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SLIDE 1: damnation, is a later example of

philosophic or religious determinism.

Nature & Human Nature SLIDE 7:

SLIDE 2: According to this, carried to its logical

extreme, strict determinism is
Journeying Back to the Self essentially predetermination-events
It is important for anyone to are determined by what has happened
understand himself & his nature before. “What will be will be” and are
from psychological point of view. only puppets who play our part as it is
written with no chance of altering the
SLIDE 3: script.

According to Coleman and Hammen: SLIDE 8:

Human nature is anything a group of The irreconcilable paradox of

people share, certain emotions and determinism versus freedom has been
feelings: love, hate, honesty, well pointed out by Carl Rogers in
dishonesty, peace, war, working, relation to the therapeutic situation.
loafing, all can be dubbed with the
name human nature. “In the therapeutic relationship,
some of the most compelling
SLIDE 4: subjective experiences are those in
which the client feels within himself
To men, human nature means just the power of naked choice.
that- being human, with the ability to
experience great joy, sensual SLIDE 9:
pleasure, sorrow, etc.
Different Psychosocial Models
Psychoanalytic Model
Oneself, Free or Determined
Based on the pioneering works of
Some philosophers believe that human Sigmund Freud
beings are pawns of fate. The great
dramatic tragedies of Aechylus and SLIDE 10:
Sophocles are pervaded by the ancient Psychoanalytic Model
Greek belief that men and women are
pawns of fate. Id – contains the innate, primitive,
biological drives such as hunger,
SLIDE 6: thirst, & aggression. These primitive
The calvinist doctrine of drives are seen as being of 2 types:
predestination, which holds that at Constructive drives, primarily of a
birth every individual has already been sexual nature, which provides the
elected to salvation or condemned to basic energy of life or libido.
Destructive & aggressive urges which 2. The most basic striving of the
are more obscure but tend toward individual is toward the
self-destruction & death. maintenance, enhancement, &
actualization of the self


Psychoanalytic Model
Ego – mediates between the demands
of the id & the realities of the external 3. The individual reacts to the
world. This requires the use of reason situations in terms of his unique
& other intellectual resources in perceptions of himself & his world.
dealing with the realities of the
external world. 4. Perceived threat to the self is
followed by defense
Superego – refers to the outgrowth of
learning taboos & moral values of the 5. The individual’s inner tendencies
society – Conscience. are toward health & wholeness, &
under normal conditions.
Humanistic Model
Behavioristic Model
This model is characterized more by
its positive growth than by coherent Originated from the early work
set of principles of personality of John Watson. This model
development & functioning. It makes allowance for behavior
assumes that human behavior cannot which is good or evil, rational or
be understood in terms of external irrational, depending upon the
stimulus conditions alone; internal individual’s conditioning.
psychological structures & processes SLIDE 16:
also have causal influence on thought,
feeling, & action. The existence Model

SLIDE 13: This model has its origin from

philosophy and literature than from
Carl Rogers gave important science. It is more concerned of the
contribution to the development of predicament of man in the 20th
this theory in delineating the self century. It emphasizes the breakdown
concept. of traditional faith, the
1. Each individual exists in a depersonalization of the individual in a
private world of experience of standardized mass culture, and the
which he – the I, me, or myself – loss of meaning in human existence.
is the center. SLIDE 17:
According to Morris; Self awareness- Only the human race
seems to have evolved to a high level
1. “I am choosing my way through of reflective consciousness or self-
life” awareness.
2. “I am a free, agent, absolutely Modifiability of action- Man’s mental
free to set the goals of my life.” ability enables him to learn, reason
3. “ I am a responsible agent, out, and imagine with unlimited
personally accountable for my free flexibility to cope with prevailing new
choices as they are revealed in how I situations.
live my life.” SLIDE 21:
SLIDE 18: Use symbols- Man’s unique mental
A Systems Approach to endowment enables him to deal with
Understanding Human Behavior ideas, symbols, particularly of those
absent, or imaginary objects, events
Structural properties- Each and concepts.
living system possesses parts or
subsystems which are Concern with information, values and
independent and whose meaning- Man is given the chance to
combined action enable the make choices as to what goals to
system to function as an adopt and what means to use.
integrated unit. Complexity of transactions with field-
Integrative properties- Living Man is always in contact with his
systems have built-in environment.
tendencies to maintain their SLIDE 22:
organization and functional
integrity. Self-direction- These various
properties of human beings—reflective
self-awareness, modifiability of action,
SLIDE 19: use of symbols, concern with
information, values and meaning, and
Field properties- Each lower-level complexity or transactions with the
system is part of a higher-level environment—make possible a high
system. They are in constant degree of self-direction.
transaction with the field and this
constant interaction modifies both
system and field.


Human system possesses other

special characteristic