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AIM

To determine the efficacy of banana peel and lemon peel in removing turbidity from water.

APPARATUS

Jar test , Nephlometer , beaker, flask , pipette , digital weighing machine, Measuring cylinder, clay for
preparing artificial turbid water sample, banana and lemon peel dried in sun for 4 days .

THEORY

As water is essential for living and on the other hand water is getting polluted day by day and the
need of coagulants in removing turbidity is increasing, as the cost of adsorbents or the process of
treatment if water is very high it is not possible to set up treatment plant everywhere. So an attempt
was made to investigate the application of low cost adsorbents i.e banana peel and lemon peel.

Turbidity in water is caused by suspended and colloidal matter such as clay, silt, finely divided
organic and inorganic matter, and plankton and other microscopic organisms. Turbidity is an
expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than
transmitted with no change in direction or flux level through the sample. Correlation of turbidity
with the weight or particle number concentration of suspended matter is difficult because the size,
shape, and refractive index of the particles affect the light-scattering properties of the suspension.
Turbidity can be used to measure the performance of individual treatment processes as well as the
performance of an overall water treatment system. Common water treatment processes intended to
remove suspended solids and reduce turbidity include: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and
filtration.

I am doing coagulation for removal of turbidity and subsequently the solids removal.
Coagulation is the process of conditioning suspended solids particles to promote their agglomeration
and produce larger particles that can be more readily removed in subsequent treatment processes.
The process of coagulation is complex and may involve several different mechanisms to achieve
“destabilization”, which allows particle agglomeration and enhances subsequent removal.
Flocculation is the process of bringing the destabilized particles into contact with one another to form
larger “floc” particles. These larger particles are more readily removed from the water in subsequent
processes. A coagulant is one of the key components for removing turbidity in a water treatment
process. Many coagulants are widely used in conventional water treatment processes. These
materials can be classified into inorganic and organic coagulants. Inorganic coagulants such as
aluminium and iron salts are most widely used in the coagulation process. Aluminium is regarded as
an important poisoning factor in dialysis encephalopathy. Also, there is strong evidence linking
aluminium-based coagulants to the development of neurodegenerative illnesses as senile dementia
and with Alzheimer’s disease in human beings. There are different parts of banana that can be utilized
like banana fruit peels, piths, trunks, leaves and pseudo-stems. These wastes from banana plants
have been analysed extensively as solid adsorbent to remove various pollutants .One of the
important wastes generated in large quantities is banana peel as this fruit is highly consumed and
constitutes almost 40% of total weight of the fresh fruit. Banana peel is rich in organic compounds
such as pectin substances, chlorophyllpigments cellulose, hemicellulose, and other compounds of low
molecular weight.It has experimentally verified that banana peels are good source of Vitamib B6,
pectin(10-21 %), lignin (6-12 %), cellulose (7.6-9.6 %) and hemicelluloses (6.4-9.4 %).The aim of this
research is to investigate the effectiveness of banana peel and lemon peel as a potential coagulant to
reduce turbidity of synthetic wastewater.
Working of Nephlometer

PRINCIPLE

This method is based on a comparison of the intensity of light scattered by the sample under defined
conditions with the intensity of light scattered by a standard reference suspension under the same
conditions. The higher the intensity of scattered light, the higher the turbidity.

The sensitivity of the instrument permit detecting turbidity differences of 0.02 NTU or less in the
lowest range in water having a turbidity of less than 1NTU.

Differences in instrument design will cause differences in measured values for turbidity even though
the same suspension is used for calibration. To minimize such differences, observe the following
design criteria:

1) Light source—Tungsten-filament lamp operated at a colour temperature between 2200 and


3000K.

2) Distance traversed by incident light and scattered light within the sample tube—Total not to
exceed 10 cm.

3) Angle of light acceptance by detector—Centred at 90° to the incident light path and not to
exceed 30° from 90°. The detector and filter system, if used, shall have a spectral peak response
between 400 and 600 nm.

PROCEDURE OF NEPHLOMETER

1. Prepare two samples i.e Solution 1 and Solution 2 .

2. Solution 1 - Dissolve 1 g hydrazine sulfate, (NH2)2.H2SO4, in distilled water and dilute to 100 mL
in a flask.

3. Solution 2 - Dissolve 10 g hexamethylenetetramine, (CH2)6N4, in distilled water and dilute to 100


mL in a flask.

4. Take 5mL of solution 1 and 5 mL of solution 2 , mix both the solutions. Let the mixed solution
stand for 24 hrs at 25± 3℃ .

5. Now dilute the solution to 100 mL by de-ionized water .This results in a 400-NTU suspension. This
is our stock turbidity solution.

5. As our sample will have low turbidity , so we will prepare our stock turbidity solution of lower
turbidity i.e 100 NTU.

6. So to prepare a stock turbidity solution of 100 NTU , dilute the 400 NTU suspension 100 times.

7. Take 1 mL of 400 NTU suspension and add 100 mL of de-ionized water to it. This results in our
working turbidity solution of 100 NTU.

8. On the instrument, now take de-ionized water and fill the test tube with de-ionized water and
place the tube in the instrument test tube holder.

9. The test tube white mark must coincide with white mark on the instrument.
10. After placing test tube in the holder close the lid and the through the set zero nob read the
reading on the instrument to zero.

11. Now replace the de-ionized water in tube with the working turbidity solution of 300 NTU.

12. Repeat the 9th step.

13. Using the calibrate nob set the reading on instrument to 100 NTU.

14. Now replace the solution in tube with the artificial sample we have prepared and note the
reading on the instrument.

15. By this method we got the desired turbidity of 50 NTU.

PREPARATION OF BANANA PEELS AND LEMON PEELS

The peels of banana and lemon were allowed to dry naturally in sun. After drying the peels were
grounded to fine powder by kitchen blender. This powder is taken and used for removing turbidity
and solids from water. For preservation the peels were stored in a refrigerator.

PEEL POWDER USED IN TREATING THE WATER

Banana peels dried in sun and after


this grinded by kitchen grinder
Lemon peels dried in sun and then grinded by kitchen grinder

JAR TEST

Jar testing is a pilot-scale test of the treatment chemicals used in a particular water plant. It
simulates the coagulation/flocculation process in a water treatment plant and helps operators
determine if they are using the right amount of treatment chemicals, and, thus, improves the plant’s
performance. Jar testing is a method of simulating a full scale water treatment process, providing
system operators a reasonable idea of the way a treatment chemical will behave and operate with a
particular type of raw water. Because it mimics full-scale operation, system operators can use jar
testing to help determine which treatment chemical will work best with their system’s raw water. Jar
testing entails adjusting the amount of treatment chemicals and the sequence in which they are
added to samples of raw water held in jars or beakers. The sample is then stirred so that the
formation, development, and settlement of floc can be watched just as it would be in the full scale
treatment plant. (Floc forms when treatment chemicals react with material in the raw water and
clump together.) The operator then performs a series of tests to compare the effects of different
amounts of flocculation agents at different pH values to determine the right size floc for a particular
plant. The jar test is a common laboratory procedure used to determine the optimum operating
conditions for water or wastewater treatment. This method allows adjustments in pH, variations in
coagulant or polymer dose, alternating mixing speeds, or testing of different coagulant or polymer
types, on a small scale in order to predict the functioning of a large scale treatment operations.

The jar testing apparatus consists of six paddles which stir the contents of six 1 litre containers. One
container acts as a control while the operating conditions can be varied among the remaining five
containers. The rpm gauge at the top-centre of the device allows for the uniform control of the
mixing speed in all of the containers.
JAR TEST PROCEDURE

 Fill the jar testing apparatus containers that is all the 6 containers with sample water or the
artificial sample prepared. The artificial sample water is prepared by adding 25g of teracota
clay to 1 litre of water. By adding 25 grams we get our desired turbidity solution of 50 NTU.
 Now put the coagulants that is put banana peel and lemon peel in all the 6 containers.
 First we will find the coagulant dose of banana peel so we will put banana peel first and then
test for lemon peel.
 After putting banana peel in all 6 containers , stir content in each container at 100 rpm for
approximately 1 minute. This is rapid mixing. The rapid mix stage helps to disperse the
coagulant throughout each container.
 Now reduce the stirring speed to 25 to 30 rpm and continue stirring for 20 minutes. This is
slow mixing or flocculation. This slower mixing speed helps promote floc formation by
enhancing particle collisions which lead to larger flocs.
 After the coagulation , flocculation allow the formed flocs to settle down. Turn off the mixers
and allow the flocs to settle for 30 minutes.
 After each operation of jar test that I after treating every jar with banana peel and lemon
peel we test the turbidity of the supernatant liquid. After taking supernatant liquid from
each jar we test its turbidity by nephlometer.
RESULTS

OPTIMUM DOSE OF COAGULANTS

BANANA PEEL

Dose of coagulant Turbidity (NTU)


0 50
0.01 46
0.02 43
0.03 40
0.04 37
0.05 34
0.06 31
0.07 27
0.08 23
0.09 20
0.1 17
0.15 14
0.2 11
0.25 9
0.3 7
0.35 6
0.4 5
0.45 4
0.5 3

60

50

40
Turbidity

30

20

10

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Dose of coagulant
After each operation that is after treating water with coagulant each jar is tested for turbidity by
nephlometer. As seen from graph and table , the turbidity decreases on adding the coagulant , at
one point the turbidity becomes constant ,means the point at which turbidity starts decreasing only
by 1 whereas before that it was decreasing by 4 or 3. So, our optimum dose for banana peel is 0.3
grams per litre.

OPTIMUM DOSE FOR LEMON PEEL

Dose of coagulant Turbidity (NTU)


0 50
0.02 47
0.04 41
0.06 35
0.08 31
0.1 28
0.11 22
0.15 16
0.2 10
0.25 5
0.3 4
0.35 3
0.4 2

Turbidity
60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

The turbidity after treatment is measured with nephlometerThe optimum dose for lemon peel is
0.25 grams per litre . We can see from table that after optimum dose of coagulant is 0.25 grams.
TURBIDITY REMOVAL PERCENTAGE

BANANA PEEL REMOVAL PERCENTAGE

Initial turbidity = 50NTU

Final turbidity = 7 NTU

Initial turbidity−final turbidity


Removal Percentage (%) =
Initial turbidity
50−7
= 86%
50

LEMON PEEL TURBIDITY REMOVAL PERCENTAGE

Initial turbidity = 50NTU

Final turbidity = 5 NTU

Initial turbidity−final turbidity


Removal Percentage (%) =
Initial turbidity
50−5
= 90 %
50

The turbidity removal percentage is more in case of lemon peel than the banana peel.

CONCLUSION

Using organic coagulants , for example banana peel and lemon peel significant reduction of turbidity
from artificial turbid water was seen. After dosing the water with the banana peel and lemon peel , it
was seen that lemon peel was more effective in removing turbidity than banana peel. Lemon peel
reduced turbidity to about 90 % whereas banana peel removed turbidity to 86%. The lemon peel
found to be more efficient than banana peel. This is due to the characteristics of lemon peels in its
content fibre which contain more hydroxyl radicals, hence more adsorption capacity. The optimum
coagulant dose for banana peel is 0.3 grams and for lemon peel is 0.25 grams.
REFERENCES

Subashree,R. et.al. (2017). Investigation of Coagulation Activity of Lemon and Banana Peel Powder in
Water Treatment. International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering, 06(10)

Beverely, J.et.al. (2017). Removal of Turbidity of Water by Banana Peel Using Adsorption
Technology. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 9(4), pp.65-68.

Nair, K. and Pertin, M. (2017). Emerging Usage in the Usage of Biocoagulants in Water
Treatment. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 06(04).

Mardarveran, P. and Mokhtar, N. et.al .(2019). Study on the Effectiveness of Banana Peel Coagulant
in Turbidity Reduction of Synthetic Wastewater. International Journal of Engineering Technology
Science and Research, 6.

Seghosime, A., Awudza, J., Buamah, R., Ebigbe, A., & Kwarteng, S. (2017). Effect of Locally Available
Fruit Waste on Treatment of Water Turbidity. Civil and Environmental Research, 9(7).