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# DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX CULVERT

Design Refence:
 National Structural Code of the Philippines Volume 1, 2015
 DPWH Standard Specification, Highway, Bridges and Airport, 2015
 AASHTO LFRD Bridge Design, 2012
 National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 2 - Bridges, 2005
Reprint Edition

I. Design Criteria

## Concrete Compressive Strength, f'c   27.6 Mpa

Reinforcement Yield Strength, fy   414 Mpa
Concrete Unit Weight, gc     24 KN/cu.m.
Saturated Soil Unit Weight, gs   18.8 KN/cu.m.
Height of Culvert, H     960 mm
Width of Culvert, B     900 mm
Thickness of Sidewalls, tw     200 mm
Thickness of Top Slab, tts     200 mm
Thickness of Bottom Slab, tbs   260 mm
Allowable Soil Pressure, Qa   200 Kpa
Soil Angle Friction, f     30 Deg.
Main Reinforcement Diameter 16 mm
Temperature Reinforcement Diameter 16 mm
Concrete Cover       40 mm
No. of Reinforcement Layers   2
Main Reinforcement Spacing   150 mm
Temperature Reinforcement Spacing 150 mm

## For the design purposes a one-meter length of the culvert is considered.

A. Top Slab

Assumed to act on full width of the slab for simplicity. In theory,
the dispersal should be based on tire width.

## Factor for increasing live load due to impact effects.

Dynamic Impact Factor:

15.24
I= ∨30 %
L+ 38

Linear Self Weight

B. Side Walls
Soil Pressure on Walls
k 1−sin ∅
a=¿ ¿
1+sin ∅
k a=¿.333 ¿

Psoil =¿k γ H ¿
a s

## Psoil =¿5.76 Kpa ¿

For Bridges on Principal Roads = 20KN/m

## Psurcharge=¿ (20 )(.92)¿

Psurcharge =¿18.4 Kpa ¿

Self-Weight
Two side walls = 2tw (H - tbs - tts) gc

C. Bottom Slab
Self-weight of the Whole Structure
Dead Load = 2tw (H - tbs - tts) gc + (tbs+ tts) (B - 2tw) gc
Dead Load = 2 (.20) (.9 -.26-.20)24+(.20 + .26) (.90 – 2(.20))24

## Total Lateral Earth Pressure = 1.2 (5.76+18.92)

Total Lateral Earth Pressure = 29.616 KN/m

## Total Live Load = 1.6 (188.5)

Total Live Load = 301.6 KN/m

IV. ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE
The structure is analyzed using the moment distribution method. The
fixed-end moment at each joint is the superposition of the fixed-end

Joint   A   B   D   C
Membe
AC AB BA BD DB DC CD CA
r
Length   0.50 0.90 0.90 0.50 0.50 0.90 0.90 0.50
Moment of 0.016 0.016 0.016 0.016 0.021 0.021 0.016
0.0167
Inertia 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Distrib. Factor 0.64 0.36 0.36 0.64 0.58 0.42 0.42 0.58
FEM   0.53 -20.71 20.71 -0.53 0.56 -21.55 21.55 -0.56
Distribution 12.97 7.21 -7.21 -12.97 12.19 8.80 -8.80 -12.19
Carry Over -6.09 -3.60 3.60 6.09 -6.49 -4.40 4.40 6.49
Distribution 6.23 3.46 -3.46 -6.23 6.32 4.57 -4.57 -6.32
Carry Over -3.16 -1.73 1.73 3.16 -3.12 -2.28 2.28 3.12
Distribution 3.15 1.75 -1.75 -3.15 3.14 2.26 -2.26 -3.14
Carry Over -1.57 -0.87 0.87 1.57 -1.57 -1.13 1.13 1.57
Distribution 1.57 0.87 -0.87 -1.57 1.57 1.13 -1.13 -1.57
Carry Over -0.79 -0.44 0.44 0.79 -0.78 -0.57 0.57 0.78
Distribution 0.79 0.44 -0.44 -0.79 0.78 0.57 -0.57 -0.78
Carry Over -0.39 -0.22 0.22 0.39 -0.39 -0.28 0.28 0.39
Distribution 0.39 0.22 -0.22 -0.39 0.39 0.28 -0.28 -0.39
Carry Over -0.20 -0.11 0.11 0.20 -0.20 -0.14 0.14 0.20
Distribution 0.20 0.11 -0.11 -0.20 0.20 0.14 -0.14 -0.20

Moment Sum 13.63 -13.63 13.63 -13.63 12.60 -12.60 12.60 -12.60

1. Moment

Top Slab

## Mmax (+) = 17.43 KN.m

Mmax (–) = 13.63 KN.m

Bottom Slab

## Mmax (+) = 12.60 KN.m

Mmax (–) = 19.73 KN.m

Side Walls

## Mmax (+) = 12.60 KN.m

Mmax (–) = 12.68 KN.m

2. Shear

Top Slab

wul
V=
2
V =138.05 KN

Bottom Slab

wul
V=
2
V =143.68 KN

Side Walls

wul
V=
2
V =45.63 KN

wul
V=
2
V =53.03 KN

3. Check Shear

## Shear strength provided by concrete

V c =∅ 0.17 √ f ' c bw d

d Vc
V Statu
Component (mm (kN
(kN) s
) )
107. 138.0
Top slab   160 O.K.
2 5
107.
Bottom slab 160 143.2 N.G.
2
107.
Side walls   160 51.03 O.K.
2

4. Flexural Reinforcement

## .85 f ' c β 600

ρb =
fy(600+ fy) f ' c 1.4
ρmin = √ ≥
ρb =.03353 4 fy fy
f ' c 1.4
ρmin = √ ≥
ρmax =.75 ρb 4 fy fy
ρmax =.02515 ρmin =.0032

MAIN REINFORCEMENT
Component d
(mm)
Mu(kN-m) As (mm2) As prov ρact ρmin Status
Top slab 160 19.4 300 2412 0.0151 0.0032 O.K.
Bottom slab 220 21.9 465 2412 0.0109 0.0032 O.K.
Side walls 160 14.1 220 2412 0.0151 0.0032 O.K.

.002Ag

TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENT
Component t b
(mm) (mm)
As (mm2) As prov ρact ρmin Status

## Top slab 200 900 360 2815 0.0195 0.0032 O.K.

Bottom slab 260 900 360 2815 0.0142 0.0032 O.K.
Side walls 200 500 360 1207 0.0151 0.0032 O.K.

## Pressure on Soil = 186.49 Kpa

Allowable Soil Pressure = 200.00 Kpa
Status O.K.

Design Summary
O.K
Shear Status
.
O.K
Flexure Status
.
O.K
Soil Pressure Status
.

Notes:
1- In reality, the uplift soil pressure on the bottom slab may not be
uniform. However, for simplicity, it shall be assumed to be uniform.
2- Minimum reinforcement ratio found is for one layer of
reinforcement and shall be multiplied by 2 if there is 2 layers of
reinforcement, tension and compression.
3- Clear distance between two layers of reinforcement shall not be
more than 150mm and less than 25mm.
4- All soil has been assumed to be saturated soil.
5- It has been assumed that only one axle of the design truck
comes on the culvert at a time. This is true for culvert width up to
4300.