + d|11i

Assume we measure the control bit and find it in the |0i state. Then the state vector of the target bit is

|ϕ0 i = a|0i + b|1i

If we find the control bit in state |1i, then we apply U to the state |ϕi = c|0i + d|1i

U |ϕi = |ϕ1 i = (αc + γd)|0i + (βc + δd)|1i

On the other hand, if we apply the cU gate to |Ψi, the result is

cU|Ψi = a|00i + b|01i + (αc + γd)|10i + (βc + δd)|11i


= |0 ⊗ ϕ0 i + |1 ⊗ ϕ1 i

15
16 CHAPTER 5. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 5

3. It is clear that the vectors |000i and |001i are not modified by the lower circuit on the left of Fig. 5.4,
so that we may start from the vector

|Ψi = a|010i + b|011i + c|100i + d|101i + e|110if |111i

We apply on |Ψi the first gate on the left, the c2 U3 gate (with obvious notations)

c2 U3 |Ψi = |Ψ1 i = (αa + γb)|010i + (βa + δb)|011i + c|100i


+ d|101i + (αe + γf )|110i + (βe + δf )|111i

where the matrix U is defined in the preceding question. The transformation law is thus

a → αa + γb b → βa + δb c→c
d→d e → αe + γf f → βe + δf

Let us give as an intermediate result of the calculation

|Ψ4 i = (c1 NOT2 )(c2 U3 )(c1 NOT2 )(c2 U3 )|Ψi

We find

|Ψ4 i = a|010i + b|011i + (α∗ c + β ∗ d)|100i


+ (γ ∗ c + δ ∗ d)|101i + (αe + γf )|110i + (βe + δf )|111i

Finally

|Ψ5 i = c1 U3 |Ψ4 i = a|010i + b|011i + c|100i + d|101i


2 2 2 2
+ (U11 e + U12 f )|110i + (U21 e + U22 f )|111i

where Uij2 is a matrix element of of the matrix U 2 , for example


2
U11 = α2 + βγ

This gives preciseley the action of the Toffoli gate TU 2 . A non trivial action is obtained only if both
control bits 1 and 2 are in the |1i state
2 2 2 2
TU 2 (|110i + |111i) = (U11 e + U12 f )|110i + (U21 e + U22 f )|111i

5.10.2 The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm


1. Before entering the box Uf , the two upper qubits are in the state
1 1
H ⊗2 |00i = √ (|0i + |1i) √ (|0i + |1i)
2 2
3
1 1X
= (|00i + |01i + |10i + |11i) = |xi
2 2 x=0

2. From the results of Sec. 5.5


3
!
1X f (x) 1
Uf |Ψi = (−1) |xi ⊗ √ (|0i − |1i)
2 x=0 2

so that, calling |Ψ′ i the state of the two upper qubits


(i) f (x) = cst
1
|Ψ′ i = ± (|00i + |01i + |10i + |11i)
2
17

(i) f (x) = x mod 2


1
|Ψ′ i = (|00i − |01i + |10i − |11i)
2

3. Since H 2 = I, in case (i) we get


H ⊗2 |Ψ′ i = ±|00i
while in case (ii) we may write

1
|Ψ′ i = (|0i ⊗ (|0i − |1i) + (|0i − |1i) ⊗ |1i)
2
and
1
H ⊗2 |Ψ′ i = H ⊗2 [(|0i + |1i) ⊗ (|0i − |1i)] = |01i
2
The first qubit is in the state |0i and the second in the state |1i. Note that the result of the final
measurement of the upper qubits is unambiguous only if |Ψ′ i is a non entangled state, so that we must
have
(−1)f (0)+f (3) = (−1)f (1)+f (2)

5.10.3 Grover algorithm and constructive interference


Let us first apply the oracle O on |Ψi
N −1
1 X 1 X
O|Ψi = √ (−1)f (x) |xi = √ ax |xi
N x=0 N x

Then we apply G = 2|ΨihΨ| − I using hΨ|xi = 1/ N
!
2 X 1 X
GO|Ψi = ay |Ψi − √ ax |xi
N y N x
" #
1 X 2 X 1 X (1)
= √ ay − ax |xi = √ ax |xi
N x N y N x

(0)
This gives us the relation, with ax = 1
!
2 X
a(1)
x = (−1)f (y) a0y − (−1)f (x) a(0)
x
N y

which leads to the recursion relation


!
2 X
a(n+1)
x = (−1)f (y) any − (−1)f (x) a(n)
x
N y

If, for example, N = 16, then


(1) 3
(i) For xi 6= x0 , ai = 4

(1) 11
(ii) For xi = x0 , ai = 4

The probability (ii) for finding x0 is greater than the probability (i) for finding xi by a factor 121/9 ≃ 13.4.
A good check of the calculation is that the final sate vector is normalized to one: 15(3/4)2 + (11/4)2 = 1!

5.10.4 Example of finding yj


18 CHAPTER 5. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 5

The probability for finding yj is given by (5.45) with, in our specific case, K = 5, n = 4 and r = 3

1 sin2 (πδj Kr/2n ) 1 sin2 (15πδj /16)


p(yj ) = 2 =
2n K sin (πδj r/2n ) 80 sin2 (3πδj /16)

The possible values of j are j = 0, j = 1, j = 2 and j = 3. To the first value corresponds yj = 0 and
δj = 0. To the second one corresponds yj = 5 with |δj | = .33 and to the third one yj = 11 with |δj | = .33,
while there is no yj with |δj | < 1/2 for the last one. We obtain for the probabilities

5
p(0) = p(1) = p(2) = .225
16
so that
p(0) + p(1) + p(2) = 0.76 > 0.4
Assume, for example, that the measurement of the final qubits gives yj = 11. Then we deduce that j = 2
and r = 3.
Chapter 6

Exercises from chapter 6

6.5.1 Off-resonance Rabi oscillations


From exercise 3.5.1, we kow that exp(−iθ(~σ · p̂)/2) is the rotation operator by θ of a spin 1/2 about an
axis p̂. The vector n̂ being normalized (n̂2 = 1), we have

Ωt Ωt
exp(−iH̃t/~) = I cos − i(~σ · n̂) sin
2 2
with
ω1 δ
~σ · n̂ = − σx + σz
Ω Ω
so that the matrix form of exp(−iH̃t/~) is

Ωt δ Ωt ω1 Ωt
 
−iH̃t/~  cos 2 + Ω sin 2 i

sin
2
e =

ω1 Ωt Ωt δ Ωt 
i sin cos − sin
Ω 2 2 Ω 2

6.5.2 Commutation relations between the a and a†


1. The commutator of a and a† is, from the definition (6.26)
 
† M ωz ipz ipz
[a, a ] = z+ ,z −
2~ M ωz M ωz
M ωz −2i
= [z, pz ] = I
2~ M ωz

2. To compute the commutator [a† , a], we use the identity

[AB, C] = A[B, C] + [A, C]B

and we find
[a† a, a] = a† [a, a] + [a† , a]a = −a

6.5.2 Quantum computing with trapped ions


1. We write the interaction Hamiltonian in terms of σ+ and σ−
1 h i
Hint = − ~ω1 [σ+ + σ− ] ei(ωt−kz−φ) + e−i(ωt−kz−φ)
2

19
20 CHAPTER 6. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 6

and go to the interaction picture using (6.5)

eiH0 t/~ σ± e−iH0 t/~ = e∓iω0 t σ±

In the rotating wave approximation, we can neglect terms which behave as exp[±i(ω0 + ω)t] and we are
left with
~ h i
H̃int ≃ − ω1 σ+ e i(δt−φ) e−ikz̃ + σ− e−i(δt−φ) e ikz̃
2
p
2. ∆z = ~/(2M ωz ) is the spread of the wave function in the harmonic well. Thus, η = k∆z is the
ratio of this spread to the wavelength of the laser light. We may write
r
~
kz̃ = k (a + a† ) = η(a + a† )
2M ωz

The matrix element of H̃int between the states |1, m + m′ i and |0, mi is
1 †
h1, m + m′ |H̃int |mi = − ~ω1 ei(δt−φ) hm + m′ |e−iη(a+a ) |mi
2
The Rabi frequency for oscillations between the two levels is
′ †
ω1m→m+m = ω1 |hm + m′ |e−iη(a+a ) |mi|

|1, 2i
|1, 1i
|1, 0i

ω+

ω+ ω0

ω−

|0, 2i
|0, 1i
ω
|0, 0i

Figure 6.1: The level scheme. The transitions which are used are (0, 0) ↔ (0, 1) and (0, 1) ↔ (1.2):
bluesideband, ω+ = ω0 + ωz and (0, 1) ↔ (1, 1): red sideband, ω− = ω0 − ωz .

3. Writing

e±iη(a+a )
≃ I ± iη(a + a† )
and keeping terms to first order in η we get
i h
H̃int = η~ω1 σ+ a ei(δ−ωz )t e−iφ − σ− a† e−i(δ−ωz )t eiφ
2 i
+ σ+ a† ei(δ+ωz )t e−iφ − σ− a e−i(δ+ωz )t eiφ
21

The first line of H̃int corresponds to a resonance at δ = ω − ω0 = ωz , that is, ω = ω0 + ωz , a blue side
band, and the second line to a resonance at ω = ω0 − ωz , that is, a red sideband. The σ+ a term of the
blue sideband induces transitions from |0, m + 1i to |1, mi, and the σ− a† term from |1, mi to |0, m + 1i.
Now √
hm|a|m + 1i = hm + 1|a† |mi = m + 1
+
so that we get H̃int as written in the statement of the problem with

a a†
ab = √ a†b = √
m+1 m+1

The Rabi frequency is then ω1 m + 1. The same reasoning may be applied to the red sideband.
4. The rotation operators R(θ, φ) are given by
θ θ
R(θ, φ = 0) = I cos − iσx sin
2 2
 π θ θ
R θ, φ = = I cos − iσy sin
2 2 2
so that  π
R(π, 0) = −iσx R π, = −iσy
2
We have, for example,
 π  π  
β β
R π, R(β, 0)R π, = (−iσy ) I cos − iσx sin (−iσy )
2 2 2 2
 
β β
= − I cos − iσx sin = −R(−β, 0)
2 2

Let us call A the transition


√ |0, 0i ↔ |1, 1i and B the transition |0, 1i ↔ |1, 2i. The Rabi frequencies

are linked by ωB = 2 ωA . Thus, if the rotation √ angle is θA for transition A, it will be θB = 2 θA for
transition B. For transition A, we choose α = π/ 2 and β = π
 π π  π π
R √ , R(π, 0)R √ , R(π, 0) = −I
2 2 2 2

For transition B we shall have α = π and β = π 2
 π √  π √
R π, R(π 2, 0)R π, R(π 2, 0) = −I
2 2
The state |1, 0i is not affected because the transition |0, 0i ↔ |1, 0i does not resonate on the blue sideband
frequency. Thus we have

|00i ↔ −|0, 0i |0, 1i ↔ −|0, 1i |1, 0i ↔ +|1, 0i |1, 1i ↔ −|1, 1i


 
5. R ± π, π/2 = ∓iσy so that
 π  π
R ± π, |0, 1i = ∓|1, 0i R ± π, |1, 0i = ±|0, 1i
2 2
Let us start from the general two ion state, where both ions are in the vibrational ground state

|Ψi = (a|00i + b|01i + c|10i + d|11i) ⊗ |0i


= a|00, 0i + b|01, 0i + c|10, 0i + d|11, 0i

The action of R−(2) (−π, π/2) on ion 2 gives

|Ψ′ i = R−(2) (−π, π/2)|Ψi = a|00, 0i + b|00, 1i + c|10, 0i + d|10, 1i


22 CHAPTER 6. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 6

+(1)
Then we apply Rαβ on ion 1

+(1)
|Ψ′′ i = Rαβ |Ψ′ i = −a|00, 0i − b|00, 1i + c|10, 0i − d|10, 1i

and finally R−(2) (π, π/2) on ion 2

|Ψ′′′ i = R−(2) (π, π/2)|Ψ′′ i = −a|00, 0i − b|01, 0i + c|10, 0i − d|11, 0i


= (−a|00i − b|01i + c|10i − d|11i) ⊗ |0i

This is the result of applying a cZ gate, within trivial phase factors.

6.5.4 Vibrational modes of two ions in a trap


Setting z1 = z0 + u, z2 = −z0 + v and expanding to second order in powers of u and v we get
 e2 u − v (u − v)2
 
1
V ≃ M ωz2 2z02 + 2z0 (u − v) + u2 + v 2 + 1− +
2 z0 2z0 4z02

with e2 = q 2 /(4πε0 ). The equilibrium condition is given by the condition that the terms linear in u and
v vanish
e2
M ωz2 z0 − 2 = 0
2z0
so that  1/3 1/3
e2

1
z0 = l l=
2 M ωz2
The normal modes are obtained by examining the terms quadratic in u and v, which lead to a potential
energy
1 e2
U (u, v) = M ωz2 u2 + v 2 + 3 (u − v)2

2 4z0
The equations of motion are

e2
M ü = −M ωz2 u − (u − v) = −M ωz2 (2u − v)
2z03
e2
M v̈ = −M ωz2 v − 3 (v − u) = −M ωz2 (2v − u)
2z0

The center of mass mode (u + v)/2 oscillates at frequency ωz

(ü + v̈) = −ωz2 (u + v)



while the breathing mode (u − v) oscillates with frequency 3 ωz

(ü − v̈) = −3ωz2 (u − v)

6.5.5 Meissner effect and flux quantization


1. We start from the expression (6.43) of the electromagnetic current

~q  ~ q ~ 
~em = ∇θ(~r) − A(~
r ) ρ(~r)
m ~
Let us take the curl of the preceding equation, assuming ρ(~r) to be constant
2
~ × ~em = − q ρB
∇ ~
m
23

~ ×B
From the Maxwell equation ∇ ~ = µ0~em we also have

~ = µ0 ∇
−∇2 B ~ × ~em

and comparing the two equations we obtain

~ == q2 ρ ~ 1 ~ m me
∇2 B B= 2 B λ2L = =
m λL µ0 q 2 ρ 2µ0 qe2 ρ

Taking a one-dimensional geometry, where the region z > 0 is superconducting, we see that the magnetic
field must decrease as
B(z) = B(z = 0)e−z/λ
~ ×B
From ∇ ~ = µ0~em , we see that the electromagnetic current must also vanish in the bulk of a super-
conductor.
2. Let us take a ring geometry and draw a contour C well inside the ring. Then we have

q2 ρ
I I I
~ ~q ~ ~ ~ · d~l
0= ~em · dl = ∇θ · dl − A
C m C m C

Since exp(iθ) is single valued, we must have θ → θ + 2πn after a full turn, and

q2 ρ
Z Z
~q ~ · dS
~
(2πn) = B n = · · · , −1, 0, 1, 2, · · ·
m m

6.5.6 Josephson current


Let us start from (6.45) and write
ψi = ρi eiθi i = 1, 2
The first of the equations (6.45) becomes

i~ dρ1 dθ1 1 √
− ~ρ1 = qV ρ1 + K ρ1 ρ2 eiθ
2 dt dt 2
with θ = θ2 − θ1 . Taking the real and imaginary parts of this equation and the corresponding equation
for i = 2, we obtain
dρ1 2K
= (ρ1 ρ2 )1/2 sin θ,
dt ~
dρ2 2K
= − (ρ1 ρ2 )1/2 sin θ,
dt ~
 1/2
dθ1 K ρ2 qc V
= − cos θ − ,
dt ~ ρ1 2~
 1/2
dθ2 K ρ1 qc V
= cos θ +
dt ~ ρ2 2~

and subtracting the last but one equation from the last one
dθ qc V
=
dt ~

6.5.7 Charge qubits


From the relation
2π 2π
dθ dθ −i(n−m)θ
Z Z
hn|θihθ|mi = e = δnm
0 2π 0 2π
24 CHAPTER 6. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 6

we derive


Z
|θihθ| = I
0 2π
Furthermore !
X ∂ X
N |θi = ne−inθ |ni = i e−inθ |ni
n
∂θ n

so that

N =i
∂θ
We can also use the commutation relation

[N, Θ] = iI

to obtain
e−iΘ N eiΘ = N − i[Θ, N ] = N − I
and to derive
N eiΘ |ni = eiΘ (N − I)|ni = (n − 1) eiΘ |ni
 

We may then choose the phases of the states |ni such that

eiΘ |ni = |n − 1i e−iΘ |ni = |n + 1i

and thus
1
cos Θ|ni = (|n − 1i + |n + 1i)
2

2. In the vicinity of ng = 1/2, the Hamiltonian becomes


   
1 1 1 1 
Ĥ =≃ Ec I + Ec ng − |0ih0| − Ec ng − |1ih1| − EJ |0ih1| + |1ih0|
4 2 2 2

In the {|0i, |1i} basis, this can be written, omitting the (irrelevant) constant term
 
1 1
Ĥ ≃ Ec ng − σz − EJ σx
2 2

If ng is far enough from 1/2, the eigenvectors of Ĥ are approximately the vectors |0i and 1i, due to the
condition Ec ≫ EJ . When ng comes close to 1/2, tunneling becomes important, and at ng = 1/2, the
eigenvectors are those |±i of σx with eigenvalues ±EJ
1
|±i = √ (|0i ± |1i) σx |±i = ±|±i
2
One observes the standard phenomenon of level repulsion around ng = 1/2. It is usual to exchange the
x and z bases, so that the control parameter appears as the coefficient of σx
 
1 1
Ĥ ≃ − EJ σz + Ec ng − σx
2 2
Chapter 7

Exercises from Chapter 7

7.5.1 Superdense coding

1. From the identities

σx |0i = |1i σx |1i = |0i σz |0i = |0i σz |1i = −|1i

we immediately get

A00 |Ψi = |Ψi


1 
A01 |Ψi = √ |0A ⊗ 0B i − |1A ⊗ 1B i
2
1 
A10 |Ψi = √ |1A ⊗ 0B i + |0A ⊗ 1B i
2
1 
A11 |Ψi = √ |1A ⊗ 0B i − |0A ⊗ 1B i
2

Let us first examine the action of the cNOT-gate on the four states Aij |Ψi
  1 
cNOT A00 |Ψi = √ |0A i + |1A i ⊗ |0B i
2
  1 
cNOT A01 |Ψi = √ |0A i − |1A i ⊗ |0B i
2
  1 
cNOT A10 |Ψi = √ |0A i + |1A i ⊗ |1B i
2
  1 
cNOT A11 |Ψi = − √ |0A i − |1A i ⊗ |1B i
2

The measurement of qubit B has the result |0B i for i = 0 (A00 and A01 ) and |1B i for i = 1 (A10 and
A11 ), so that this measurement gives the value of i. Furthermore

1
H √ |0A i + |1A i) = |0A i
2
1
H √ |0A i − |1A i) = |1A i
2

and the measurement of qubit A gives the value of j.

7.5.2 Shannnon entropy versus von Neumann entropy

25
26 CHAPTER 7. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 7

The state matrix ρ is given by


p + (1 − p) cos2 θ/2
 
(1 − p) sin θ/2 cos θ/2
ρ=
(1 − p) sin θ/2 cos θ/2 (1 − p) sin2 θ/2
and its eigenvalues are
 
1 1
q
λ± = 1 ± 1 − 4p(1 − p) sin2 θ/2 = (1 ± x)
2 2
This allows us to write the von Neumann entropy as (it is convenient to use ln rather than log)
1+x 1+x 1−x 1−x
−HvN = ln + ln
2 2 2 2
Let us compute the x-derivative of HvN
d 1 1+x
− HvN (x) = ln = tanh−1 (x)
dx 2 1−x
Thus HvN (x) is a concave function of x which has a maximum at x = 0: HvN (x = 0) = ln 2. For this
value of x, we have HvN = HSh . Let us write p = (1 + p)/2, so that
1+p 1+p 1−p 1−p
HSh = ln + ln
2 2 2 2
and q
x= 1 − (1 − p)2 sin2 θ/2
Now we have the inequality
p2 − x2 = −(1 − p2 ) cos2 θ/2 ≤ 0
Thus |x| ≥ p and HSh ≥ HvN .

7.5.3 Information gain of Eve


1. Alice uses the bases {|0i, |1i} and {|+i, |−i}, while Eve uses the basis {|0i, |1i}. The conditional
probabilities p(r|i) are
p(0|0) = 1 p(1|0) = 0 p(0|1) = 0 p(1|1) = 1
and
p(0|+) = 1/2 p(1|+) = 1/2 p(0|−) = 1/2 p(1|−) = 1/2
We obtain p(r) from
X 1
p(r) = p(r|i)p(i) = ∀r
i
2
Let us now turn to the conditional probabilities p(i||r) (we use a double vertical bar to underline the
difference with p(r|i))
p(r|i)p(i) 1
p(i||r) = = p(r|i)
p(r) 2
We find
1 1 1
p(0||0) = p(1||0) = 0 p(+||0) = p(−||0) =
2 4 4
1 1 1
p(1||0) = 0 p(1||1) = p(+||1) = p(−||1) =
2 4 4
Before Eve’s measurement, the (Shannon) entropy is H(α) = 2, after Eve’s measurement, the entropy
H(α|ε) is, from (7.10)
X X
H(α|ε) = − p(r) p(i||r) log p(i||r)
r i
 
1 1 1 1 3
= − log − 2 log =
2 2 4 4 2
27

The information gain of Eve is


1
I(α : ε) = H(α) − H(α|ε) =
2
2. Eve uses a {| + π/8i, | − π/8i} basis, so that p(r|i) is given by

p(0|1) = p(0|+) = .854 p(1|0) = p(1|−) = 0.146


p(1|1) = p(1|+) = .146 p(1|1) = p(1|−) = 0.854

We then compute p(i||r)

p(0||0) = p(+||0) = 0.427 p(1||0) = p(−||0) = .073

and X X
H(α|ε) = − p(r) p(i||r) log p(i||r) = 1.600
r i

so that the information gain is now


I(α : ε) = 0.400

7.5.4 Symmetry of the fidelity


Let us take ρ = |ΨihΨ|, a pure state, and write σ as
X
σ= pα |αihα|
α

Observing that ρ1/2 = |ΨihΨ|, we obtain

ρ1/2 σρ1/2 = |ΨihΨ|hΨ|σ|Ψi

from which it follows that


F(ρ, σ) = hΨ|σ|Ψi
Let us now take σ = |ΨihΨ| and use the diagonal form of ρ
X
ρ= pi |iihi|
i

Since σ = |ΨihΨ| is a rank one operator, the same is true for (ρ1/2 σρ1/2 ) whose eigenvalue equation is,
in a space of dimension N
λN − Tr(ρ1/2 σρ1/2 ) λN −1 = 0
whence
λ = Tr (ρ1/2 σρ1/2 )
is the only non zero eigenvalue. Let us decompose |Ψi on the {|ii} basis
X
|Ψi = ci |ii
i

and write the matrix ρ1/2 σρ1/2 in this basis

(ρ1/2 σρ1/2 )ij = pi pj ci c∗j


p

From this we deduce X


Tr (ρ1/2 σρ1/2 ) = pi |ci |2 = hΨ|ρ|Ψi = λ
i

and  p 2
Tr ρ1/2 σρ1/2 = λ = hΨ|ρ|Ψi = F(σ, ρ)
28 CHAPTER 7. EXERCISES FROM CHAPTER 7

7.5.5 Quantum error correcting code


From X|±i = ±|±i, we obtain, for example

XA XB |ΨA i = XA XB (λ| − ++i + µ| + −−i) = −|ΨA i


XA XC |ΨA i = XA XC (λ| − ++i + µ| + −−i) = −|ΨA i

Let us also check

cNOTB cNOTC (HA ⊗ HB ⊗ HC )|ΨC i = cNOTB cNOTC (λ|001i + µ|110i)


= λ|001i + µ|101i) = (λ|0i + µ|1i) ⊗ |01i