Sei sulla pagina 1di 97

Contents

1

International Mathematics Olympiad

 

6

1.1 1 st IMO, Romania, 1959

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

6

1.2 2 nd IMO, Romania, 1960

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7

1.3 3 rd IMO, Hungary, 1961

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

8

1.4 4 th IMO, Czechoslovakia, 1962 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

9

1.5 5 th IMO, Poland, 1963

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

10

1.6 6 th IMO, USSR, 1964 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11

1.7 7 th IMO, West Germany, 1965

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11

1.8 8 th IMO, Bulgaria, 1966

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

12

1.9 9 th IMO, Yugoslavia, 1967

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

13

1.10 10 th IMO, USSR, 1968

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

14

1.11 11 th IMO, Romania, 1969

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

16

1.12 12 th IMO, Hungary, 1970

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

16

1.13 13 th IMO, Czechoslovakia, 1971

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18

 

1

2

CONTENTS

1.14 14 th IMO, USSR, 1972

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

18

1.15 15 th IMO, USSR, 1973

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

19

1.16 16 th IMO, West Germany, 1974

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

20

1.17 17 th IMO, Bulgaria, 1975 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

21

1.18 18 th IMO, Austria, 1976

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

22

1.19 19 th IMO, Yugoslavia, 1977

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

23

1.20 20 th IMO, Romania, 1978

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

24

1.21 21 st IMO, United Kingdom, 1979

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

25

1.22 22 nd IMO, Washington, USA, 1981

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

26

1.23 23 rd IMO, Budapest, Hungary, 1982

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

27

1.24 24 th IMO, Paris, France, 1983

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

28

1.25 25 th IMO, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1984

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29

1.26 26 th IMO, Helsinki, Finland, 1985

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

30

1.27 27 th IMO, Warsaw, Poland, 1986

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

31

1.28 28 th IMO, Havana, Cuba , 1987

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

32

1.29 29 th IMO, Camberra, Australia, 1988

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

33

1.30 30 th IMO, Braunschweig, West Germany, 1989

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

34

1.31 31 st IMO, Beijing, People’s Republic of China, 1990 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

36

1.32 32 nd IMO, Sigtuna, Sweden, 1991

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

37

1.33 33 rd IMO, Moscow, Russia, 1992

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

38

CONTENTS

3

 

1.34 34 th IMO, Istambul, Turkey, 1993

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

39

1.35 35 th IMO, Hong Kong, 1994

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

40

1.36 36 th IMO, Toronto, Canada, 1995

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

41

1.37 37 th IMO, Mumbai, India, 1996

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

42

1.38 38 th IMO, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 1997

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

43

1.39 39 th IMO, Taipei, Taiwan, 1998

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

44

1.40 40 th IMO, Bucharest, Romania, 1999

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

45

1.41 41 st IMO, Taejon, South Korea, 2000

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

46

1.42 42 nd IMO, Washington DC, USA, 2001

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

47

1.43 43 rd IMO, Glascow, United Kingdom, 2002 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

48

1.44 44 th IMO, Tokyo, Japan, 2003

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

49

2

William Lowell Putnam Competition

 

50

2.1 46 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1985

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

50

2.2 47 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1986

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

52

2.3 48 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1987

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

54

2.4 49 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1988

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

56

2.5 50 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1989

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

58

2.6 51 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1990

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

60

2.7 52 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1991

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

62

2.8 53 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1992

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

64

4

CONTENTS

 

2.9 54 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1993

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

66

2.10 55 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1994

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

68

2.11 56 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1995

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

69

2.12 57 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1996

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

71

2.13 58 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1997

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

73

2.14 59 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1998

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

75

2.15 60 th Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 1999

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

76

2.16 61 st Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 2000

 

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

79

2.17 62 nd Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 2001

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

80

2.18 63 rd Anual William Lowell Putnam Competition, 2002

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

81

3

Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiads

84

3.1 1 st Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1989 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

84

3.2 2 nd Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1990

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

85

3.3 3 rd Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1991

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

86

3.4 4 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1992 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

86

3.5 5 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1993 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

87

3.6 6 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1994 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

88

3.7 7 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1995 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

89

3.8 8 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1996 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

90

3.9 9 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1997 .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

91

CONTENTS

5

3.10 10 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1998

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

92

3.11 11 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 1999

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

93

3.12 12 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 2000

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

93

3.13 13 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 2001

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

94

3.14 14 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 2002

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

95

3.15 15 th Asiatic Pacific Mathematical Olympiad, 2003

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

96

Chapter 1

International Mathematics Olympiad

1.1 1 st IMO, Romania, 1959

1. Prove that the fraction

21n + 4 14n + 3 is irreductible for every natural number n

2. For what real values of x is

every natural number n 2. For what real values of x is x + √ 2
every natural number n 2. For what real values of x is x + √ 2

x + 2x 1 + x 2x 1 = A

given (a) A = 2, (b) A = 1, (c) A = 2, where only non-negative real numbers are admitted for square roots?

3. Let a, b, c be real numbers. Consider the quadratic equation in cos x: a cos 2 x + b cos x + c = 0. Using the numbers a, b and c, form a quadratic ecuation in cos 2x, whose roots are the same as those of the original ecuation. Compare the ecuations in cos x and cos 2x for a = 4, b = 2 and c = 1

4. Construct a right triangle with hypotenuse c such that the median drawn to the hypotenuse is the geometric mean of the two legs of the triangle.

5. An arbitrary point M is selected in the interior of the segment AB. The squares AM CD and M BEF are constructed on the same side of AB, sith the segments AM and M B as their respective bases. The circles circumscribed abut these squares,

6

1.2.

2 ND IMO, ROMANIA, 1960

7

with centers P and Q intersect at M and also at another point N . Let N denote the intersection of the straight lines AF and BC.

(a)

Prove that the points N and N coinside.

(b)

Prove that the straight lines M N pass throught a fixed point S independent of the choice of M .

(c)

Find the locus of the midpoints of the the segment P Q as M varies between A and B.

6. Two planes, P and Q, intersect along the line p. The point A is given in the plane P , and the point C in the plane Q; neither of these points lies on the straight line p. Construct an isosceles trapezoid ABCD (with AB parallel to CD) in which a circle can be inscribed, and with vertices B and D lying in the planes P and Q respectively.

1.2 2 nd IMO, Romania, 1960

1. Determine all three-digit numbers N having the property that N is divisible by 11,

and N

11 is equal to the sum of the squares of the digits of N .

2. For what values of the variable x does the following inequality hold?

4x

2

+ 2x 2 < 2x + 9

inequality hold? 4 x 2 + 2 x 2 < 2 x + 9 1 −

1 1

3. In a given right triangle ABC, the hypotenuse BC, of lenght a, is dividen into n equal parts (n an odd integer). Let α be the acute angle subtending, from A, that segment which contains the middle point of the hypotenuse. Let h be the lenght of the altitude to the hypotenuse of the triangle. Prove:

tan α =

4nh

(n 2 1) a

4. Construct a triangle ABC, given h a , h b (the altitudes fron A and B) and m a , the median from vertex A.

5. Consider the cube ABCDA B C D (whith face ABCD directly above face A B C D ).

(a) Find the locus of the midpoints of segment XY , where X is any point of AC and Y is any point of B D .

8

CHAPTER 1.

INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD

(b) Find the locus of points Z which lie on the segment XY of part (a) with ZY =

2XZ.

6. Considere a cone of revolution with an inscribed sphere tangent to the base of the cone. A cylinder is circumscribed about this sphere so that one of its bases lies in the base of the cone. Let V 1 be the volume of the cone and V 2 the volumen of the cilinder.

(a)

Prove that V 1 = V 2 .

(b)

Find the smallest number k for which V 1 = kV 2 , for this case, construct the angle subtended by a diameter of the base of the cone at the vertex of the cone.

7. An isosceles trapezoid with bases a and c, and altitude h is given.

(a)

On the axis of symmetry of this trapezoid, find all points P such that both legs of the trapezoid subtended right angles at P .

(b)

Calculate the distance of P from either base.

(c)

Determine under what conditions such points P actually exist. (Discuss varius case that might arise)

1.3 3 rd IMO, Hungary, 1961

1. Solve the system of equations:

x + y + z

=

a

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

=

b 2

xy

=

z 2

where a and b are constants. Give the conditions that a and b must satisfy so that x, y, z (the solutions of the system) are distinct positive numbers.

In

what case does the equality hold?

2. Let a,

b,

c the sides of a triangle, and T its area.

Prove:

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 4 3T .

3. Solve the equation cos n x sin n x = 1, where n is a natural number.

4. Consider the triangle P 1 P 2 P 3 and a point P within the triangle. Lines P P 1 , PP 2 ,

PP 3 intersect the opposite side in points Q 1 , Q 2 , Q 3 respectively. Prove that, of the

numbers

P 1 P

P Q 1 ,

P 2 P

P Q 2 ,

P 3 P

3 at least one is less than or equal to 2 and at least one is

P

Q

1.4.

4 T H IMO, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1962

9

5. Construct triangle ABC if AC = b, AB = c and AM B = ω, where M is the

midpoint of the segment BC and ω < 90 . Prove that a solution exists and only if

b tan ω

2

c < b. In what case does the equality hold?

6. Considere a plane ε and three non-collinear points A, B, C on the same side of ε; suppose the plane determined by these three points is not parallel to ε. In plane a take three arbitrary points A , B , C . Let L, M, N be the midpoints of segments AA , BB , CC ; let G the centroid of triangle LM N (We will not considere positions of A , B , C such that the points L, M , N do not form a triangle) What is the locus of point G as A , B , C range independently over the plane ε?

1.4 4 th IMO, Czechoslovakia, 1962

1. Find the smallest natural number n which has the following properties:

(a)

Its decimal representation has 6 as the last digit.

(b)

If the last digit 6 is erased and placed in front of the remaining digits, the resulting number is four times as large as the original number n

2. Determine all real number x which satisfy the inequality:

3 x x + 1 >

1

2

3. Consider the cube ABCDA B C D (ABCD and A B C D are the upper and lower bases, respectively, and edges AA , BB , CC , DD are parallel) The point X moves at constant speed along the perimeterof the square ABCD in the direction ABCDA, and the point Y moves at the same rate along the perimeter of the square