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REGD. NO. 126-1121-1363-13





Teacher accompany:
Group member:


I would like to express my greatest gratitude to the people who have helped and supported me
throughout the project. I am grateful to my teacher /
prof……………………………………… for his/ her continous support for the project, from
initial advice to the ongoing encouragement to this day. I would also like to thank my friends
who helped, motivated and made my project easier to do. I wish to thank my parents for their
undivided support and interest who inspired me and encouraged me to go my way, without
whom I would be unable to complete my project. Finally I would like to thank God who
made all the things possible.












Rabindra Sarobar (previously known as Dhakuria Lake) is an artificial lake in south
Kolkata in the Indian state of West Bengal. The name also refers to the area surrounding the
lake. It is flanked by Southern Avenue to the North, Rashbehari Avenue (Russa Road) to the
West, Dhakuria to the East and the Kolkata Suburban Railway tracks to the south.


In the early 1920s, the Calcutta Improvement Trust (CIT), a body responsible for
developmental work in the Kolkata metropolitan area, acquired about 192 acres (0.78 km2)
of marshy jungles. Their intention was to develop the area for residential use – improving the
roads, raising and levelling some of the adjacent land and building lakes and parks .
Excavation work was undertaken with the plan of creating a huge lake. Originally known as
Dhakuria Lake, in May 1958, CIT renamed the lake as Rabindra Sarobar, as a tribute to
the great Bengali writer and Nobel Laureate, Rabindranath Tagore. The area around this
excavated lake was later developed to build recreational complexes, which included
children's parks, gardens and auditoria. Today the lake and its surrounding areas are one of
the most popular recreational areas in Kolkata. 73 acres (300,000 m 2) are covered by water,
while shrubs and trees, some of which are more than 100 years old, occupy the rest of the
area. In the winter, one can spot some migratory birds around the lake, though the numbers
are dwindling because of the rise in pollution level. The lake itself is home to many varieties
of fish. Fishing is strictly prohibited. A number of people come for a walk around the lake in
the mornings to enjoy the fresh air. Many visit the sunrise point to offer their prayers to the
sun. During the day, it is visited by families on a picnic, tourists, young lovers and joggers
Landmarks To the north is a football stadium, known as the Rabindra Sarobar Stadium with a
seating capacity of approximately 26,000 people. It was established in the 1950s and is today,
the city's first stadium to be fully equipped with audio-visual training facilities. Also to the
north is the open-air theatre, Mukta Mancha. The only Japanese Buddhist temple in
Kolkata is located on the southern fringe of the Rabindra Sarobar. It was established in
1935 by Nichidatsu Fujii, founder of the worldwide Buddhist association, the Nipponzan
Myohoji. Monks offer prayers in Japanese , to the sound of beating drums, in the early
morning hours and at dusk. There are no restrictions on entry to the main temple even when
prayers are in progress. Outside the main temple building there is a pillar , with a message of
peace engraved in Japanese, and a pair of lions that symbolise the guardians of the faith. The
Japanese refer to these figures as Komainu (lion-dog). There is a mosque on one of the lake's
islands, which predates the excavation of the lake itself. This island is connected to the
southern shore by a cable-stayed wooden (now iron) suspension bridge, which was built in
1926 and renovated in 1962. The fish sanctuary under this bridge is an additional attraction.
There are some cannons lying on the lake's west bank that were found during the excavation
in the early 1920s and retained by the CIT for beautification. It is believed that they were
used by Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah , the last independent ruler of Bengal. The complex contains
a safari garden and children's play center with a lily pool, and a swimming pool. A toy train,
operational between 1985 and 1989, was a popular draw for children. A number of rowing
and swimming clubs are situated within the Rabindra Sarovar complex. While the former are
located to the north of this lake, the latter are located to its south. In 1858 the British
founded the Calcutta Rowing Club (CRC), presently one of the oldest clubs in India, to
promote rowing activities in Kolkata. In 1901, it got affiliated to the prestigious Amateur
Rowing Association of the East (ARAE) and in 1923 signed a reciprocal arrangement deal
with the London Rowing Club. The CRC has been the hub of competitive rowing in Kolkata
for more than 150 years and has organised many intra- and inter-club competitions. Rowing
facilities are available to members on a regular basis, from 6 am to 7:30 am and from 3:30
pm to 5 pm. The Bengal Rowing Club, Lake Club and Calcutta University Rowing Club
are a few other rowing clubs located in the Rabindra Sarobar complex. One of the most
prestigious and oldest swimming clubs in Kolkata, the Indian Life Saving Society (formerly
known as Anderson Club) has its office in the lake complex. The lake is within walking
distance of the Ramakrishna Mission at Golpark . There is an auditorium or a hall within the
sarobar complex which adjoins the Rabindra Sarobar Stadium. Its name is Pavilion Hall . A
reference to this Pavilion Hall in this link Degradation Like a majority of artificial lakes in
the country, Rabindra Sarobar is suffering environmental degradation. Water pollution is on
the rise, owing to an increase in tourist flow and habitation around the lake. The Ministry of
Environment and Forests , Government of India , has recently included this lake under the
National Lake Conservation Plan in the hope that this will help preserve it. The local
authorities have also begun an extensive tree plantation programme. Location- Rabindra
Sarobar is 30 km away from Dum Dum airport and 12 km from the Howrah railway station.
What is Biodiversity?

The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity.
The number of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the enormous diversity of
genes in these species, the different ecosystems on the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and
coral reefs are all part of a biologically diverse Earth.

Appropriate conservation and sustainable development strategies attempt to recognize this as

being integral to any approach to preserving biodiversity. Almost all cultures have their roots
in our biological diversity in some way or form. Declining biodiversity is therefore a concern
for many reasons.

Biodiversity has many definitions, but perhaps the best and simplest one is that biodiversity
is" all living things on earth". This embraces all species and all genetic variation on earth.
There is growing recognition that we need to protect our global biodiversity, and a growing
realization that species loss is accelerating.  We have moved into a period when the speed of
species loss has reached a critical level.  We now know, for example, that the amphibians of
the world are in a serious state of decline, a decline that seems to be driven by major climate
change. We also know that the world's Mountain Gorillas face imminent extinction--a direct
result of human warfare. There is trauma in our oceans, with entire "dead zones" that have
developed areas of oxygen depletion.  And much more.

It is the blanket term for natural biological wealth that undergirds human life and wellbeing.
The breadth of the concept reflects the inter-relatedness of genes, species and ecosystems,
because genes are the components of species and species are the components of ecosystems.
Therefore, altering the make-up of any level of this hierarchy can change the others; species
are central to the concept of biodiversity."

Why is Biodiversity Important?

Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all
have an important role to play.
For example,

 A larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops.

 Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms
 Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters.

And so, while we dominate this planet, we still need to preserve the diversity in wildlife.

A healthy biodiversity offers many natural services

A healthy biodiversity provides a number of natural services for everyone:

 Ecosystem services, such as

o Protection of water resources
o Soils formation and protection
o Nutrient storage and recycling
o Pollution breakdown and absorption
o Contribution to climate stability
o Maintenance of ecosystems
o Recovery from unpredictable events
 Biological resources, such as
o Food
o Medicinal resources and pharmaceutical drugs
o Wood products
o Ornamental plants
o Breeding stocks, population reservoirs
o Future resources
o Diversity in genes, species and ecosystems
 Social benefits, such as
o Research, education and monitoring
o Recreation and tourism
o Cultural values

Water pollution can be defined in many ways. Usually, it means one or more
substances have built up in water to such an extent that they cause problems
for animals or people. Oceans, lakes, rivers, and other inland waters can
naturally clean up a certain amount of pollution by dispersing it harmlessly. If
you poured a cup of black ink into a river, the ink would quickly disappear into
the river's much larger volume of clean water. The ink would still be there in
the river, but in such a low concentration that you would not be able to see it.
At such low levels, the chemicals in the ink probably would not present any
real problem. However, if you poured gallons of ink into a river every few
seconds through a pipe, the river would quickly turn black. The chemicals in
the ink could very quickly have an effect on the quality of the water. This, in
turn, could affect the health of all the plants, animals, and humans whose lives
depend on the river.

Thus, water pollution is all about quantities: how much of a polluting

substance is released and how big a volume of water it is released into. A small
quantity of a toxic chemical may have little impact if it is spilled into the ocean
from a ship. But the same amount of the same chemical can have a much
bigger impact pumped into a lake or river, where there is less clean water to
disperse it.

Water pollution almost always means that some damage has been done to an
ocean, river, lake, or other water source.
Natural sources
Important natural sources are surface run-off, seepage from ground water
and swamp drainage. In urban areas, rain water is reported to be acidic.
This is due to reaction between water droplets and atmospheric oxides of
sulphur and nitrogen. The atmospheric sulphur dioxide (S0 2) is always
accompanied by a little amount of sulphur tri-oxide (S0 3) which, under
humid condition, reacts with water vapour to form sulphuric acid thus
causing acid rain.

Leachates from animal excreta, decaying bodies of animals and plants,

solid waste landfill sites and the decay of large quantities of organic
matter in swamps or deep ponds also introduce appreciable amounts of
soluble organics and microorganisms which in turn contaminate the
adjacent ground water.

Anthropogenic sources

Anthropogenic sources are the result of industrial, domestic, agricultural

and mining activities of man.

Industrial sources

Nowadays, industries are the major contributors of water pollution. Water

is an essential raw material in almost all manufacturing plants. In India,
industries such as tanneries, sugar mills, pulp and paper mills, distilleries,
oil refineries, etc. generate a large quantity of wastewater which is
discharged into natural waterways either without treatment or after
partial treatment. The characteristics of industrial wastewater depend
primarily on the type of industry and the chemicals used in various

Domestic sources

In urban areas, municipal sewage is discharged into the nearby canal, thus
polluting the canal and also deteriorating the ground water. Municipal
sewage includes wastewater from houses, commercial buildings and
institutions. The important pollutants present are biodegradable organic
matter, coliforms and pathogens.

Agricultural sources

Pollutants discharged into water courses due to agricultural

activities include:

1. Soil and silt removed by erosion

2. Agricultural run-off

3. Synthetic fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides

4. Plant residue.

Receiving water bodies get fertilised with nutrients, thus resulting in

Eutrophication. Some common insecticides in use are chlorinated
hydrocarbons such as DDT (dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane), aldrin,
heptachlor, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyl) etc. Most of the chlorinated
hydrocarbons are persistent to degradation and hence remain in the
environment for a very long time. Indiscriminate use of insecticides could
make them an integral part of the biological, geological and chemical
cycles of the earth. Measurable quantities of DDT residues may be found
in air, soil and water several thousand kilometres away from the point
where it originally entered the ecosystem.

Mining sources

Natural or man-made geochemical alterations are also sources of

wastewater pollution. Fines from ore washings disposed off in water
suspension may be transferred to the natural water bodies to pollute them
in due course. Mining operation also produces soluble toxic materials
depending on the geological formation. Acid drainage from coal mines
and arsenic residue from gold mines are some of the burning problems of
environmental concern.

Water Pollution Water pollution has been an increasing problem over the
last few years. Pollution itself is when a substance or energy is introduced
into the soil, air, or water in a concentrate. Pollution comes in many
forms; agricultural, urban runoff, industrial, sedimentary, animal wastes,
and leeching from landfills/septic systems just to name a few. These
pollutants are very detrimental to the environment. Whether they are
alone or combined with another form of pollution they are very harmful.
Over the last hundred years the problems with pollution have been
increasing with time. This is due to both the increase in human
population, and the increases in technology we have made as a society. If
we plan on having our resources here for many years to come we are
going to have to make some drastic changes in the way we treat the earth,
and these changes will have to start with our pollutants. Agricultural
pollution is a very big contributor to water pollution. Problems we see
with agriculture are applications of fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides.

Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by

anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use,
such as drinking water, or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to
support its constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural
phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes
also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of

Taking a dip in Rabindra Sarobar could be injurious to health.:

The Dhakuria Lakes harbour pollutants that irritate the skin, resulting in rashes and “severe
eye disease”. This was revealed by tests on water collected from different parts of the Lakes
by the Institute of Wetland Management and Ecological Design.

The West Bengal Pollution Control Board (PCB) submitted a report on the condition of the
water to the green bench of Calcutta High Court on Monday. It annexed the institute study,
which said the waters had deteriorated “crossing all acceptable physio-chemical and
bacteriological parameters”.

The report said the waters are over-run with different organisms due to food being dumped
by the neighbouring clubs. There are distinct “spatial variations of water quality” due to the
wastes, which could be health hazards. Construction of concrete structures around the banks
has caused the water oxygen level to drop sharply.

Dumping weeds along the bank has added “excessive nutrients”, while bathing and washing
introduce detergents and other harmful substances to the ecosystem, the report said.

For a safer Lakes the institute has recommended six steps:

* Boards be put up to inform the public that plastic bags are banned in the area

* Adequate garbage bins be installed to prevent littering

* Alternative spots for bathing and washing be identified

* Burning of leaves and litter be banned

* Regular cleaning
* Special clean-ups after events at the Nazrul Mancha and Rabindra Sarobar stadiums.

a committee to restore and improve environmental conditions of the Lakes, which has
recommended that boards be put up warning that the waters are not fit to bathe in. It is the
clubs, the report stressed, that pollute the waterbody.

But the clubs deny all charges. “No garbage is thrown in the water. In fact, we clean it
regularly,” said Subrata Mukherjee, member, Lake Club.

The wall, which was last repaired in 2006, has since been breached by shanty dwellers who
use the lake for bathing and washing clothes and utensils.

The carpet of green grass is disappearing gradually, hyacinths have covered the water at
many places, the toy train no longer plies and heaps of garbage can be seen beside the paths
on the premises.

The lake and its surrounding premises has fallen into levels of degeneration down the years
caused by environmental factors, pollution and a serious matter of illegal encroachment

The lake and its surrounding premises has fallen into levels of degeneration down the years
caused by environmental factors, pollution and a serious matter of illegal encroachment.

The water body itself and its surrounding greenery have shrunk beyond recognition; the water
itself is heavily polluted due to large numbers of the encroaching populace using it for
washing and bathing. Most of the grounds and parks meant for recreational and cultural
activities are overgrown with wild bushes and shrubs due to negligence in maintenance.
Though it's still used by a few morning joggers and walkers, methodical clean-up work is
required to make Rabindra Sarobar attractive to the masses once more

 Where water hyacinths and weeds choke the lake, there will be fountains. Where garbage
and plastic float, there will be clear water. Rabindra Sarobar is finally getting a breath of
    Kolkata Improvement Trust — keepers of this unique man-made lake — have decided to
install a ‘bioremediation’ plant at Rabindra Sarobar by March to purify its water. Funds for
the project have already been disbursed by the Centre under the National Lake Conservation
Plan (NLCP). 
    Two years ago, the city got a shock. The state wetland directorate issued a warning that the
water at Rabindra Sarobar was not even fit for swimming, let alone drinking. It created a
flutter and the authorities went back to the drawing board to plan a revival. 
    Cleaning the lake is a continuous process and the technology for doing it must be upgraded
all the time.” 

    That’s exactly what KIT is doing. Biswanath Sen, KIT’s deputy chief engineer involved in
the project, said: “Three months from now, fountains will spring out of the lake. We will take
some more to reduce the pollution level.” The fountains will be vital in improving the
biological oxygen demand (BOD) — a key component of biodiversity. 

A lake ecosystem includes biotic (living) plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as
abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions.

Lake ecosystems are a prime examples of lentic ecosystems. Lentic refers to standing or
relatively still water, from the Latin lentus, which means sluggish. Lentic waters range from
ponds to lakes to wetlands, and much of this article applies to lentic ecosystems in general.
Lentic ecosystems can be compared with lotic ecosystems, which involve flowing terrestrial
waters such as rivers and streams. Together, these two fields form the more general study
area of freshwater or aquatic ecology.

Lentic systems are diverse, ranging from a small, temporary rainwater pool a few inches deep
to Lake Baikal, which has a maximum depth of 1740 m. The general distinction between
pools/ponds and lakes is vague, but Brown states that ponds and pools have their entire
bottom surfaces exposed to light, while lakes do not. In addition, some lakes become
seasonally stratified (discussed in more detail below.) Ponds and pools have two regions: the
pelagic open water zone, and the benthic zone, which comprises the bottom and shore
regions. Since lakes have deep bottom regions not exposed to light, these systems have an
additional zone, the profundal. These three areas can have very different abiotic conditions
and, hence, host species that are specifically adapted to live there.

Important abiotic factors


Light provides the solar energy required to drive the process of photosynthesis, the major
energy source of lentic systems (Brönmark and Hansson 2005). The amount of light received
depends upon a combination of several factors. Small ponds may experience shading by
surrounding trees, while cloud cover may affect light availability in all systems, regardless of
size. Seasonal and diurnal considerations also play a role in light availability because the
shallower the angle at which light strikes water, the more light is lost by reflection. This is
known as Beer's law (Giller and Malmqvist 1998). Once light has penetrated the surface, it
may also be scattered by particles suspended in the water column. This scattering decreases
the total amount of light as depth increases (Moss 1998, Kalff 2002). Lakes are divided into
photic and aphotic regions, the prior receiving sunlight and latter being below the depths of
light penetration, making it void of photosynthetic capacity (Brönmark and Hansson 2005).
In relation to lake zonation, the pelagic and benthic zones are considered to lie within the
photic region, while the profundal zone is in the aphotic region (Brown 1987).


Temperature is an important abiotic factor in lentic ecosystems because most of the biota are
poikilothermic, where internal body temperatures are defined by the surrounding system.
Water can be heated or cooled through radiation at the surface and conduction to or from the
air and surrounding substrate (Giller and Malmqvist 1998). Shallow ponds often have a
continuous temperature gradient from warmer waters at the surface to cooler waters at the
bottom. In addition, temperature fluctuations can be very great in these systems, both
diurnally and seasonally (Brown 1987).

Temperature regimes are very different in large lakes. In temperate regions, for example, as
air temperatures increase, the icy layer formed on the surface of the lake breaks up, leaving
the water at approximately 4 °C. This is the temperature at which water has the highest
density. As the season progresses, the warmer air temperatures heat the surface waters,
making them less dense. The deeper waters remain cool and dense due to reduced light
penetration. As the summer begins, two distinct layers become established, with such a large
temperature difference between them that they remain stratified. The lowest zone in the lake
is the coldest and is called the hypolimnion. The upper warm zone is called the epilimnion.
Between these zones is a band of rapid temperature change called the thermocline. During the
colder fall season, heat is lost at the surface and the epilimnion cools. When the temperatures
of the two zones are close enough, the waters begin to mix again to create a uniform
temperature, an event termed lake turnover. In the winter, inverse stratification occurs as
water near the surface cools freezes, while warmer, but denser water remains near the bottom.
A thermocline is established, and the cycle repeats (Brown 1987, Brönmark and Hansson


Bacteria are present in all regions of lentic waters. Free-living forms are associated with
decomposing organic material, biofilm on the surfaces of rocks and plants, suspended in the
water column, and in the sediments of the benthic and profundal zones. Other forms are also
associated with the guts of lentic animals as parasites or in commensal relationships. Bacteria
play an important role in system metabolism through nutrient recycling, which is discussed in
the Trophic Relationships section.

Primary producers

Algae, including both phytoplankton and periphyton are the principle photosynthesizers in
ponds and lakes. Phytoplankton are found drifting in the water column of the pelagic zone.
Many species have a higher density than water which should make them sink and end up in
the benthos. To combat this, phytoplankton have developed density changing mechanisms, by
forming vacuoles and gas vesicles or by changing their shapes to induce drag, slowing their
descent. A very sophisticated adaptation utilized by a small number of species is a tail-like
flagellum that can adjust vertical position and allow movement in any direction.
Phytoplankton can also maintain their presence in the water column by being circulated in
Langmuir rotations. Periphytic algae, on the other hand, are attached to a substrate. In lakes
and ponds, they can cover all benthic surfaces. Both types of plankton are important as food
sources and as oxygen providers.



01 Banyan tree Plant Tropical Largely found The leaves of the Producer
and semi banyan tree are large,
tropical leathery, glossy green
region, and elliptical in
native in shape. Young leaves
India have an attractive
reddish tinge.
02 Aloe Vera Herb Areas of Largely found Stem less or very Producer,
low natural short stemmed, has better
rainfall leaves are thick and access to
making it fleshy, green to grey mineral
ideal for green and the nutrients in
rockeries margins of the leaf is soil.
and other serrated and has
low water small white teeth
The species
is hardy in
zone 8-11,
although it
of very
heavy frost
or snow.
03 Grass Shrub In lush rain Largely found Narrow leaves Producer
forests, dry everywhere. rowing from the base
and even



01 Grasshopper Arthropods Grassland Different species Antennae are It is a great
and tropical of this are found generally shorter source of
range and in tropical range. than the body and protein in
wet forests. short out position. the food

01 Grass Crap Fish Lake, Pond Largely found. Body color is dark As it eats
and back olive, shading to weeds of
water of brownish yellow on lakes and
rivers. sides with a white ponds, it
belly and large slight therefore
outline scale. controls
02 Frogs Amphibian Lake and Largely found. Webbed feet Eats insects.
pond and
back water
of rivers.
03 Kingfisher Birds Lake, pond Different species Large head, long Feeds on
and back of this bird are sharp pointed bills, fishes.
water of found in large short legs and tubby
rivers. number in tail.
different parts of
the world.
04 Koel Birds Tropical Largely found. Large, long tailed Consumes
Asia from birds measuring variety of
India and 30cm in length and insects.
Sri Lanka weighing 30-50gms.
in South It is usually black in
China and color.



Decades after the migratory birds turned away from Rabindra Sarobar, they have flocked
back to the heart of the city this year, much to the delight of the environmentalists.

The green brigade of the city was so much excited with the change of sight — from dirt and
filth to colourful creatures — that they immediately conducted a census on the birds. So now
we know we have more than 900 Indian cormorants, 20 great cormorants, 20-plus Indian
pond herons, 40-plus rose-ringed parakeets, three white-throated kingfisher, 10-plus Asian
pied starlings,10 black kites,one bone-win jacana, one white-breasted water hen, among other
winged species as our guests. Green NGO Nature Mates-Nature Club was roped in for the
census. The team, led by founder member Anjan Basu Roy,surveyed 421 nests of the birds on
15 trees.

"The census will serve as a benchmark in the coming years. After next year's census, we'll
know how congenial the lake has become for birds," said Basu Roy.The193-acre Sarobar area
is home to parrots, barbets, startling, mynah and harder-to-spot birds like golden oriole and
red-throated flycatcher as well.

If arrival of the birds was good news for the nature lovers and the authorities, another report
from the state pollution board can certainly be dubbed as the icing on the cake. The board has
recently acknowledged the increase in oxygen level in the 73-acre waterbody, upgrading it to
level "C" from the consistent "D" that had been tagged with it for years now.

Mudar Patherya, who has worked in some citizen initiatives like cleaning the Santragachhi
Lake, said the census would help generate funds and attention. "One has noticed the sharp
rise in the number of water birds at the lake because these days,there is a lot of emphasis to
keep the place clean and green. The islands have turned white with bird dropping. That's
something to reckon with,"said Patherya.


1) to recommend remedial measures for improvement of quality of the water in the lakes;
2) to recommend the outlines of a plan for the landscaping of the area adjoining the lakes;
3) to recommend measures for overall improvement of the environment and the ecosystem in
the area.


A process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to restore an
environment altered by contaminants. 

It can even be programmed to attack specific soil contaminants, such as chlorinated

hydrocarbons (which are degraded by bacteria) 

Even oil spills are cleared with this technique 

Pollutants in Rabindra Sarobar will be ‘intercepted and diverted’ and the water treated to
restore its oxygen content and vitality

Rabindra Sarobar, choking on hyacinth and weeds, is in desperate need of help

Like a majority of artificial lakes in the country, Rabindra Sarovar is suffering environmental
degradation. Water pollution is on the rise, owing to an increase in tourist flow and habitation
around the lake. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, has recently
included this lake under the National Lake Conservation Plan in the hope that this will help
preserve it. The local authorities have also begun an extensive tree plantation programme.

At present the Kolkata Improvement Trust (KIT), a government organization maintains this
recreational asset. With the onset of time, deterioration had seeped into the once charismatic
and enchanting space. The lake had undergone a complete ecological degradation. Dumping
of sewerage, water contamination, unhygienic environmental condition, decaying vegetation
and neglected landscape were some of the commonly identified concerns.

Some Significant findings

· Multiple entry points with no access control of any nature,

· Unguarded vehicular and pedestrian movement around the lake,
· The area around the lake became unsafe after dark due to poor lighting,
· Prevalence of anti social activities after dark,
· Vandalism and inadequate maintenance of hardware,
· Ill barricaded fringes and

· Lack of public signage