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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX CULVERT

Design Refence:
 National Structural Code of the Philippines Volume 1, 2015
 DPWH Standard Specification, Highway, Bridges and Airport, 2015
 AASHTO LFRD Bridge Design, 2012
 National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 2 - Bridges, 2005
Reprint Edition

I. Design Criteria

Concrete Compressive Strength, f'c   27.6 Mpa


Reinforcement Yield Strength, fy   414 Mpa
Concrete Unit Weight, gc     24 KN/cu.m.
Saturated Soil Unit Weight, gs   18.8 KN/cu.m.
Height of Culvert, H     960 mm
Width of Culvert, B     900 mm
Thickness of Sidewalls, tw     200 mm
Thickness of Top Slab, tts     200 mm
Thickness of Bottom Slab, tbs   260 mm
Allowable Soil Pressure, Qa   200 Kpa
Soil Angle Friction, f     30 Deg.
Main Reinforcement Diameter 16 mm
Temperature Reinforcement Diameter 16 mm
Concrete Cover       40 mm
No. of Reinforcement Layers   2  
Main Reinforcement Spacing   150 mm
Temperature Reinforcement Spacing 150 mm
II. Design Loads

For the design purposes a one-meter length of the culvert is considered.

A. Top Slab
Vehicular Live Loads (MS18 Truck)

Axle Load: 145 KN


Assumed to act on full width of the slab for simplicity. In theory,
the dispersal should be based on tire width.

Factor for increasing live load due to impact effects.


Dynamic Impact Factor:

15.24
I= ∨30 %
L+ 38

Live Load = Axial Load (1+Impact Factor)


Live Load = 145 (1+.30)
Live Load =188.5 KN/m
Linear Self Weight
Dead Load = gc B tts
Dead Load = 24 (.90) (.2)
Dead Load = 4.32 KN/m

B. Side Walls
Soil Pressure on Walls
k 1−sin ∅
a=¿ ¿
1+sin ∅
k a=¿.333 ¿

Psoil =¿k γ H ¿
a s

Psoil =¿5.76 Kpa ¿

Surcharge Load
For Bridges on Principal Roads = 20KN/m

Psurcharge=¿ (20 )(.92)¿


Psurcharge =¿18.4 Kpa ¿

Self-Weight
Two side walls = 2tw (H - tbs - tts) gc
Dead Load = 2 (.20) (.92 - .22 - .20) 24
Dead Load = 4.8 KN/m

C. Bottom Slab
Self-weight of the Whole Structure
Dead Load = 2tw (H - tbs - tts) gc + (tbs+ tts) (B - 2tw) gc
Dead Load = 2 (.20) (.9 -.26-.20)24+(.20 + .26) (.90 – 2(.20))24
Dead Load = 14.736 KN/m

Vehicular Live Loads (MS 18)


Live Load = Axial Load (1+Impact Factor)
Live Load = 145 (1+.30)
Live Load =188.5 KN/m
III. FACTORED LOADS
Total Dead Load = 1.2 (14.736)
Total Dead Load = 17.68 KN/m

Total Lateral Earth Pressure = 1.2 (5.76+18.92)


Total Lateral Earth Pressure = 29.616 KN/m

Total Live Load = 1.6 (188.5)


Total Live Load = 301.6 KN/m

Load Diagram (KN/m)


IV. ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE
The structure is analyzed using the moment distribution method. The
fixed-end moment at each joint is the superposition of the fixed-end
moments due to dead, live and earth pressure loads.

Joint   A   B   D   C  
Membe
  AC AB BA BD DB DC CD CA
r
Length   0.50 0.90 0.90 0.50 0.50 0.90 0.90 0.50
Moment of 0.016 0.016 0.016 0.016 0.021 0.021 0.016
0.0167
Inertia 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Distrib. Factor 0.64 0.36 0.36 0.64 0.58 0.42 0.42 0.58
FEM   0.53 -20.71 20.71 -0.53 0.56 -21.55 21.55 -0.56
Distribution 12.97 7.21 -7.21 -12.97 12.19 8.80 -8.80 -12.19
Carry Over -6.09 -3.60 3.60 6.09 -6.49 -4.40 4.40 6.49
Distribution 6.23 3.46 -3.46 -6.23 6.32 4.57 -4.57 -6.32
Carry Over -3.16 -1.73 1.73 3.16 -3.12 -2.28 2.28 3.12
Distribution 3.15 1.75 -1.75 -3.15 3.14 2.26 -2.26 -3.14
Carry Over -1.57 -0.87 0.87 1.57 -1.57 -1.13 1.13 1.57
Distribution 1.57 0.87 -0.87 -1.57 1.57 1.13 -1.13 -1.57
Carry Over -0.79 -0.44 0.44 0.79 -0.78 -0.57 0.57 0.78
Distribution 0.79 0.44 -0.44 -0.79 0.78 0.57 -0.57 -0.78
Carry Over -0.39 -0.22 0.22 0.39 -0.39 -0.28 0.28 0.39
Distribution 0.39 0.22 -0.22 -0.39 0.39 0.28 -0.28 -0.39
Carry Over -0.20 -0.11 0.11 0.20 -0.20 -0.14 0.14 0.20
Distribution 0.20 0.11 -0.11 -0.20 0.20 0.14 -0.14 -0.20
                   
Moment Sum 13.63 -13.63 13.63 -13.63 12.60 -12.60 12.60 -12.60

1. Moment

Top Slab

Mmax (+) = 17.43 KN.m


Mmax (–) = 13.63 KN.m

Design Moment = 17.43 KN.m

Bottom Slab

Mmax (+) = 12.60 KN.m


Mmax (–) = 19.73 KN.m

Design Moment = 19.73 KN.m

Side Walls

Mmax (+) = 12.60 KN.m


Mmax (–) = 12.68 KN.m

Design Moment = 12.68 KN.m

2. Shear

Top Slab

wul
V=
2
V =138.05 KN

Bottom Slab

wul
V=
2
V =143.68 KN

Side Walls

wul
V=
2
V =45.63 KN

wul
V=
2
V =53.03 KN

Design Shear = 53.03 KN

3. Check Shear

Shear strength provided by concrete


V c =∅ 0.17 √ f ' c bw d

d Vc
V Statu
Component (mm (kN
(kN) s
) )
107. 138.0
Top slab   160 O.K.
2 5
107.
Bottom slab 160 143.2 N.G.
2
107.
Side walls   160 51.03 O.K.
2

4. Flexural Reinforcement

.85 f ' c β 600


ρb =
fy(600+ fy) f ' c 1.4
ρmin = √ ≥
ρb =.03353 4 fy fy
f ' c 1.4
ρmin = √ ≥
ρmax =.75 ρb 4 fy fy
ρmax =.02515 ρmin =.0032

MAIN REINFORCEMENT
Component d
(mm)
Mu(kN-m) As (mm2) As prov ρact ρmin Status
Top slab 160 19.4 300 2412 0.0151 0.0032 O.K.
Bottom slab 220 21.9 465 2412 0.0109 0.0032 O.K.
Side walls 160 14.1 220 2412 0.0151 0.0032 O.K.

.002Ag

TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENT
Component t b
(mm) (mm)
As (mm2) As prov ρact ρmin Status

Top slab 200 900 360 2815 0.0195 0.0032 O.K.


Bottom slab 260 900 360 2815 0.0142 0.0032 O.K.
Side walls 200 500 360 1207 0.0151 0.0032 O.K.

5. Soil Pressure Check

Pressure on Soil = 186.49 Kpa


Allowable Soil Pressure = 200.00 Kpa
Status O.K.

Design Summary
O.K
Shear Status
.
O.K
Flexure Status
.
O.K
Soil Pressure Status
.

Notes:
1- In reality, the uplift soil pressure on the bottom slab may not be
uniform. However, for simplicity, it shall be assumed to be uniform.
2- Minimum reinforcement ratio found is for one layer of
reinforcement and shall be multiplied by 2 if there is 2 layers of
reinforcement, tension and compression.
3- Clear distance between two layers of reinforcement shall not be
more than 150mm and less than 25mm.
4- All soil has been assumed to be saturated soil.
5- It has been assumed that only one axle of the design truck
comes on the culvert at a time. This is true for culvert width up to
4300.