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Coloring Exercise 8-6 ➤ Anatomy of the Heart
FLASHCARDS 29 AND 30

Name Structure Function


Superior vena Large vein Delivers deoxygenated blood from
✍ COLORING INSTRUCTIONS
1. As you read through the
cava A above diaphragm to heart
table, color the different
Inferior vena Large vein Delivers deoxygenated blood from heart structures and the
cava B lower body to heart corresponding terms.
Right atrium C Thin-walled heart chamber; Receives blood from venae cavae and Color the table row with
upper right coronary sinus (Coloring Exercise 8-7) the same color if you
wish.
Right AV Valve separating right Prevents backflow of blood from the
valve D atrium and ventricle; ventricle to the atrium 2. For the endocardium U ,
three cusps just color this heart wall
layer in cross section
Right Thin-walled heart chamber Receives blood from right atrium, (the narrow line). The en-
ventricle E (thicker than atria); lower delivers it to pulmonary trunk tire interior of the heart
right that is visible is actually
Pulmonary Three-cusp valve at Prevents backflow from pulmonary endocardium.
valve F pulmonary trunk entrance artery into right ventricle 3. If you wish, draw arrows
Pulmonary Large artery Delivers blood to pulmonary arteries to represent the flow of
trunk G blood through the heart.
Use blue arrows for
Right H , left The only arteries carrying Deliver deoxygenated blood to lungs
deoxygenated blood
I pulmonary deoxygenated blood
and red arrows for
arteries
oxygenated blood. The
Right J , left Site of gas exchange Add oxygen to blood, remove carbon pathway of blood flow is
K lungs between air and blood dioxide from blood shown in the flowchart
Right L , left The only veins carrying Deliver oxygenated blood to left atrium of Coloring Exercise 8-2.
M pulmonary oxygenated blood
veins
Left atrium N Thin-walled heart chamber; Receives blood from pulmonary veins,
upper left delivers it to left ventricle
Left AV valve O Valve separating left atrium Prevents backflow of blood from the
and ventricle; two cusps ventricle to the atrium
Left ventricle P Thick-walled heart Receives blood from left atrium;
chamber; lower left delivers it to aorta
Aortic valve Q Valve at aorta entrance; Prevents backflow from aorta into left
three cusps ventricle
Aorta R Thick-walled artery Delivers oxygenated blood to body
Chordae Tendons connecting Prevent valves from turning inside out
tendineae S papillary muscle and valves
Papillary Muscles connecting Help chordae tendineae keep valves in
muscle T chordae tendineae to place
heart muscle
Endocardium U Innermost heart lining; Provides a smooth surface to prevent
epithelial tissue blood clotting
Myocardium V Cardiac muscle Contracts to propel blood
Epicardium W Connective tissue Protects myocardium; forms serous
(serous membrane) pericardium
Fibrous Thick connective tissue Protects and encloses heart; space
pericardium membrane between fibrous and serous
(not shown) pericardium can become infected

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Chapter 8 The Cardiovascular System 135

J K
A F G

R M

N
C
Q

S
D
T
S
P
E

B T U V W

arteries
arteries
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Coloring Exercise 8-7 ➤ The Cardiac Vessels

Arterial Supply to the Heart Muscle


• The flowchart below illustrates blood flow through the coronary arteries
✍ COLORING INSTRUCTIONS
Color each structure and its
• All cardiac arteries send smaller branches to nourish the heart muscle corresponding term at the
same time, using the same
• Anastomosis: communication between two arteries
color.
• If one artery is blocked, the blood can travel through the other artery
1. The locations of the ven-
tricles and atria are
Left Ventricle labeled for orientation
purposes. Remember
that these structures are
A B chambers within the
Ascending
Aortic Arch Rest of Body heart, not structures on
Aorta
the outside of the heart.
2. Use red-related colors for
C D
the arteries (such as
right coronary left coronary
reds, pinks, and oranges).
3. Go through the flow
E G H chart and both views (an-
anterior terior/posterior) together,
marginal circumflex
interventricular
following the blood as it
leaves the left ventricle.
F I 4. Color the vessels, and
posterior
anastomosis lightly shade (or outline)
interventricular
the flowchart boxes, in al-
phabetical order ( A to H ).
Venous Drainage of the Heart Muscle 5. Outline the circle
• Blood from the walls of the right atrium and ventricle drains into the anterior surrounding the anasto-
mosis I between the
cardiac veins
posterior and anterior in-
• Blood from the walls of the left atrium and ventricle eventually drains in the terventricular arteries.
coronary sinus (sinus: large channel draining deoxygenated blood) 6. Color all of the offshoots
• The flowchart below illustrates the patterns of blood flow through the (arterioles) of the arter-
coronary veins. ies the same color as
the supplying artery.

right atrium
✍ COLORING INSTRUCTIONS
1. Use variants of blue and
J middle purple to color the veins.
anterior cardiac veins coronary sinus cardiac 2. Go through the flow chart
N vein
M and the figures together,
following the blood drain-
ing from different heart
great cardiac vein
muscle regions to enter
L
the right atrium.
3. Color the vessels, and
posterior vein lightly shade (or outline)
K the flowchart boxes, in al-
phabetical order ( J to N ).
4. Color the venules the
same color as the vein
into which they drain.

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Chapter 8 The Cardiovascular System 137

Left atrium
A
D

C H

Right L
atrium
J G

Left
ventricle

E
Right
ventricle

H
N

Right atrium
K

H I

L
C
Right ventricle
Left
ventricle M
F
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Coloring Exercise 8-8 ➤ The Cardiac Cycle and Conducting


System

Cardiac Cycle
• Events that occur during one heart beat
✍ COLORING INSTRUCTIONS
Color each structure and its
• Diastole ! relaxation corresponding term at the
same time, using the same
• Systole ! contraction
color. On the top figure:

Diastole Atrial Systole Ventricular Systole 1. Color all of the elements


of one diagram before
Atrial contraction A ? No Yes No proceeding to the next,
beginning at the far left.
Ventricular contraction B ? No No Yes Save red and blue.
Right C and left D AV Yes Yes No 2. Color the name of the
valves open? stage in black.
3. Color the arrows repre-
Pulmonary E /aortic No No Yes senting contraction (if
F valves open?
relevant) of the atria A
or the ventricles B .
Oxygenated G and Atria to Atria to Ventricles to aorta/
de-oxygenated H blood flow? ventricles ventricles pulmonary artery 4. Color the valves ( C to
F ). (They are only
labeled on the first dia-
gram.) Note if they are
Conduction System of the Heart
open or closed.
• Specialized muscle cells (conducting cells) convey signals
5. Color the arrows repre-
• Electrical signals stimulate nearby muscle cells to contract senting blood flow. Use
• Sinoatrial node: initiates heart beat by generating action potentials red for oxygenated
blood flow (left heart, G )
• Action potential spreads through conducting cells and blue for
deoxygenated blood
Events flow H .
1. Sinoatrial node I initiates action potential
• Frequency of action potentials determines pulse
• 72 action potentials/minute: pulse ! 72
✍ COLORING INSTRUCTIONS
On the bottom left figure:
2. Action potential spreads through atrial muscle cells J , causing the atria to 1. Color the elements of
contract (atrial systole). the cardiac conducting
3. Action potentials arrive at atrioventricular (AV) node K , where there is a system.
short delay. Action potentials cannot spread directly from atrial muscle cells to 2. The movement of action
ventricle muscle cells. potentials through the
atria (right heart, J ) is
4. Action potentials spread from AV node down the bundle of His L , and down
represented by arrows.
the right and left bundle branches L1 .
Action potential conduc-
5. Action potentials spread through Purkinje fibers M . tion through the ventri-
6. Purkinje fibers excite ventricular muscle cells (ventricular systole, not shown). cles is not shown.
The contraction begins at the bottom of the heart, squeezing blood upwards.

Electrocardiogram
✍ COLORING INSTRUCTIONS
On the bottom right figure:
• Record of the heart’s electrical activity 1. Color the three
• P wave N : atrial depolarization waveforms of the elec-
trocardiogram.
• QRS wave O : ventricular depolarization (atrial repolarization)
2. Color the arrows repre-
• T wave P : ventricular depolarization senting atrial and
ventricular contraction.

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Chapter 8 The Cardiovascular System 139

E G
A A
G
H
H

C G
F
B
H
B
H

Diastole Atrial systole Ventricular systole

J
N P

L1
M
M