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KAZMI Pool Radiology SEQ

SEQs FCPS Part II final touch by

Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi

2005 - 18

S. No UNITS N0. Of QUESTIONS

1. CHEST 61
2. CVS 23
3. GIT 81
4. GUT 39
5. OBS / GYN 24
6. Head & Neck 20
7. CNS 58
8. MSK 60
9. BREAST 12
10. PROCEDURES 10

TOTAL 388

Special thanx to ……….. Dr. M. Ali Qamar

1 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
CHEST
Mar – 2005
Q01 Name available radiological imaging methods to exclude pulmonary embolism. What are the
advantages and technique of multislice CT.

Q02 What is the role of MRI in carcinoma lung in comparison to CT? What will be useful technique
of MRI in important situations?

Sep – 2005
Q03 Describe pulmonary manifestations of drug induced diseases. Give at least one example of
common drugs in each category.

Q04 Sixty two years old female with progressive shortness of breath has bilateral small volume
lungs with basal ‘Honeycombing’.
a) What is the differential diagnosis?
b) What is the next most appropriate investigation?
c) Give the radiological features of the most common cause on this modality.

Q05 a) Describe the radiological investigations for pulmonary embolism?


b) What are the features of pulmonary embolism on plain chest radiograph?

Q06 Thirty four year old male suffering from chronic demyelinating neuropathy was ventilated for
6 weeks. Following discharge he developed stridor and shortness of breath.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) Give a differential diagnosis?
c) What is the imaging of choice for confirming the diagnosis?
d) Which other modalities are available for this purpose?

Mar – 2006
Q07 Twenty five year old male is brought to emergency room after a road traffic accident. A supine
chest X-Ray done as part of primary survey shows a widened. Mediastinum.
a) What is the differential diagnosis of widened mediastinum in this patient?
b) How would you proceed radiologically to reach a diagnosis? (Give algorithm)

2 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q08 a) What are cause of bilateral hilar enlargement
b) What is the staging of sarcoidosis? (classification method of pulmonary sarcoidosis
on x-ray chest)

Aug – 2006
Q09 What are the radiographic signs of pneumothorax on chest x-ray taken in supine position
Q10 What are the common posterior mediastinal messes in children? Give imaging features of each
entity.

Q11 a) What is the classic appearance of air-space consolidation on chest x-ray and HRCT?
b) Name different conditions causing perihilar ‘bat-wing’ infiltrates.

Feb – 2007
Q12 What are the features of dissection of the thoracic aorta on plain chest x-ray and CT-scan? How
do radiological findings help in the management of such patients?

Q13 Give causes of slowly resolving or recurrent pneumonia?

Q14 A 55 year old male, no smoker with no history of allergen exposure presents with an 18
months history of progressive shortness of breath. There is no significant cough or fever
associated with this. His brother died of a similar illness at the age of 65. His chest x-ray
shows small volume lungs with increased interstitial markings with basal predominance.
a) What is the differential diagnosis?
b) What is the next appropriate radiological investigation and what are the findings on this
modality?

Aug – 2007
Q15 Describe the collagen vascular diseases affecting lung and pleura.

Q16 List the conditions and supporting devices which can be seen on chest x-ray of an ICU patient.

3 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q17 Discuss the radiological features of Sarcoidosis on chest radiograph.

Q18 A young man following meal had sudden vomiting. During vomiting agonizing pain is
experienced in the thorax unrelieved by I/V morphine. Patient soon went into shock with
board like rigidity. X-ray chest shows sub-cutaneous emphysema and radiolucent triangular
shadow behind the heart.
a) What is your most likely diagnosis?
b) Give its etiology and pathology.
c) How will you investigate it radiologically?

Jan – 2008
Q19 A 20 year old female present with second pneumothorax. A follow up chest x-ray after a
previous episode had demonstrated honeycombing with normal lung volume.
a) What is the differential diagnosis?
b) How will investigate this patient further?

Q20 An old lady became acutely short of breath a few days after her hip replacement.
What investigation can you perform to determine the cause and confirm the diagnosis?
Describe the important radiologist findings.

Q21 Discuss the importance and role of radiology in staging carcinoma of the bronchus.

June – 2008
Q22 A 52 year old female presents with non-resolving pneumonia after a long trial of empiric anti
tuberculosis therapy.
a) What pathological entity would you be suspicious of ?
b) How would you investigate this further?
c) What are its radiological features?

Q23 A tall young man has hyper transradiant right hemi thorax on his screening chest x-ray.
a) What are the possible reasons for this appearance?

4 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q24 Describe broncho-pulmonary sequestration with radiologic / imaging findings?

Mar – 2009
Q25 A 24 year old male presented 3 day after a road traffic accident. With progressive shortness of
breath CXR shows mediastinal shift to the right with multiple air fluid levels I the left hemi
thorax.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) Give its radiological appearances.

Q26 Discuss various abnormalities of thymus and their clinical complications. How would you
radiologically investigate different thymic conditions?

Sep – 2009
Q27 An adult male presents with shortness of breath. His CXR shows multiple thin walled cystic
spaces. Give the differential diagnosis with brief radiological findings in each.
Q28 A 65 year old retired worker I a ship-breaking industry presents with progressively worsening
lung function test.
a) What would you expect to see on his CXR/HRCT
b) What complications would you specifically look for in such patients?

Q29 A 50 year old man has CXT of the chest to evaluate mediastinal widening
A fat containing mass is found I the mediastinum on CT.
Enlist and briefly describe the possible diagnosis.

Q30 What are the radiological modalities for investigating pulmonary embolism?
Briefly list the relevant features on the investigations.

Mar – 2010
Q31 A young asymptomatic female has mediastinal widening on screening chest x-ray. The lesion
in the mediastinum is cystic in nature on CT of chest.
What entities would you consider in differential diagnosis?

5 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q32 What are the causes and differential diagnosis of broncho-pleural fistula?
Give plain radiographic and CT features differentiating broncho-pleural fistula and lung
abscess.

Q33 Chest x-ray of a person show unilateral left sided pulmonary edema. However, pulmonary
scintigraphy shows perfusion defect on right side. What are the likely causes of the perfusion
defect?

Q34 A 35 year old woman presents with signs of heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. She
gives history of episodes of haemoptysis since 20-30 days after D & C for excessive uterine
bleeding, which she thinks was probably an abortion. On examination the left leg is swollen.
a) Give s short differential diagnosis of possible causes for the symptoms in this lady.
b) How would you investigate her with regards to her CCF and pulmonary hypertension?
c) How would you investigate her swollen leg?

Sep – 2010
Q35 A 21 year old man complaining of cough, haemoptysis, sinusitis and hematuria. What is the
likely diagnosis? What are the radiological features on chest imaging?

Q36 A 30 year old male diabetic presents with a 2 hours history of progressive shortness of breath.
His chest x-ray shows bilateral mid zone infiltrate. Enlist the differential diagnosis.

Mar – 2011
Q37 A patient of rheumatoid disease being treated with methotrexate undergoes an HRCT of
thorax. What are the expected findings?

Q38 A man of 65 year presents to outpatient department with four months history of haemoptysis,
fever off and on and weight loss. His CXR shows in ill defined 3 x 4 cm capacity in the right mid
zone close to the chest wall.
a) Enumerate three important differential of this finding on CXR
b) What other imaging investigations are indicated?
c) Enumerate steps of CT guided biopsy of the chest mass.

Q39 A 20 year old male presents with cough, fever epistaxis, nasal septal mucosal ulceration and
necrosis. His chest x-ray shows multiple cavitating lung lesions.

6 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Which other organ essentially involved in the disease processes
c) Give radiological features on chest x-ray and CT chest.

Oct – 2011
Q40 A 73 years old man present to the emergency department with cough, sputum and fever, CXR
shows a capacity with a central cavity, located in the posterior segment of the right upper lobe
with inferior bulging of the fissure?
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) What is the differential diagnosis?
c) Which predisposing factors are often associated with this pneumonia?
d) With lung segments does this organism preferentially infect?

Q41 A 25 year old man is admitted with multiple lower limb fractures after a road traffic accident.
Apart from 3-4 rib fractures, initial chest imaging was normal. Next day the patient developed
significant dyspnea, restlessness and severe hypoxemia. Patients was intubated and chest
radiograph was carried out which revealed development of bilateral diffuse patchy opacities
containing air-bronchogram. Costophrenic recesses were normal.
What are the differential possibilities and their imaging features?

Q42 A 45 years female presented with malaise and slight breathlessness for last three months. Her
CXR shows bilateral hilar and paratracheal lymphadenopathy. HRCT shows upper and
midzone subpleural micronodules and lymphadenopathy.
a) What you think is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What are different intra thoracic presentations of this disease?
c) What are its HRCT and CT chest findings?
d) What are its activity assessment tests.?

Mar – 2012
Q43 A 40 year old man present with stridor, intractable cough, fever, chest pain, purulent sinus
discharge.
a) Give most likely diagnosis?
b) What radiologic finding do you expect on imaging

7 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q44 A 59 year old female presents with slowly progressive shortness of breath. Her chest x-ray
shows small volume lungs with honeycombing at the bases. Her older brother died last year
from a similar illness.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) What are the typical appearances on HRCT?
c) What would you consider in differential diagnosis?

Q45 A 25 year old male is brought to the emergency room after road traffic accident. A supine
chest x-ray shows a widened mediastinum.
a) What is the differential diagnosis of widened mediastinum?
b) How would you proceed radiologically to reach a diagnosis?
c) What are the other findings on CT in blunt chest trauma?

Oct – 2012
Q46 A 43 year male presents with fever and hemoptysis. Chest x-ray shows irregular thick walled
cavity in the right lung apex. At chest CT there are scattered 2 to 8mm nodular densities in left
upper, right middle and both lower lobes.
a) What the diagnosis?
b) What do the small scattered nodules represent?
c) What are other modes of spread of this condition?
d) Enumerate few of its complications?

Q47 A 35 year old man has history of dyspnea and hemoptysis. Physical examination reveals
clubbing of the fingers and orthodeoxia. Chest film shows a 2 cm, well circumscribed lobulated
mass in the right lower lobe with a well defined cord like shadow extending to the hilum.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis and its differentials?
b) What syndrome is associated with it?
c) What is the imaging study of choice for making the diagnosis?
d) Name some complications associated with it.

Mar – 2013
Q48 HRCT in a 44 year old man with a history of cigarette smoking and shortness of breath shows
numerous, thick and thin walled lung cysts. Few are very irregular in shape. Intervening lung
parenchyma appears normal and there is no evidence of fibrosis. A few centrilobular nodules
smaller than 10mm are also seen, some cavitating. Cysts are largest and most numerous in the
lung apices with relative sparing of lung bases and costophrenic angles.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis in this patient and why?
b) List 6 causes of multiple cysts like lung lesions in adults.

8 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Oct – 2013
Q49 A 42 years old male presents with stridor and persistent cough. He previously had history of
several nose bleeds. Blood biochemistry shows mild renal impairment. A chest radiograph
shows multiple cavitatory lesions with irregular lining, predominantly in lower lobes.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Give a relevant differential diagnosis?
c) Give pathogenesis of the findings in this disease.

Apr – 2014
Q50 A 31 years old male presents with dyspnea on exertion. This has been present for some years
but is getting worse. A chest x-ray shows a 40mm well defined lobulated lesion in the right
lower zone with cord like bands extending to the hilum. Pulse oxymetery shows an oxygen
saturation of 88% on exercise.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) What are its appearances on CT scan of the chest?
c) If left untreated what are its possible complications?

Q51 A 4 years old body presents with history of foreign body aspiration. How should he be
radiologically evaluated? What will be radiological findings?

Oct – 2014
Q52 A 19 year old black man is admitted to hospital following a road traffic accident during which
he sustained a fracture of the femur. The admitting chest x-ray was normal. A chest x-ray
obtained 48 hours later shows interstitial and alveolar edema with a normal sized heart.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What clinical findings will support this diagnosis?
c) What is its pathophysiology?

Apr – 2015
Q53 A 4 year old body presents with history of foreign body aspiration. Clinically it is suspected to
be lodge in a main stem branch.
a) What is the underlying pathophysiology of this type of aspiration?
b) How should he be evaluated radiologically?

9 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q54 A 56 years old man with history of shortness of breath reports that it is becoming
progressively worse. Chest x-ray shows diminished lung volumes, septal thickening and honey
comb cysts in lung bases.
a) What is the diagnosis, and common causes of this disease?
b) What is its appearance on HRCT?
c) What are its complications?
d) What is the prognosis?

Oct – 2015
Q55 CXR of a premature newborn shows hypoventilation of the lungs, a diffuse reticulonodular
infiltrates and prominent air bronchograms. Clinically patient has respiratory distress.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) Give differential diagnosis?
c) At the end of 1st week there is an acute change in the x-ray appearance with
diffuse bilateral hazy infiltrates and cardiomegaly.
d) What will be the diagnosis?

Apr – 2016
Q56 A 14 year girl presents with a short history of chest pain and fever after an explosion of soda
bottle in her mouth while trying to open the lid with her teeth.
a) What is the possible diagnosis?
b) Which radiological investigation you will advise and what will be the features?

Oct-2016

Q57 A 50-year old lady presents with progressive shortness of breath. She has bilateral small
volume lungs with basal reticulations on chest x-ray.

a) What is the differential diagnosis?


b) What is the next appropriate radiological investigation?
c) Give the radiological features of the most common cause on this modality.

10 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Jan-2017

Q58 60-year old female had knee replacement 3 weeks back, presented with exertional dyspnea
and increased pulmonary artery pressure on echocardiogram.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) What is the radiological investigation of choice and describe its imaging features.
c) What further workup would you like to advise for etiology?

Q59 70-year old male presented with biopsy proven peripherally located adenocarcinoma in left
lung. It measures 2.5cm with no visceral pleura involvement. No enlarged mediastinal
lymph nodes noted. No distant metastasis seen on PET CT.

a) What is the stage according to TNM staging system?


b) Is this tumor amendable to surgical resection or not?
c) What is the other treatment option if patient is not fit for general anesthesia?

July-2017

Q60 An adult previously healthy shepherd presents with sudden respiratory distress and
hypotension. Chest radiograph revealed a 10cm rounded mass with central cavity and a
prominent air fluid level and a second, smaller, irregularly lobulated mass measuring 4cm
in the RLL.

a) What are the differentials?


b) What does the air fluid level indicate and what is the name of the sign?
c) How is the crescent sign produced in this condition?

March-2018

Q61 A 43 year old man presents with fatigue, weakness and chest pain. CXR demonstrates a non
calcified anterior mediastinal mass.

11 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What is differential diagnosis?
c) How may the hilum overlay sign, hilum convergence sign and cervicothoracic sign
help in diagnosis?

CVS
Mar – 2005
Q01 What are the types and morphology of total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage? Give
radiological appearance on x-ray chest.

Sep – 2005
Q02 Classify cardiac tumors. Give radiological features of atrial myxomas.

Aug – 2007
Q03 A 60 years old male intravenous drug user presents with lower abdominal pain and fever. On
clinical examination a pulsatile mass is palpable in the lower abdomen.
Give appropriate radiological investigations and most suitable diagnosis.

Jan – 2008
Q04 A 30 years old newspaper editor with a history of previous myocardial infarction was
awakened by severe precordial chest pain and shortness of breath. On examination there were
distended neck veins and rales upto the mid chest. ECG suggested anterior wall myocardial
infarction. Portable x-ray of the chest showed a large bulge arising from or adjacent to the left
ventricle. With difficulty chest PA and lateral views were obtained that confirm a mass at the
left lateral margin of the heart. Fluoroscopy showed paradoxical expansion of the mass during
systole.
a) What is you most likely diagnosis?
b) Enumerate the other modalities which can be used for further investigation?
c) What are the features on a chest PA view?
d) What are its complications?

June – 2008
Q05 52 year old male with essential hypertension presents to the emergency department with
sudden onset central chest pain radiating to the intra scapular area. On examination BP in

12 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
right arm is 220/120 mmHg left arm 100/50 mmHg. His ECG is normal.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Describe its radiological features.
c) How does imaging impact upon its management?

Mar – 2009
Q06 A 50 year old male hypertensive patient presented with sudden severe pain in inter scapular
region. Clinical suspicion is of “Aortic dissection”. Patient gives past history of severe contrast
reaction during IVC examination.
a) Keeping in view the clinical suspicion, how will you investigative this patient.
b) What are different types of aortic dissection and how they affect the management?

Q07 Describe scimitar syndrome and its radiologic feature.


Sep – 2009
Q08 A young man on his screening CXR has dextrocardia.
a) What other anatomical structures would you assess to further characterize the type of
cardiac malposition?
b) Briefly describe the different situs and cardiac malpositions.

Mar – 2010
Q09 A 40 year old man presents with pain in right forearm and hand on elevation of arm. On
hyperabduction maneuver there is obliteration radial pulse.
a) What is the most probable diagnosis?
b) How will you investigate this patient?

Sep – 2010
Q10 A young otherwise healthy patient presents with an abnormal ECG finding and a family history
of sudden death. Cardiac MRI shows a dilated right ventricle with abnormal wall motion and a
normal left ventricle.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What is the etiology?
c) Give its radiological findings.

Q11 A young male patient underwent aortography followed by selective right renal arteriography as

13 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
a work up of hypertension. Patient presented with gangrene of right big toe after 2 weeks in
emergency.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis with causative mechanism?
Give in detail the complications of catheter arteriography.

Q12 A young male IV drug abuser is having dyspnea, high fever, sinus tachycardia and a murmur on
cardiac auscultation.
a) What is your clinical diagnosis?
b) Give its radiological features and complications.

Mar – 2011
Q13 A 29 year old male presents with high grade fever and lower abdominal mass. There is history
of intravenous drug abuse. On echocardiogram vegetations are present on the mitral valve. CT
abdomen shows a large enhancing retroperitoneal lesion.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) What are its imaging features?

Oct – 2011
Q14 An elderly hypertensive female admitted with severe chest pain and diagnosed with aortic
dissection.
a) List the CT scan findings that led to the diagnosis.
b) How is the false lumen differentiated from the true lumen on CT?

Oct – 2013
Q15 A 40 years old left handed male with a previous coronary artery bypass graft presents with
recurrent syncope while playing tennis. On examination there are unequal pulses in the two
arms.
a) What phenomenon is he suffering from?
b) What is the pathophysiological basis for this phenomenon?
c) What are the imaging findings in this condition?

14 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Oct – 2014
Q16 A 70 year old man presents with cramps in the left arm after exercise associated with dizziness.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Give its radiological appearances.

Apr – 2015
Q17 a) What are the predisposing factors / causes of dissection of aorta? Enumerate imaging
features of dissection of arch of aorta.
b) What are the differences between thrombosed aneurysm and dissection of aorta?

Apr – 2016
Q18 A 60 year male intravenous drug user presents with lower abdominal pain and fever. On clinical
examination a pulsatile mass is palpable in the lower abdomen.
a) What is the most suitable diagnosis?
b) Give the appropriate radiological investigation?
c) Give the differential diagnosis of a pulsatile abdominal mass and its CT findings?

Oct-2016
Q19 A 50-year male presents with myocardial infarction. After 2-3 weeks, the patient developed
fever, and pleuritic chest pain.

a) What is the likely diagnosis?


b) What is the etiology?
c) What are the radiological features?

July-2017

Q20 A 60 year hypertensive and diabetic male presented with pulsatile abdominal mass with
vomiting and pain abdomen. Ultrasound abdomen revealed a prevertebral fusiform cystic
mass in the central abdomen.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) What imaging study is most appropriate for this patient?

15 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
c) Why is the modality most appropriate?

March-2018

Q21 a) What is the differential diagnosis of continuous murmur in an infant?


b) What are the radiological features of Patent Ductus Arteriosis?
c) What are the treatment options available for PDA?

Sep-2018
Q22 A 59-year man who is a heavy smoker had a history of cramps in the left calf on walking.
He noticed a small painful ulcer in the big toe, which is not healing for the last one month.

a) What is the probable diagnosis?


b) Enumerate the differential diagnosis with relevant investigations.

Q23 a) What is CTA and MRA?


b) At what time images were obtained?
c) What images are obtained during CTA and MRA?
d) When should one choose MRA vs CTA during run off examination?

16 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
GIT
Sep – 2005
Q01 A 39 years old female presents to emergency room with one day history of abdominal pain.
She is unable to eat, drink and could hardly rise out of bed. The epigastric pain is similar to
previous episode for which she was admitted 6 months ago. Discuss the differential diagnosis.
Describe CT features of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

Q02 What is meconium ileus? What is the role of radiology in-diagnosis and management of
meconium ileus?

Q03 Sixty years old female presented with jaundice 12 days after laproscopic cholecystectomy.
a) What is the differential diagnosis?
b) An ERCP was attempted and failed. What other non-invasive imaging methods are
available to reach diagnosis?
c) Give the advantages and disadvantages of each modality.

Mar – 2005
Q04 What is meconium ileus? What is the role of radiology in the diagnosis and management of
meconium ileus?

Q05 What are the imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of abdominal masses in childhood.
Briefly describe their merits and demerits.

Q06 What are different types of strictures of Bile duct? Describe their radiographic features on
cholangiography.

17 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Mar – 2006
Q07 d) A 9 months old male child presented in early March with crampy abdominal pain, vomiting
and fever. The stool was initially blood tinged with mucous which is now becoming more
bloody. Give possible diagnosis, appropriate imaging modality and possible therapeutic
management.

Q08 Thirty year old female with a known diagnosis of ulcerative colitis has been admitted with an
acute exacerbation. She is referred for a barium enema to see the extent of the disease.
a) What precautions will you take before proceeding with the examination and why?
b) How will you distinguish ulcerative colitis from ischemic colitis?
Describe the barium enema features of long standing Ulcerative colitis

Q09 A 4 weeks infant presented with projectile vomiting and a palpable abdominal mass.
c) What is your likely diagnosis?
d) How will you diagnose radiologically?
Mar – 2006

Q10 List the causes of pseudopneumoperitonium. What radiological techniques will


differentiate pseudo from true pneumoperitonium.

Aug – 2006

Q11 What are the causes of portal vein thrombosis? Give its ultrasound findings.

Q12 Give the differential diagnosis, complications and MRI features of sacrococcygeal
teratoma.

Feb – 2007

Q13 A premature newborn after 72 hours of birth passes blood streaked stools along with mild
respiratory distress and generalized sepsis.
c) What is your clinical diagnosis?
d) What findings do you expect to see on the plain abdominal film?
e) What is the role of barium enema it this patients?

Q14 A 25 year old male has difficulty in swallowing following a barbeque meal. He is referred
for a “gastrograffin” swallow.

18 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
a) How will you proceed?
b) At what levels are foreign bodies most likely to impact in the esophagus give
anatomical reasons

Q15 A 46 year old woman presents with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. ERCP fails due to a
duodenal diverticulum.
a) What other modalities are available to further investigate this patient?
b) Her INR is 1.8. How would you prepare her for a PTC?

Q16 A 14 year old female with previous history of pancreatitis present with abdominal pain
and jaundice. On examination she is tender and there is a palpable mass in the epigastrium.
US shows well defined anechoic lesion in relation to the head of the pancreas.
a) What is the differential diagnosis?
b) How will you investigate her further?
c) Give imaging features of the two most likely differential diagnosis.
Aug – 2007

Q17 A focal hyperechoic area is seen on ultrasound examination of liver. Keeping in view the
possibilities of hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic deposit and haemangioma.
d) How would you conduct a CT examination with a conventional equipment?
e) Give the distinguishing CT features of these three lesions.

Q18 A 50 years old female presented with abdominal distension, flatulence and sensation of
heaviness in lower abdomen, main in left iliac fossa. On examination left iliac fossa
appears tender on deep touch associated with abdominal guarding.
a) What is you most likely diagnosis?
b) Give its radiological features on plain film and on barium enema
c) What are their complications?

Jan – 2008

Q19 How common are carcinoid tumours of small bowel? What are the radiological features
on plain abdominal x-ray, barium studies and on CT? What is carcinoid syndrome?

Q20 A 40 year old male gives history progressive dysphagia with regurgitation of food
several hours after a meal. There is retrosternal discomfort and fetid flatulence. He is in
a state of continuous ill health for the last 3 months. His chest x-ray shows widening of
mediastinum with air fluid level at the level of pulmonary artery.
a) What is your most likely diagnosis?

19 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
b) Give its etiology and radiological features
c) Give differential diagnosis.

Q21 A 35 year old female was brought to emergency room with complaint of right upper
quadrant abdominal pain. She has fever, elevated while cell count and a positive
Murphy sign. What will be the first radiological investigation. You would like to
perform? Please give justification.
Describe the sonographic and CT findings in cases of acalculus cholecystitis.

Q22 Write a note on primary Hyperaldosteronism (Conns Syndrome).

June – 2008
Q23 What are the causes of dysphagia in neonates and infants?

Q24 a) How will you classify the polypoidal lesion of large intestine?
b) What are radiologic features of benign and malignant polyps?

Q25 A young girl with polycythemia rubra vera in immediate post partal state develops acute
hepatosplenomegaly with ascites?
a) What would be the most probable diagnosis?
b) Enumerate other causes of this abnormality?
c) Describe the radiologic features?

Mar – 2009
Q26 What are the etiological factors of mesenteric ischemia, discuss the radiological manifestation.

Q27 A 5 year old girl was found to have a painless right lower abdominal mass. Clinical
examination followed by ultrasound confirmed presence of a cystic mass.
a) What is the most probable diagnosis? Describe its radiologic features.
b) Enumerate other possible causes of cystic masses in this location

20 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q28 A 22 year old female has had three episodes of biochemically proven pancreatitis, ultrasound
showed no gall stone.
a) What are the likely precipitating conditions. Repeat ultrasound shows absence of
intrahepatic biliary dilatation with the distal common bite duct diameter of 3cm. no calculi
were seen.
b) How will you confirm the diagnosis radiologically? Give its classification and radiological
Features

Sep – 2009
Q29 a) What does the term “MALT” stands for?
b) Which relatively common conditions are associated with MALT lymphomas? Describe its
CT staging.

Q30 A patient clinically suspected of colitis shows a conical contracted caecum with shaggy
ulcerations on contrast study.
a) What are the most likely differentials?
b) What salient CT features will differentiate these?

Q31 A neonate presents with jaundice. How will you investigate this neonate to differentiate
between biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis? What are the different types and sub types of
biliary atresia?

Q32 A young HCV +v male being investigated for focal live disease has a hyper intense 3cm lesion
on unenhanced T1W sequence of MRI. What are the possible causes of this lesions?

Mar – 2010
Q33 A 30 year old male presented with history of “something sticking in the throat”. Initial barium
swallow was normal. After a period of 8-10 months he developed symptoms of post-prandial
regurgitation of undigested food. He also developed dysphagia of moderate degree. Antacids
and other antiulcer drugs gave no relieve.
a) What is your most likely diagnosis and give its etiology?
b) How will you investigate radiologically? Give radiological features of this condition.

21 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q34 A 2 year old child has bilateral inguinal swelling. Child has stopped eating and has distended
abdomen. On examination chest appears clear, but an enlarged doughy abdomen, no firm mass
but bilateral firm scrotal swelling. WBC 11400. Urinalysis is normal. Stool is positive for
occult blood. IVP and barium enema done on same day, are normal. After 4 days barium
through examination was done which showed several stretched and distorted loops of small
bowel with effaced mucosal folds. Chest x-ray showed bilateral widened mediastinum.
a) What is your most likely diagnosis?
b) What are its features on barium follow through and CT scan when involving small bowel?

Q35 A 30 year old male presents with intermittent jaundice accompanied by fever and chills. CT
scan shows multiple branching cystic areas of uncertain etiology in liver.
a) Give appropriate radiological investigations to reach a conclusion.
b) What is the most likely diagnosis? Give its associations.

Q36 How will you grade hepatic trauma on CT. what is the clinical significance of this grading?

Q37 A 15 day neonate has a left abdominal suspected renal mass


c) List the causes of such masses in order of probability
d) Describe the radiological finding of the most common diagnosis

Sep – 2010
Q38 What are the tumours of the biliary ducts? What are the clinical and radiological features of
cholangiocarcinoma?

Q39 An adult male patient presented with severe pain in the epigastrium. The pain does not
respond to proton pump inhibitors. Endoscopic examination revealed multiple duodenal and
jejuna ulcers. What is the diagnosis? What are its clinic-radiologic features?

Q40 A 50 year male with known cardiac disease presents with sudden onset of abdominal pain and
bleeding per rectum. His barium enema shows thumb printing pattern in the colon. What is
the most likely diagnosis? Give the differential diagnosis with their radiological features.

Q41 A 30 years old male had a road traffic accident. He is suspected of having a renal injury. What
are the different grades of renal injury?

Mar – 2011

22 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q42 A 65 year old woman presents with RUQ pain and a palpable mass, weight loss, jaundice,
pruritus and vomiting. Liver function test reveal elevated bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What are its radiological features?
Q43 Give CT/MRI findings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. What factors determine respectability of
pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

Q44 A 45 year female comes with history of dysphagia and weigh loss. Her barium swallow shows
irregular narrowing of long segment of the thoracic esophagus. Give you diagnosis and
differential diagnosis in this case

Q45 A middle aged woman has peripheral lymphadenopathy and haem-positive stool. Her small
bowel enema revealed mildly thickened and lobulated medial wall of caecum and proximal
ascending colon. The mucosal folds are also markedly thickened. There are no
pathognomonic findings of Crohn’s disease. What are two most likely possibilities?
Give their radiological findings.

Oct – 2011
Q46 A 60 years old male presented to OPD with abdominal pain, bleeding per rectum and loose
motions. On examination, there is generalized mild tenderness on palpation. His abdominal
radiograph shows distended splenic flexure wit thumb printing.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What are the differential diagnoses of thumb printing with their radiological features?

Q47 A 26 year old female presents with severe upper abdominal pain. Her investigation shows
elevated white cell count and lipase levels. She has had at least two similar episodes in the last
year. She is well in between the episodes.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) What are the possible causative factors?
c) Outline an imaging algorithm to investigate her further.

Q48 A one month old female baby presents with right upper abdominal mass. Blood tests shows a
platelet count of 100,000/mm3 with a normal alpha fetoprotein. A plain film demonstrates fine
fibrillary calcification.

23 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q49 A 50 years old male presents with loss of weight, vomiting and anemia. Barium meal
examination reveals a persistent non-distensible featureless contracted stomach.
a) What is the radiological nomenclature for this appearance?
b) Enumerate its differential diagnosis?
c) How will you radiologically investigate this case further?

Mar – 2012
Q50 A 6 months old child suddenly develops crampy abdominal pain, vomiting whilst
passing “currant jelly” stools.
a) What is your likely diagnosis?
b) How will you investigate to reach the diagnosis?
c) What is the role of radiology in the management of such a child?

Q51 A 6 year old girl presents with recurrent episodes of jaundice, pain in right hypochondrium,
palpable mass and fever. Her ultrasound examination revealed a large cystic lesion separate
from the gall bladder containing multiple echogenic shadows in it, demonstrating distal
acoustic shadowing.
a) What is your likely diagnosis?
b) What are two most useful imaging modalities for its diagnosis and give the imaging
appearance on nuclear scan?
c) Enumerate its complications.

Q52 A 14 month old baby after recurrent episodes of severe diarrhea suddenly developed gross
hematuria. Bimanual examination raised suspicion of left renal enlargement. On ultrasound
left kidney was enlarged with smooth outline and loss of corticomedually differentiation.
Multiple hyperechoic areas suggestive of hemorrhages were also noted within its parenchyma.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Give imaging features of this condition.
c) What possible complication do you expect?

Oct – 2012

24 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q53 A 2 days baby is brought to OPD with complaints of abdominal distension, bilious vomiting,
bloody loose motions and mild respiratory distress. The child was born one and half month
before due date. Abdominal radiograph shows mild dilated bowel loops, air fluid level in RIF
and few small gas shadows in RT hypochondrium
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Give briefly etiology, location, complications and imaging findings of your likely diagnosis?

Q54 A 23 year old male with no prior co-morbids developed severe gastritis associated with
violent vomiting. After a bout of particularly violent vomiting he developed severe central
chest pain. On examination he is tachypnoeic and tachycardia and has crepitus palpable in left
supraclavicular fossa.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What are its imaging features?

Q55 In a young male patient with blunt abdominal trauma, CT abdomen shows linear attenuation
defects in liver more than 3 cm and subcapsular haematoma measuring 4cm.
a) What is the grade of this hepatic injury?
b) What are different grades of hepatic trauma?
c) What is the significance of the grading system?

Q56 A one year old child presented with recurrent fever and abdominal distension. On examination
large mass is palpable on the right side of abdomen. X-ray abdomen shows patchy calcification
in right upper abdomen. USG abdomen revealed a large hyperechoic mass above the right
kidney encasing the aortal and VIC.
d) What is the most likely diagnosis? What is usual presenting age?
e) What are other likely locations?
f) What are its imaging features

Q57 During the barium swallow examination, you see an abnormal indentation on esophagus
above the level of carina.
a) What are the possible causes of this appearance?
b) On lateral view the airway appears normal. What are the two most likely diagnosis?
c) If the patient is symptomatic (stridor, cough), what are the most likely possibilities?

25 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q58 An alcoholic male came in emergency with a short history of epigastric pain. He is unable to
eat, drink and unable to rise out of bed. His epigastric pain is similar to previous episode for
which he was admitted six months back.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Give differential diagnosis.
c) Write CT features of the disease and its complications.

Oct – 2013
Q59 What are the modes of spread of carcinoma colon? Name common sites of its metastasis. Give
the modified dukes staging system. Which syndromes are associated with an increased
incidence of colonic cancer?

Q60 A young female on oral contraceptive pulls presents with severe right hypochondriac pain.
Her ultrasound shows diffusely enlarged liver with hypoechoic parenchyma.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Give differential diagnosis
c) What are CT findings of this condition?

Q61 A 12 years old body with few days history of intractable vomiting presents in emergency
department. On ultrasound examination, a large intra-abdominal cyst is seen. Patient also had
history of fall from the stairs two months back.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) What complications can be associated with it?
c) What are its radiological features?

Apr – 2014

Q62 A 30 years old female with suspected diagnosis of ulcerative colitis is referred for barium
enema.
a) How will you distinguish ulcerative colitis from ischemic colitis?
b) Give the barium enema features of long standing ulcerative colitis?
c) Name the complications of ulcerative colitis.

Q63 a) What are the causes of jaundice in childhood?


b) What are the radiological features of HEPATOBLASTOMA in ultrasound, CT,
MRI and Nuclear scan?

26 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Oct – 2014
Q64 A contrast enhanced CT shows a filling defect in the portal vein.
a) What are its causes?
b) How else can be identified?
c) What is cavernous transformation of the portal vein?

Q65 A 30 year old female presents with a mass in the left parotid gland.
a) Enumerate the imaging modalities for investigating the salivary gland
b) What is the most common benign salivary gland tumour?
c) Give its radiological features.

Q66 A 40 year old man who is chronic alcoholic presents with severe epigastric pain radiating
to the back associated with multiple episodes of vomiting. On examination his epigastrium
is tender with guarding.
a) Give differential diagnosis?
b) What are appropriate radiological investigations and their likely findings?

Apr – 2015
Q67 What are the pain film and contrast enema appearances in a patient of Meconium ileus.
What is the radiological management of this condition?

Oct – 2015
Q68 A young female on OCPs presents with severe right hypochondriac pain. Her ultrasound
shows diffusely enlarged liver with hypoechoic parenchyma.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) What are the differentials?
c) What are the CT findings?

27 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q69 A 40 year old male gives history of chronic epigastric pain off and on for last 6 years and now
he presents with abdominal swelling and vomiting. Barium meal examination showed grossly
distended stomach with hardly any passage of barium distal to stomach. Barium is retained
within stomach even after 24 hours.
a) What is the clinical/radiological diagnosis?
b) What is the most likely cause in this case?
c) Enumerate causes of marked gastric dilatation.

Apr – 2016
Q70 An elderly man is suspected of having mesenteric ischemia. How will you investigate this
patient and what will be the imaging findings on cross sectional imaging?

Q71 A young female on oral contraceptive pills presents with severe right hypochondrium pain.
Her ultrasound shows diffusely enlarged liver with hypoechoic parenchyma. What is the
diagnosis, differential diagnosis and CT findings?

Oct-2016

Q72 A patient of scleroderma has had dyspepsia for many years. She presented with dysphagia
for liquids and solids.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) How will you investigate this patient radiologically?
c) What will be radiological criteria for management?

Q73 A 45-year female has hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice and ascites. Her USG shows
hepatomegaly, ascites and thin/narrow hepatic veins.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) What are the causes of this disease?
c) What are its diagnostic imaging features on CT?

Jan-2017

Q74 A 19 year old woman presents to the emergency department with a 2 day history of
abdominal pain. The pain was initially vague and generalized but for the last 2 hours is
localized to the right lower quadrant. She has been nauseated and had vomited once. On
examination she has a temperature of 38oC, heart rate of 100/min and localized tenderness
without guarding in the right iliac fossa. Her white cell count is 19000/ml. she is currently

28 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
menstruating.

a) What acute surgical condition needs to be excluded?


b) What are its features on CT scan?

Q75 Middle aged woman, known case of cholelithiasis presents with abdominal pain and weight
loss. Her ultrasound shows Heterogenous, predominantly Hypoechoic lesion in the liver and
minimal segmental intra hepatic duct dilatation.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis and differentials?


b) What are further imaging modalities?

July-2017

Q76 A 52 year woman presented with 1-month history of upper abdominal pain and a firm,
palpable mass in the epigastrium. Contrast enhanced CT abdomen shows a multicystic mass
in the pancreas.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) What are the associated radiological features on the scan?
c) What is its prognosis?

Q77 A 55 year male presented with complaints of on and off abdominal pain, obstruction and
recurrent diarrhea for 3-month. On clinical examination the JVP is raised with mild
hepatomegaly and tricuspid valve disease on echocardiogram. He was sent for CT abdomen
with contrast in radiology department.

a) What is the most likely cause of his clinical presentation?


b) Give the radiological features of this condition that can be found in CT abdomen?
c) What is the role of angiography in the diagnosis?

Q78 Antenatal USG showed absence of gastric bubble in a fetus with polyhydramnios. After birth
there is excessive drooling and the plain abdominal film showed air in stomach and gut.

a) What is the likely diagnosis?


b) How will you confirm your diagnosis?
c) What are the types of this condition possible in this particular patient?

29 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
March-2018

Q79 Abdominal CT in a 52 year old woman with sudden abdominal pain shows thickened small
bowel loops and high attenuation fluid within the peritoneal cavity.

a) What are the causes of hemorrhage into the bowel wall?

b)What other signs might you expect on a small bowel series?

Sep-2018

Q80 A 50-year male patient presented with history of difficulty in swallowing. This difficulty was
initially for solids diet and now for liquids as well. He is chain smoker for last 20 years and
admits regular alcohol consumption.

a) What is the likely diagnosis?


b) What are the predisposing factors for this disease?
c) How will you radiologically evaluate and what is the related radiological
management?

Q81 A 6-year girl presents with RUQ pain, jaundice and palpable upper abdominal mass.

a) What is the likely diagnosis and what are its types?


b) What is the role of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of this condition?

30 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
GUT
March – 2005
Q01 What is the pathophysiological mechanism of performing captopril scintigraphy? Give salient
points of patient preparation, acquisition and interpretation of results of such study.

Q02 A 30 years old male give history of repeated dysuria and urgency. His urine report shows
microscopic hematuria and sterile pyourea on repeated laboratory examinations.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Describe the radiographic findings?

Sep – 2005
Q03 One year old girl presents with second episode of culture proven urinary tract infection. On
examination she was found to have a skin dimple on her lower back. Her micturating
cystourethrogram shows a trabeculated bladder.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) How will you investigate this further?
c) What are the associated abnormalities that will need to be excluded?

Q04 Sixty year old male is referred for a trans rectal prostatic biopsy.
a) What pre-procedural preparations would you advise?
b) What post-procedural instructions will you give?

31 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q05 A child with severe oligurea showed swollen kidneys on IVU. Clinically acute cortical necrosis is
suspected. Briefly give the causes and radiological findings in this condition.

Q06 What are the causes of renal vein thrombosis? Discuss its radiological appearances.

Aug – 2006
Q07 A known patient of tuberous sclerosis presents with abdominal pain. Clinically she has palpable
mass in the right lumber region. What is the likely diagnosis? How would you investigate her
radiologically and what will be the radiological sings?

Q08 What are the signs of unilateral renal artery stenosis on ACE-inhibitor renal scintigraphy

Feb – 2007
Q09 What are the main indication of ultrasound examination of penis? How will it help in the
diagnosis of these conditions?

Q10 What is the pathophysiology of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis? Give the radiological


appearances.

Aug – 2007
Q11 a) Name the non-neoplastic renal masses.
b) Give brief radiological features of Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

Q12 What are the classifications of urinary bladder injuries and how will you evaluated them
radiologically?

Q13 What are the indications and complications of percutaneous nephrostomy?

Jan – 2008

32 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q14 A 63 year old bud driver developed severe frontal headache not responding to aspirin. He has
had constant headache in the past as well. His blood pressure was 250/150mmHg. Urinalysis
showed increased albumin. On his plain abdominal X-ray the left kidney shadow appears
significantly smaller than the right chest x-ray shows left ventricular enlargement.
a) What do you think is the most likely cause of hypertension?
b) Give its important causes and pathophysiology.
c) What are the features on IVU and direct signs on Doppler studies?

June – 2008
a) What are the causes of hemorrhage and subsequent hematuria during a percutaneous
nephrostomy procedure?
b) What are the suggested lines of management in these situations?

Q15 A patient is suspected to have acute tubular necrosis, discuss the etiology and radiological
appearances.

Mar – 2009
Q16 Describe the role of renal scintigraphy in the evaluation of the renal transplants?

Q17 Discuss the causes which lead to deviation of ureter and briefly discuss the radiological features
on different modalities.

Q18 Write short note on Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction.

Sep – 2009
Q19 A 15 year old boy presents with painful nodule in left scrotum. On ultrasound examination the
ipsilateral testicle was normal
a) What extra testicular pathologies would you consider?
b) Briefly describe their ultrasound features.

33 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q20 A 45 year old male had CT abdomen for acute abdominal pain. A 5 cm renal cyst is picked up
incidentally.

Q21 How would you characterize this cyst on CT?

Mar – 2010
Q22 Write short note on rupture of urinary bladder

Sep – 2010
Q23 A mother brings her 3 year old child to the physician because she has found an abdominal mass
while bathing the child. The child has been in her usual state of health according to the mother.
However on review of vital signs and physical examination the patient is noted to have high
blood pressure, aniridia and mild exophthalmos. What is the diagnosis, its incidence and
origin? Describe its radiological features?

Q24 A 32 year old lady who is 36 weeks pregnant has developed acute left flank pain and
hematuria. On examination she has a palpable left flank mass. Ultrasound shows enlarged,
hypoechoic left kidney with focal areas of increased echogenicity and loss of corticomedullary
differentiation.
a) What is your diagnosis?
b) Give the radiographic findings?

Mar – 2011
Q25 A patient comes to you with clinical history of painful deviated erections. Give you most likely
diagnosis and ultrasound / MRI findings.

Q26 A 50 year male presented in urology outpatient department with history of long standing flank
pain and backache. On IVU he was found to have medially deviated mid ureters. Please answer
the following questions.
c) Enumerate the differential diagnosis of this appearance.
d) What are the causes and location of the most likely diagnosis?

Oct – 2011

34 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q27 19 year old male presents with right sided flank pain. The urine dip stick is positive for blood.
There is no previous history. Serum urea and creatinine are normal.
c) What is the possible differential diagnosis?
d) What single imaging test is likely to be most helpful in resolving the differential?
e) What are the expected radiological findings?

Q28 A young male patient presented through OPD with repeated, episodes of attacks of paroxysmal
hypertension accompanied by headache, sweating, palpitations, anxiety and tremors. According
to the patient this attack lasts for 20-25 minutes. There is a history of similar attacks in his
brother as well.
d) What is the most likely cause?
e) What biochemical and radiological investigations would you perform to evaluate this
patient?

Mar – 2013
Q29 A 50 year old uncontrolled diabetic patient complains of severe pain in right loin, High grade
fever, ketoacidosis and hypotension. Ultrasound examination reveals linear echogenic shadows
outlining the right pelvicalyceal system with extension into renal parenchyma
d) What is the most likely diagnosis?
e) Give sonographic types and features of this entity.
f) What is the most sensitive modality for its diagnosis and grading?

Apr – 2014
Q30 A 20 years male presented in the emergency department with sudden severe right testicular
pain. On examination there was scrotal swelling and tenderness. Blood examination showed
leukocytosis.
a) How will you investigate this patient radiologically?
b) Briefly give differential diagnosis.
c) What are MR findings in subacute testicular torsion?

Oct – 2014
Q31 a) What is the role of CT in acute ureteric colic?
b) How is the CT examination performed?
c) Give its advantages and disadvantages.

Apr – 2015

35 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q32 A 4 years old girl has history of chronic bladder infections. Voiding cystourethrogram shows
reflux to the levels of the renal collecting system of left kidney with no evidence of dilatation of
calyceal system.
a) What is grade of reflux of this patient and give the grading system?
b) Which conditions are associated with it?
c) What complications are associated with it?

Oct – 2015
Q33 A young male presented with severe uncontrolled hypertension and an abdominal bruit.
a) What is the most probable diagnosis?
b) What methods of investigations will you employ to confirm the above diagnosis?
c) What are the causes of this condition?

Q34 An infant suffering from gastroenteritis has developed severe dehydration anurea, hematuria
and flank mass.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What will be the radiological findings/signs?

Apr – 2016
Q35 A 45 year male is being evaluated for hypertension. His serum creatinine is 4.0 mg/ml. His
haemoglobin is 7.0 g/dl with a microcytic hypochromic picture. Ultrasound shows bilateral
normal sized but echogenic kidneys.
a) List the diagnostic possibilities
b) The patient is referred for an image guided renal biopsy. What preparation will you advise?
c) The patient wants to know the risks involved. What will you tell him?

Oct-2016
Q36 A 38-year man has a history of hematuria. Small calcifications are seen within the kidney on
plain film. IVU shows contrast medium forming streaks in the region of the pyramids.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) What are the most likely differentials?
c) What are the likely complications of this disease?
d) What is the pathophysiology of this calcification?

Jan-2017

Q37 What is the role of sonography in evaluation of renal transplants?

36 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
July-2017

Q38 A 24 year patient presents with hypertension. USG shows normal sized kidneys with 1cm
difference in length of two kidneys. MRA of renal arteries is normal.

a) Which investigation will confirm/exclude renovascular hypertension?


b) What are the findings which will confirm renovascular hypertension on that
modality?

March-2018

Q39 a) Which is the most common solid benign tumor of kidney?


b) What is the only serious complication of this tumor?
c) When should we expect complication to occur?
d) What is the sonographic appearance of this tumor?
e) Which imaging technique will confirm the diagnosis?

37 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
GYN/OBS
MAR 2005
Q01 What are complication of hysterectomy? How can these be evaluated by imaging? Give the
important reasons of their occurrence.

SEP 2005
Q02 A 56 year old female developed post-menopausal vaginal bleeding. She was found to have
cervical mass on vaginal examination.
a) What modalities are available to image the mass?
b) Which is the single most useful modality and why?
c) Outline the staging for cervical carcinoma.

Feb -2007
Q03 What is the cause of polycystic ovarian disease? What are clinical, biochemical and
sonographic findings in this condition?

Aug-2007
Q04 a) What are the types of adnexal masses?
b) Give differential diagnosis of each type?

Aug – 2006
Q05 A pregnant hypertensive lady gives history of intra uterine growth regarding of her previous
baby. How will you manage this pregnancy ultrasonically?

Jan - 2008
Q06 What methods are available for screening of chromosomal abnormalities especially Downs
syndrome? What are different ultrasound markers for screening?

38 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
June – 2008
Q07 a) What is the relative role of CT and MRI of pelvis evaluating female genital tract
malignancy?
b) How can an ovarian mass be distinguished from pelvic lymphadenopathy on contrast CT
scan?

Q08 Enumerate the list of fetal urinary tract anomalies seen in third trimester of pregnancy and
describe the sonographic findings in case of posterior urethral valve?

Sep – 2009
Q09 A young pregnant female is preferred for reassessment of liquor volume
a) How do you assess the liquor volume?
b) What are possible causes of abnormal liquor volume?

Q10 A 35 year old female with dysmenorrheal has a clinical suspicion of adenomyosis
a) How would you confirm it?
b) What are types of adenomyosis?
c) What differential diagnosis would you consider?

Mar – 2010
Q11 A 30 year old multigravida presents with history of 6 weeks amenorrhea and vaginal bleeding.
a) What are the possible diagnosis?
b) How will you investigate this case?

Sep – 2010
Q12 A lady with 22 weeks pregnancy has come for antenatal obstetric ultrasound. The fetus shows
skin edema with ascites.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What other intrauterine ultrasound features do you expect to find?
c) What could be the possible cause leading to this condition?

39 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Mar – 2011
Q13 What are the clinical features and hormonal abnormalities in polycystic ovarian disease? What
are the radiological features which help to make the diagnosis?

Oct – 2011
Q14 Ultrasound in a post-menopausal woman with vaginal bleeding demonstrates thick and
irregular endometrium.
a) Give differential diagnosis of thick endometrium
b) What is the staging of endometrial cancer?
c) What radiological modality is most helpful for staging endometrial cancer?

Oct – 2013
Q15 Ultrasound is a 28 weeks pregnant woman demonstrates severe oligohydramnios.
a) What is the definition / criteria of oligohydramnios?
b) What are different fetal renal anomalies that can lead to oligohydramnios?
c) What are complications of oligohydramnios?

Apr – 2014
Q16 a) What are the risk factor for ectopic pregnancy?
b) What are the ultrasound findings in case of ectopic pregnancy?

Oct – 2014
Q17 US in pregnancy woman with hyperemesis demonstrates an enlarged uterus with a complex
uterine mass.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) What are the different types of this disease?
c) What is the role of Doppler ultrasound in its managements?

Oct – 2015
Q18 An old lady with history of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. On P/V examination she was
found to have a cervical mass.
a) What modalities are available to image the mass?
b) Which is single most useful modality and why?
c) Outline the staging of cervical carcinoma.

40 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Apr – 2016
Q19 A 50 year female, known patient of right sided Ca breast with history of mastectomy and
ongoing chemotherapy, has presented with per vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain.
a) What complication do you think has occurred in this patient and what could be the cause
of it?
b) What radiological investigation algorithm will you adopt in this patient starting from the
basic to the latest imaging modality?

Oct-2016

Q20 A 56-year female developed post-menopausal vaginal bleeding. She was found to have a
cervical mass on vaginal examination.

a) What modalities are available to image the mass?


b) What is the single most useful modality and why?
c) Outline the staging of cervical carcinoma.

Jan-2017

Q21 A 72-year old female presented with history of PV bleeding. On Pelvic ultrasonography the
endometrial thickness is 14mm. he patient is not on hormone replacement therapy. There is
no history of pain during bleeding.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis what is the differential diagnosis of endometrial
thickening in this age group?
b) What is the normal endometrial thickness in woman of reproductive age group and
post menopausal?
c) What is the most appropriate next investigation in this case?

41 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
March-2018

Q22 In an adult female patient with abdominal distension, CT shows multiple low attenuation
masses throughout the abdomen, some of which are causing scalloping of the liver edge.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis and differentials?


b) What are the associated plain film findings?

Q23 A 40 year mother of three presents with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea. Transvaginal
ultrasound shows an enlarged uterus with focal heterogenous myometrial echotexture. The
endometrium appears widened. On T2 weighted MRI there is hypointense elongated
myometrial mass with ill defined margins. The mass contains foci of high signal on both T1
and T2 weighted images and shows enhancement less than surrounding myometrium.

a) Give the most likely diagnosis?


b) Write two more MRI features of this disease?
c) Write ultrasound appearance which is typical of this disease?

Sep-2018

Q24 A 40-year mother of three children, presents with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea.
Transvaginal ultrasound shows an enlarged uterus with focal heterogenous myometrial
echotexture. The endometrium appear widened. On T2 weighted MRI there is hypointense
elongated myometrial mass with ill defined margins. The masses contains foci of high signal
on both T1 and T2 weighted images and shows enhancement less than surrounding
myometrium.

a) Give the most likely diagnosis?


b) Write two more MRI features of this disease.
c) Write ultrasound appearance which is typical of this disease.

42 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
HEAD & NECK
Mar – 2005
Q01 Briefly discuss the indications and justifications for the use of following investigations.
a) Skull series in head injury
b) Paranasal sinus x-rays
c) Lumbar spine in backache

Q02 What are the indications of ultrasonography of eye/ orbit? Findings do you expect in a case of
ocular trauma?

Q03 A 32 year old woman history of recent upper respiratory tract infection subsequent develops
painful enlargement of thyroid gland and low grade fever.
a) What is your clinical diagnosis?
b) Enlist different conditions causing painful enlargement of thyroid.
c) What findings do you expect in this patient on thyroid scan?

Q04 What are different benign cysts o the mandible. Give important differentiating radiographic
features of each.

Feb – 2007

Q05 During antenatal ultrasonograpy, a cystic mass is noted at cervico-cranial region of the fetus.
What is the differential diagnosis of this lesion? Give distinguishing ultrasonographic
features of each lesion?

Aug – 2007

Q06 A 60 years old female presents with history of progressive huskiness of voice since 3 months.
Since last 2 weeks she speaks in low whisper. Now she is totally aphonic associated with
mild to moderate dysphagia for both solids and liquids.
a) What is your most likely diagnosis?
b) How are they distributed anatomically?
c) Give their radiological features.

43 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Jan – 2008

Q07 At birth, a neonate has a swelling in the right lower third of neck. During the next 2 to 3
months the swelling enlarges and extends up to the right ear. It is soft and partially
compressible. It increases in size when the child coughs or cries.
a) What is the differential diagnosis?
b) Describe the imaging features and possible locations of cystic hygroma.
c) How will you investigate it radiologically?

June – 2008

Q08 What do you understand by osteomeatal unit? What is the CT protocol for imaging it? What
are its components? Enumerate variants of osteomeatal unit.

Mar – 2009

Q09 What are the different types of thyroid carcinoma? Describe radiological manifestations of
papillary carcinoma of thyroid.

Sep – 2010

Q10 A 70 year old smoker and alcoholic male presented with hoarseness of voice.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) What is patient invasion?
c) What is the staging scheme of this abnormality?

Mar – 2011
Q11 Non-resolving unilateral middle ear disease in an adult should trigger the search for which
lesion? What is the differential diagnosis? Give radiological features of the most sinister
diagnosis.

Oct – 2011
Q12 A 13 years male child comes with history of recurrent severe epistaxis, nasal speech and a
soft tissue mass in the nose on examination.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What are its radiological features?
c) What is the role of radiology in is management?

44 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Mar – 2013
Q13 A teenager presents with a slowly enlarging painless swelling on the left side of her neck.
Examination reveals a 5cm smooth, fluctuant swelling at the anterior aspect of the junction of
upper and middle thirds of sternocleidomastoid muscle.
a) Give four differential diagnoses
b) Name relevant investigations with justification.

Oct – 2013
Q14 A 32 years old woman with history of recent upper respiratory tract infection subsequently
develops painless enlargement of thyroid gland and low grade fever.
a) What is your clinical diagnosis?
b) Enlist different conditions causing painful enlargement of thyroid.
c) What findings do you expect in this patient on thyroid scan?

Apr – 2014
Q15 A 60 years old male presented with right sided hemiparesis. As part of his work up he has a
carotid Doppler examination.
a) What are the features that suggest the presence of internal carotid artery stenosis?
b) What criteria are used to diagnose significant carotid artery stenosis?

Apr – 2015
Q16 A 48 years old female developed painful mildly enlarged thyroid gland after throat infection.
a) What is the diagnosis and role of nuclear scan in this condition?
b) Is there any associated complication?
c) What is the prognosis of this patient?

Apr – 2016
Q17 A 40 year male presents with right side nasal obstruction, epistaxis, post nasal drip, headache
and recurrent sinusitis but no history of allergy.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) Give its complications
c) Give its characteristic MRI features.

Jan-2017
Q18 A 6-years old girl with an H/O congenital myelomeningocoele and VP shunt in place has
presented in the emergency department with progressive drowsiness and abdominal
distension.
a) How will you investigate this patient?
b) What are features of spinal dysraphism on antennal USG?

45 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
July-2017
Q19 A 55-year diabetic lady presents with high grade fever and pain in the neck on swallowing
following perceived fish bone ingestion.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Which two imaging modalities are most appropriate for this patient?
c) What are the important radiological features of the condition on those modalities?

March-2018
Q20 A forty year old woman presented with difficulty in swallowing. A lateral X-ray of the neck
shows anterior displacement of the aerodigestive tract due to a soft tissue density mass.
There is no gas mottling with this mass.
a) What are the differential diagnosis?
b) What would be the next most appropriate investigation?

46 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
CNS
Mar – 2005
Q01 Describe clinical and radiological features of Brain stem Glioma. Enumerate important
differential diagnosis.
a) Skull series in head injury
b) Paranasal sinus x-rays
c) Lumbar spine in backache

Q02 What are the normal structures associated with suprasellar space? List suprasellar tumor and
masses. Describe briefly the two commonest tumors at this region and their C appearances.

Sep – 2005
Q03 An 88 years old man presents with left arm cramping after exercise and gradual onset of
dizziness and vertigo. What will be the most appropriate diagnosis? Give its radiological detail.

Q04 Write short notes on


a) Empty sella syndrome
b) MRI features of cerebral tuberculomas

Mar – 2006
Q05 Which imaging modality is an investigation of choice for “ Multiple Sclerosis”.
a) What are the appearances of these lesions on this modality?
b) What is the discriminating criteria for these lesions?
c) What is the distribution of lesion (area involved)?

Q06 Twenty years old male was well until sustaining a head injury in a road traffic accident. He
made an uneventful recovery but has had three episodes of bacterial meningitis in the following
year.
a) What is the likely cause of these recurrent episodes?
b) How will you investigate this further?

47 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q07 Name the paediatric brain tumors which seed via subarachnoid space. What is the investigation
of choice and its extent?

Feb – 2007
Q08 What is the most common cause of sporadic acute viral encephalitis? What are the typical sites
involved? Which is the most sensitive imaging modality such case and what are its typical
findings?

Q09 a) A 67 years old male patient presented with seizures and mental status changes. His MRI
showed large heterogeneous mass in right frontal lobe with peripheral contrast
enhancement and extension across the mid line. Give its differential diagnosis.
b) What are the MRI features of glioblastoma multiforme.

Q10 A 20 year old motor cyclist is hit by bus. He is brought to trauma center with a Glasgow coma
score of 3/15. His CT head is apparently normal. He remains comatosed without signs of raised
intracranial pressure.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) What is the most sensitive imaging modality for the diagnosis? What are its features on this
modality.
c) What is the likely prognosis if the diagnosis is confirmed?

Q11 A 59 year old male presents with ptosis and wasting of the small muscles of hand on the right
side.
a) What is the most likely site of the lesion?
b) Give a differential diagnosis of lesions at this site.
c) What is the modality of choice and give the appearance of the most common cause.

Aug – 2007
Q12 What is caudal regression syndrome? Enumerate the spinal cord and genitourinary
anomalies in this syndrome.

Q13 Write short notes on:


a) CT appearance of cerebral tuberculomas
b) Medulloblastoma

48 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Jan – 2008
Q14 A 20 year old female with no previous co-morbidity, developed progressively severe headache
following the home delivery of her third child. The headache got worse over a period of 8 hours
following which she had a tonic clinic seizure and became unresponsive. She is afebrile.
a) Give a likely differential.
b) Outline a radiological strategy.
c) Give radiological features of the most likely diagnosis.

Q15 What are the midline supratentorial masses? Give radiological features of pineal tumours.

June – 2008
Q16 Describe the epidermoid tumours of the CNS.

Q17 A 62 year old female presents after 4 hours of acute onset of right sided weakness.
a) What immediate radiological investigation would you do and why?
b) What are the possible radiological findings and how will they influence the management of
the patient?

Q18 What are chemodectomas? Give their location and imaging features.

Mar – 2009
Q19 A 25 year old male with no previous history of significance suffer a whiplash injury in a car
accident. He presents to ER 6 hours later with left sided weakness. On examination he has right
hemi paresis along with left ptosis and left sided small pupil. He has pain in the left side of neck
on head turning. Over the next 6 hours his hemiparesis resolves totally but his left eye changes
persist.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
How would you investigate him to confirm or rule out this diagnosis?

Q20 A 50 year female presents with serosanguinous discharge from the right ear. There is a prior
history of pulsatile tinnitus for a year.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) Give its radiological appearances?

49 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q21 A 14 year old female presents with bilateral visual failure. On examination she has axillary
freckling along with patchy skin pigmentation.

Sep – 2009
Q22 A young female presents with multiple asymmetric cranial nerve palsies and headache. Her MRI
head shows extensive DURAL enhancement. Enlist the different causes of such dural changes.

Q23 A well build 40 year female presented with gradual onset paraparesis. There are no
constitutional symptoms and the clinical suspicion of cord compromise is raised.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) What are its radiological findings?

Q24 A young man presents with diabetes inspidus. His MRI head demonstrates an infundibular
mass.
What are the possible causes? Briefly describe their features.

Q25 A 9 month old baby is referred to your department for investigation of craniosynostosis.
a) How craniosynostosis is broadly classified and how is it best investigated?
b) Briefly describe each of them with pertinent radiological features if any.

Mar – 2010
Q26 A 39 year old female suffers a sub arachnoid haemorrhage as demonstrated by CT scanning.
The blood is present in the ambient cistern around the mid brain only.
a) What radiological investigation is indicated immediately?
b) If all investigations are negative what advise will you give to the patient?
c) If vasospasm develops, but all other investigations are negative what advise will you give to
the patient?

Q27 What is spinal stenosis? How does it presents? Enumerate causes of spinal stenosis?
Describe MR findings in degenerative spinal stenosis?

50 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q28 A 40 year old woman presents with right sided proptosis.
a) What is the most likely cause of this in this patient?
b) What would be the patient’s presenting clinical features?
c) What structures will be involved in the orbit
d) How can the diagnosis be confirmed and involvement of which ocular muscle is taken as
more specific for this condition?

Sep – 2010
Q29 A previously healthy 30 year old man presents with monocular visual loss, gait difficulties,
numbness and dyesthesia. He has been diagnosed by the clinician as having multiple sclerosis.
a) Which is the radiological modality of choice for diagnosing this condition? Give the
diagnostic criteria
b) What are the “Rudick red flags” which suggest an alternate diagnosis?

Q30 Name the tumors in crerebellopontine angle cistern and give MR features of most common CP
angle tumour.

Mar – 2011
Q31 A newborn male is examined in the nursery by the pediatrician. He was delivered by
spontaneous vaginal delivery without complications. On physical examination patient is found
to have facial nevus. He has focal tonic clonic seizures contra lateral to the side of nevus. What
is the diagnosis? Give clinical and radiological imaging features.

Q32 A 23 year old male with no comorbid presents with a 2 hour history of drowsiness and
disorientation. He is afebrile. His neck is supple. His CT had shown a low attenuation area in the
left frontal lobe with no significant enhancement.
a) What are the possible differentials?
b) How would MR help in clarifying the differential?

Mar – 2011
Q33 A 60 year old male with a focal lesion in the left frontal lobe is referred for a Magnetic
Resonance Spectroscopy of the lesion. The examination is carried out on a 1.5T scanner
using a TE of 144 ms. This shows an inverted doublet peak at 1.66ppm.
a) What does this inverted doublet peak represent?
b) What is its significance?
c) What are the major metabolites in a normal MR spectrum of the brain? What do they
represent?

51 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q34 A 28 years old male presents with bilateral acoustic neuromas.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Enumerate different types of neurocutaneous syndromes phakomatosis.
c) Give radiological features of acoustic neuroma on magnetic resonance imaging.

Q35 A 10 years old boy is complaining of increasing spasticity of the lower limbs. On
examination he has a dimple I the lower back with a tuft of hair.
a) What is the most probable diagnosis?
b) Give its radiological features.

Mar – 2012
Q36 A 10 year old body visits radiology department with VP shunt in situ for treatment of
obstructive hydrocephalus.
How will you radiologically evaluate the functioning of VP shunt?
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What are its radiological features?

Oct – 2012
Q37 A 35 year old female teacher presented to neurosurgery with long standing history of
sensorineural hearing loss, diminished corneal reflex and ataxia. MRI brain showed a
mass in the right cerebello-pontine angle.
a) Give a differential of CP angle masses?
b) Give the MR features of epidermoid cyst particularly on diffusion weighted imaging
and FLAIR sequence.

Q38 Brian MRI in a middle age woman with pulsatile tinnitus demonstrates an enhancing
mass near the right jugular bulb?
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) Give differential diagnosis?
c) What are the common locations of this lesion in the head and neck?

52 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Mar – 2013
Q39 A premature low birth weight neonate presents with fits and there is suspicion of intracranial
hemorrhage.
a) Which is the commonest site of intracranial hemorrhage in these babies?
b) Which is the commonest utilized imaging modality for its diagnosis?
c) Enumerate grades of intracerebral hemorrhage in premature low birth weight neonates.

Q40 A young man presents in emergency with seizures. He has previous abdominal ultrasounds and
an echocardiogram as a child. CT shows a well-defined mass in the region of Foramen of Monro
with partial calcification.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What other CNS findings are expected in this case?

Q41 An 18 year old boy is being investigated for subarachnoid hemorrhage after suspicion of a
berry aneurysm on CT head. Clinical data revealed long standing hypertension and
claudication. Blood pressure taken from his right arm before the procedure was at upper
normal limit but there was great difficulty in cannulating his femoral artery.
a) What is the likely diagnosis?
b) Give imaging features of this condition.
c) Enlist associations.

Oct – 2013
Q42 A 23 years old man presents with severe positional headache. MRI demonstrates a 1.5cm mass
in the ventral aspect of 3rd ventricle.
a) What is the cause of positional headache?
b) Give MR and CT features.
c) How frequently does it occur in children and what is its etiology?

Mar – 2014
Q43 Brain MRI in a neonate demonstrate an enlarged posterior fossa, absent vermis and a mid-line
cyst?
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) Enlist differential diagnosis of a cystic lesion of posterior fossa.
c) List at least four brain anomalies associated with this diagnosis.

53 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q44 A 24 years old male with no prior history is involved in a road traffic accident. A CT scan of the
head shows a well-defined 20mm low attenuation lesion in the left temporal pole. There is mass
effect but no edema. The lesion appears to be extra axial. The density is measured at zero HU.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What are its features on Pre and post contrast MR scans?
c) List common cranial locations of this lesion.

Oct – 2014
Q45 A two months old hypotonic baby was morphologically abnormal. He had a cleft palate and
hypotelorism. CT revealed fused thalami, a large mono ventricle, corpus callosum agenesis,
absent falx and absent interhemispheric fissure.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) How will you differentiate between holoprosencephaly and hydranencephaly?
c) Give the imaging features which discriminate between communicating and
non-communicating hydrocephalus.

Q46 a) What are the most common causes of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis?
b) Give the CT and MR appearances of cerebral venous infarction.

Apr – 2015
Q47 A 23 years old male, IV drug abuser, presented with severe neck stiffness and vomiting. On CSF
routine examination he has numerous RBCs.
a) What is the diagnosis and pathophysiology?
b) How will you investigate this patient

Oct – 2015
Q48 A 65 year old man presented with slowly progressive paraparesis. MRI spine revealed increased
signal intensity lesion in the cord from T6 downward on T2 weighted images along with flow
voids dorsal to the thoracic cord.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Briefly give differential diagnosis and image findings.

54 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Apr – 2016
Q49 A 30 years old male presented with severe headache, vomiting and eye pain in the emergency.
According to him he experienced imbalance and loss of sensations as well. His elder brother
had similar complaints a few years back and later on had renal surgery as well.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) How will you proceed radiologically?
c) What are the CNS manifestations of this disease?

Oct-2016

Q50 A 10-year child presents to the physician because of a new onset seizure. The patient has 1-
month history of severe headache and a progressively worsening wide based gait. What is the
differential diagnosis and the imaging features of the most likely diagnosis?

Q50 A 5-year child who was previously diagnosed as having neurofibromatosis-l presented with
slowly progressive painless loss of vision in both yes. CT orbit, axial section with contrast
showed bilateral optic nerve lesions.

a) State the protocol for orbital CT.


b) Give the most probable diagnosis.
c) How will you radiologically differentiate between glioma and optic nerve sheath
meningioma?

Jan-2017

Q51 A 30-year old male, security guard by profession presented in the emergency with severe
headache, seizures and focal neurological deficit in right upper limb in the month of heat
wave of June. The patient was also fasting at that time. According to him he was a non-
smoker and had no co-morbid.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) What are expected MR brain findings on various sequences in the particular case?
c) How will you proceed further to confirm your diagnosis?

Q52 A 20 years male presents with gradual onset of neck pain and painful lump in the upper
neck posteriorly. X-ray cervical spine shows destructive lesion of the C2 vertebrae.
Enumerate differential diagnosis & radiological investigation which support your diagnosis
appropriately?

55 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
July-2017

Q53 A 12-year girl develops sudden onset headache, low grade fever and seizures after cold and flu
for few days. On examination her mental status was altered. Her CSF analysis shows raised
lymphocytes with normal neutrophils. Her CT brain shows low density areas in temporal
lobes.

a) What is the diagnosis?


b) What are the radiological findings on the radiological investigation of choice?
c) What other differentials would you consider?

March-2018

Q54 A 4 year girl with complaints of sudden onset headache and seizures was referred for CT
brain that showed diffuse hypodensity of left cerebral hemisphere with sparing of thalami
and basal ganglia and gyriform enhancement on CECT.

a) What is the most probable diagnosis?


b) List three differential diagnosis and also state how will you differentiate between each
condition?
c) What is the appropriate next investigation?
d) Name the gold standard lab investigation for your diagnosis?

Q55 An 18-year boy came to neurology clinic with progressive mental retardation and myoclonic
seizures since childhood. He also has complains of flank pain off and on for which abdominal
ultrasound was carried out and revealed multiple renal cysts bilaterally. On physical
examination he was found to have brownish red nodules on his nose and cheek. His elder
sister also had similar type of nodules on her face and died at the age of 20 due to same renal
problem.

a) Give the most likely diagnosis of his symptoms.


b) Give the CNS manifestation of this disease.
c) Briefly highlight the renal complications of this disease.

56 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Sep-2018

Q56 A 30-year female complains of increasing headache, episodic vomiting and drowsiness.
Fundoscopy reveals papilledema. No contrast enhanced Ct of the head demonstrates
hydrocephalus and a globular lesion in the lateral ventricle. There is several small internal
foci of calcifications. MR shows the mass to be attached to the septum pellucidum. It is ISO
intense to grey matter on T1 and T2 and enhances densely after intravenous gadolinium.

a) Give the most likely diagnosis in this case.


b) What are the differential diagnosis of intraventricular masses with same
differentiating points?

Q57 A 60-year old man presented with impaired vision and irritation right eye for last six months.
On fundoscopy the vitreous shows mass with chorioretinal detachment.

a) What is your diagnosis?


b) What are the imaging modalities and findings helpful in diagnosis?
c) What important features seen on USG, required for photocoagulation treatment?

Q58 An 18-year boy came to neurology clinic with progressive mental retardation and myoclonic
seizures since childhood. He also has complains of flank pain off and on for which abdominal
ultrasound was carried out and revealed multiple renal cysts bilaterally. On physical
examination he was found to have brownish red nodules on his nose and cheek. His elder
sister also had similar type of nodules on her face and died at the age of 20 due to same renal
problem.

a) Give the most likely diagnosis of his symptoms.


b) Give the CNS manifestation of this disease.
c) Briefly highlight the renal complications of this disease.

57 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
MSK
Mar – 2005
Q01 What are the causes of a painful knee in an active growing child without any obvious history of
trauma? Give radiological features of each condition.

Q02 What is pseudo dislocation of schedule? Give its causes. Give the radiographic features
posterior dislocation of soldier.

Sep – 2005
Q03 Describe the MR and ultrasound features of rotator cuff tear.

58 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q04 Ten years old boy being treated for acute myeloid leukaemia presents with acute left hip pain.
The plain film was normal.
c) What is the differential diagnosis?
d) Which single investigation is the most helpful in differentiating between these entities?

Mar – 2006
Q05 A 13 years old boy presents to an out patient clinic with complaints of knee pin and edema of
soft tissues anterior to the tibial tubersoity. Give the differential diagnosis and discuss the most
appropriate one?

Q06 Discuss the pathology and radiological appearances of myelosclerosis.

Q07 A 10 years old child has a lucent lesion in his tibial diaphysis. What plain film signs will help you
differentiating between benign and malignant causes?

Q08 What is Erlenmeyer Flask deformity. What is its clinical significance and pathophysiology.

Aug – 2006
Q09 Give your approach for interpretation of cervical spine film in a trauma patient. What is the
mechanism of Jefferson fracture? Which is the key radiographic view for this fracture and give
its radiographic features .

Q10 What is the age and sex incidence of slipped femoral capital epiphysis? What radiographic
views would be required? What are the radiological signs? What can be the late complications
of this disease?

Feb – 2007
Q11 Enumerate the synonyms of “Osteonecrosis”. What are the changes on an x-ray in
osteonecrosis? Which is the single, most specific and sensitive imaging modality for this lesion
and what are the sequential changes in osteonecrosis noted on this imaging modality?

59 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q12 What are the bones commonly involved in eosinophilic granuloma? What are the common
clinical features? What are the characteristic radiographic features in these bone lesions? What
is the differential diagnosis of such solitary bone lesion?

Q13 What are the components of madelung deformity? Enumerate different causes of this condition.

Aug – 2007
Q14 A young African male studying in Pakistan has history of joint and bone pain for last 6 to 7
months. He also complains of abdominal cramps.
a) What is your most likely diagnosis?
b) Give the radiological features of plain film.

Q15 a) Name the disease of Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies.


b) Describe briefly the radiological features of Psoriatic Arthritis.

Q16 a) What pathology is involved in cases of avascular necrosis?


b) What radiological changes you will see in avascular necrosis?

Q17 What is the significance of radionuclide scanning in bone infection

Jan – 2008
Q18 a) What are different pattern of bone metastases an likely tumours producing each pattern?
b) What will be your radiological approach in a patient suspected to have bony metastatic
disease?

Q19 A female aged 9 years give a history of leg pain and limping on the left side for one year, which
has increased in the last two months. Her mother also noticed some protuberance on left side
of the skull with mild exophthalmos and visual impairment in the left eye. she also complains of
abnormal vaginal bleeding for last two months. On examination she looks healthy and afebrile.
All her reports are normal except increased alkaline phosphatase level irregular brownish skin
patches were noted over left shoulder, neck and back of trunk.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Give its types and radiological features

60 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
c) Give its common associations

Q20 A 43 year old woman presents with a history of generalized bone and epigastric pain. On
ultrasound she has bilateral renal calculi.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) How would you investigate this patient?
c) What are the important radiological findings?

June – 2008
Q21 A 14 year old boy presents with fracture at right proximal humerus after minor trauma. There
is a well defined lucency at the fracture site on initial x-ray.
a) What is the most likely cause, describe its radiological features?
b) Briefly discuss the differential diagnosis.

Q22 Describe radiologic features of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

Q23 A patient with hip prosthesis complains of localized pain in that region. What can be different
causes of this pain. What findings do you expect on radiological investigations?

Mar – 2009
Q24 Describe MR technique and normal anatomy of menisci of knee. Give MR findings of different
meniscal pathologies.

Q25 How would you classify primary tumour of bone, describe clinical and imaging features of
Ewing’s sarcoma.

61 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q26 A 10 year old child with short height has deformed knees, short neck and is hypotonic. He is
progressively getting deaf besides developing corneal opacities. He has excessive urinary
keratin sulphate.
a) What type of dwarfism are you suspecting?
b) Give its radiologic findings
c) What other causes would you consider – just enlist?

Sep – 2009
Q27 How would you classify the fractures of the pelvis and hip relative to the force of injury? Give
the radiological features of each injury.

Q28 A 30 year old female undergoes MRI for backache. There are multiple marrow signal changes
in the vertebrae. Plain x-rays were unremarkable.
a) What is your differential diagnosis?
b) What signal changes would you expect with each condition?

Q29 50 year old woman develops a hard lump around her right shoulder. Plain x-ray shows
periarticular soft tissue calcification.
What conditions would you suspect? List and briefly highlight the relevant characteristic
features.

Mar – 2010
Q30 An 8-year old boy presented with bilateral leg stiffness and repeated urinary infections. His
radiological investigations related to urinary tract proved to be normal. X-ray lumbosacral
spine was abnormal.
a) What are likely possibilities?
b) Name investigation of choice and describe imaging findings.

62 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q31 A young athlete attending a physical training camp and subjected to prolonged running on
uneven gravel complains of pain is the hind foot with difficulty in walking.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis
b) Which radiologic modality can pin point the diagnosis?
c) What will be the expected findings?

Q32 An adolescent came to the radiology department with painful swelling around the knee joint.
Plain x-ray shows Tibial metadiaphyseal periosteal reaction.
What is your differential diagnosis?

Q33 Discuss the radiological manifestations of calcium pyro-phosphate deposition disease.

Q34 A 20 years old female presents with pain in the pelvic region after minor trauma. X-ray pelvis
shows a large expansile lesion I superior pubic ramus with sclerosis and another ground glass
lesion in the upper end of the right femur.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What can be additional findings on radiographs?
What are the complications of this disease process?

Q34 A 13 years old presents to outpatient department with complaint of knee pain and edema of soft
tissues, anterior to the tibial tuberosity. Give the differential diagnosis and explain the most
appropriate one.

Q35 A 75 years old male after completion of treatment for adenocarcinoma rectum has pain in his
right hip. There is no convincing history of trauma. Initial plain x-ray film is unremarkable.
a) What are probable local causes of this pain?
b) How would you investigate of this patient and what radiologic findings would expect?

Mar – 2011
Q36 A 28 year old woman passenger in a car, is brought to emergency room following a road traffic
accident in which the driver of the car was killed. Although there are multiple bruises on her
body, there is no obvious external haemorrhage. She is awake, but crying incessantly. Her BP is
110/70, HR 110/min, both pupils equal and reactive.
a) What radiologist investigations are indicated immediately in the resuscitation room?
b) What is their rationale?
c) What additional radiological tests may be indicated later?

63 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q37 A 40 year old man on prolonged steroid therapy develops pain in left hip with clinical suspicion
of avascular necrosis (AVN) of left femoral head.
a) What are the stages of AVN of hip on plain x-ray?
b) Enumerate the different radiological modalities for diagnosis of AVN.
c) Which is the most sensitive radiological modality for its detection?
d) Give the appearance of AVN on this modality.

Q38 An 18 year old male is suffering from scoliosis. He has pain in his back which worsens at night
and is not relieved by aspirin.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What are the findings on:
1. Radionuclide bone scan
2. Conventional bone scan
3. MRI

Q39 What types of biopsy procedures may be performed to evaluate breast lesions?

Q40 A 2 year old child is brought to physician because of bluish nodules, orbit proptosis and
peri-orbital ecchymosis which have developed over the last few days. On Physical examination
a hard smooth abdominal mass is palpable. On CXR multiple osseous lytic lesions are present.
What is the diagnosis? How will you radiologically evaluate this patient?.

Oct – 2011
Q41 Radiograph of an 11 years old girl with leg pain shows a permeative lesion in the diaphysis with
a “sunburst” type of periosteal reaction and irregular margins
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) What are the differential diagnosis?
c) What are the round cell tumors? Gives examples.
d) What pediatric tumors commonly metastasize to the bone?

64 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q42 A 50 years old female with longstanding history of chronic renal insufficiency, presents with
backache and generalized bone pains for many weeks. Her x-ray lumbosacral spine and pelvis
revealed alternating dense and lucent bands in the vertebral bodies and lucent bands in the ribs
and medical margins of the femoral neck.
a) What is the most likely abnormality?
b) What is its pathogenesis?
c) What are its salient imaging features?

Q43 Female aged 13 noticed gradual onset of muscle weakness, low grade fever, muscle aches and
difficulty in breathing. These symptoms were present for 1 year, but increased in the last two
months. For one week she has also developed erythematous papules on the hip, knee and elbow
joints and on the chest and upper back. Her blood and urinalysis show evaluated serum
creatinine phosphokinase and aldolase level.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Give its radiological features.

May 2012
Q44 A 15 year old female presented with pain in right shoulder joint of relatively acute onset with
rapid increase of severity. He x-ray shows expansile lytic lesion in the metaphysic of humerus
with narrow zone of transition.
a) What is most probable diagnosis and what is the different diagnosis?
b) What could be the CT and MRI features in the case?

Oct 2012
Q45 A 30 year old female presents with chronic constipation and generalized bone aches and pains
and episodes of severe epigastria pain. On investigation she has bilateral renal calculi and
hypercalcemia..
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) What imaging modalities will you employ in such patients?
c) Give plain film findings of bones and soft tissues in such patients.

Mar 2013

65 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q46 A young boy treated for acute myeloid leukemia, presents with acute left hip pain. The plain
film was normal.
a) What is the differential diagnosis?
b) Which single investigation is the most useful in differentiating between these and how?

Oct 2013
Q47 A 70 years old female presents with back pain for the last 4 months. There is no history of
trauma but there is history of repeated infections, weight loss and low grade fever. On
examination there is mild tenderness along the entire length of dorso-lumber spine.
c) What is the most likely diagnosis?
d) Give differential diagnosis.
e) Give four investigations (which should include atleast three radiological investigations)
with important relevant findings.

Apr 2014
Q48 A 30 years old female on long term steroid therapy is suspected of having Avascular necrosis of
hip.
a) How will you investigation?
b) Outline MR features of avascular necrosis.
Name common causes of avascular necrosis.

Oct 2014
Q49 MRI of the knee joint in a 43 years old basketball player. Shows a thickened and indistinct
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on proton density images as well as adjacent edema and
fluid on T2W images..
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) Give the attachments of ACL.
c) What is the location of ACL with respect to PCL?
d) What are secondary signs of ACL injury?

Apr 2015
Q50 A 30 year old man is admitted in hospital following seizure. After successful resuscitation in
Emergency department, he complains of pain in right shoulder with decreased range of
movement.
a) What is the likely cause?
b) Write finding on MRI.
c) What is rim sign?

66 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Oct 2015
Q51 A 14 year old boy presents with unilateral asymmetrical swelling of left foot and lower leg
with multiple blue subcutaneous nodules especially on toes and dorsum of foot. His X-ray of
left foot revealed multiple well difined lytic expansile lesions in phalanges and metatarsals
with no cortical breakthrough or periosteal reaction. Fwd of these lucent bone lesions
showed calcification in term. Few soft tissue calcific were also seen in soft tissues.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) Enumerate its components.
c) Enumerate radiological features of this entity on plain film.
d) Enumerate its complications.

Apr 2016
Q52 A six-year child presents with a history of 12 weeks of pain and swelling over the left knee.
On examination there was pyrexia and left knee effusion. Blood tests showed a raised
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and a radiograph shows and aggressive destructive
lesion in the distal femur and lamellated periosteal reaction.
a) What is the most likely diagnosis?
b) Give brief account of imaging features.
c) What will be the major differentials?

Q53 Plain film of the chest and abdomen in a 70-year patient with history of fatigue and anemia
demonstrate diffuse bony sclerosis and splenomegaly.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) Give differential diagnosis?
c) What are common sites for extra medullar hematopoiesis?

Oct-2016

Q54 A six year child presents with fever. His x-ray shows coarse trabecular pattern of the ribs. His
blood picture shows hypochromic microcytic anemia. Clinically he has growth retardation.

a) What is the diagnosis?


b) What is the differential diagnosis?
c) Give its radiological features.

67 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q55 Chest X-ray of a 65-year male with the clinical history of rising creatinine, frequent
pneumonia and generalized fatigue shows multiple lytic lesions in the spine and ribs.

a) What is the diagnosis?


b) What is the differential diagnosis?
c) Which radiological investigation is more sensitive, bone scan or plain film and why?
d) What is the cause of renal failure in such patient?

Jan-2017

Q56 A 33-year old male presented with enlargement of hand and feet along with visual
disturbances and headache.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) What re the important radiological features of the disease?
c) What are the possible complications of this disease?

July-2017

Q57 An 84 years woman felt a “snap” in her back, and had the sudden onset of back pain while
bending. She has a history of chronic back pain and arthritis, COPD and is on chronic steroid
therapy. She has no radicular pain, numbness, tingling, or paresthesias. She has normal
control of bowel and bladder function. She has moderate to severe bilateral lumbar
paraspinous muscle spasm and midline tenderness to palpation.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) What is the most appropriate imaging technique for patients with new onset of acute
low back pain with possible radiological findings?
c) What is the next step in management with possible imaging findings?

March-2018

68 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q58 A young man in good health presents with a femoral fracture after minor trauma.
Radiographs of the femur show diffuse sclerosis and Erlenmeyer flask deformity. His renal
function is normal.

a) What is the diagnosis?


b) What are forms of disease process and how they differ in inheritance & prognosis?
c) Which other three entities are characterized by abnormal proliferation of cortical bone?

Sep-2018

Q59 A 56-year male presents with acute onset of pain in the left big toe. There is no history of
trauma. On examination the toe is swollen and inflamed. No other joints are involved. On
plain film there is soft tissue swelling with preserved periarticular bone density and no
erosions.

a) What are the differential diagnosis?


b) What blood tests will be helpful in differentiating the various conditions?

Q60 A 10-year girl has complaint of joint pain for the past two years. The pain is localizing to her
knees and ankles. It occurs with or without movement. The arthralgias are accompanied by
fever. On physical examination she has a temp 37.8oC. There is no deformity of her knees.
She has generalized lymphadenopathy.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) Classify seronegative arthritis?
c) How does osteoarthritis differ from inflammatory arthritis?

BREAST
Mar – 2005
Q01 A 40 years old female noticed a clinically palpable lump in her right breast. On mammogram
this is visible as a circumscribed soft tissue density mass lesion. What is the differential
diagnosis and guidelines for management of such lesion?

Sep – 2005
Q02 What are the breast imaging reporting and dictation system (BIRADs) reporting codes and
what follow up is recommended for each code?

Mar – 2006

69 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q03 List the fat density lesions seen on mammogram and describe the mammographic
appearances of important lesions.

Aug – 2007
Q04 A women aged 40 years came with history of bright red bloody and occasionally dark blood
stained discharge from the right nipple. On examination a doubtful small cystic swelling was
felt beneath the areola. On pressure discharge from the nipple is noted.
Give differential diagnosis and brief mammographic and ultrasound features.

Jan – 2008
Q05 Give any four important indications for ultrasonography of the breast? What are ultrasound
characteristics of benign and malignant solid breast lesion?

Mar – 2009
Q06 a. What are the aims of breasts cancer screening?
b. Which factors influence the sensitivity of screening mammography?

Q07 How do you compare benign breast lesion with malignant lesion on conventional and MR
mammography.

Sep – 2010
Q08 What is the indications of breasts MRI? What are the MR appearance of breasts cancer?

Oct – 2011
Q09 A 40 year old female noticed a clinically palpable lump in her right breast. On mammogram
this is visible as a circumscribed soft tissue density mass lesion.
a. What is the differential diagnosis?
b. How will you manage such a lesion?
c. Name ring enhancing lesions on MR mammogram.

70 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Oct – 2012
Q10 A 40 year old women presents with blood stained nipple discharge with normal mammogram.
a) What is the diagnosis?
b) Give differential diagnosis?
c) What is the next investigation in workup and how will you perform it in your institution?

Apr – 2015
Q11 a. What are indications for diagnosis breasts MRI?
b. What is the difference between contrast enhancement washout pattern in benign and
malignant lesions?

July-2017
Q12 A 57 year woman presents with recent blood stained left nipple discharge. The patient has
no mass, pain or skin changes. She undergoes annual screening mammography, and the
most recent mammogram, done 4 months prior to presentation was negative.

a) What is the most likely diagnosis?


b) What imaging study is most appropriate for this patient?
c) What are the important radiological features of the disease on this modality?
d) What is the final step in management?

PROCEDURES
Mar – 2005
Q1 What is the role and features of arteriography in tumors? Give example.

71 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Q2 What are the complications of angioplasty of a peripheral vascular lesion? How would you
manage distal embolization?

Feb – 2007
Q3 What is technical and pathophysiological basis for FDG PET in malignant tumours.

Jan – 2008
Q4 Describe the role of CT PET in oncological imaging.

Sep – 2010
Q5 A male with chronic viral hepatitis has had liver transplantation.
a. Briefly explain the preoperative assessment necessary for liver transplantation
recipient.
b. Which postoperative complications, he might have and how they should be
assessed radiologically?

Mar – 2011
Q6 In a patient with normal renal function what is the maximum dose of contrast medium for:
a) Catheter cerebral angiography
b) Lumbar myelography
What precautions will you take in patient who needs CT head with contrast and has a strong
history of atopy?

72 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi
Oct – 2011
Q7 A 29 year old male with Hepatitis C is referred for a core liver biopsy to assess the level of
fibrosis. His INR is 4.0.
a. How will you prepare the patient?
b. Despite your measures the coagulation profile is not optimized, how will you modify the
procedure to manage the risk in this patient?

Oct – 2013
Q8 A young healthy adult male is brought in the Radiology. He is a potential renal donor.
a) What imaging modalities can be used for evaluation of his renal system?
b) What protocols should be used for MR and CT scans?

Apr – 2015
Q9 What is role of ultrasound guided interventions for pancreatic pathologies?
What are their complications?

Oct – 2015
Q10 A 40 year old male with a strong history of coronary heart disease is referred for coronary
calcium score.
a. Give briefly account of this procedure
b. The patient’s calcium score is 105. What is its implication?

73 KAZMI SEQs Radiology(2005-18) …… Dr. M.Ali Qamar & Dr. Syed Fakhar Abbas Shah Kazmi