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AME

 60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
1-D Steady Conduction: Plane Wall
Governing Equation:

d 2T
2
=0
dx

Dirichlet Boundary Conditions:


T (0) = Ts,1 ; T (L) = Ts,2

x
Solution: T(x) = Ts,1 + (Ts,2 − Ts,1 ) temperature is not a function of k
L
dT k
Heat Flux: = (Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
qʹ′xʹ′ = −k
dx L
heat flux/flow are a function of k
€ dT kA
Heat Flow: qx = −kA
dx
=
L
(Ts,1 − Ts,2 )


Notes:
•  A is the cross-sectional area of the wall perpendicular to the heat flow
€•  both heat flux and heat flow are uniform è independent of position (x)
•  temperature distribution is governed by boundary conditions and length
D.  B.  Go   of domain è independent of thermal conductivity (k)  1    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
1-D Steady Conduction: Cylinder Wall
Governing Equation:

1 d ! dT $ d ! dT $
# kr & = 0 ⇒ #r &=0
r dr " dr % dr " dr %

Dirichlet Boundary Conditions:


T(r1) = Ts,1 ; T(r2 ) = Ts,2

Ts,1 − Ts,2 ⎛ r ⎞
Solution: T(r) = ln⎜ ⎟ + Ts,2
ln(r1 r2 ) ⎝ r2 ⎠

dT k (Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
Heat Flux: qr = −k
ʹ′ʹ′ = heat flux is non-uniform
dr r ln(r2 r1)
€ dT 2πLk (Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
q
Heat Flow: r = −kA = 2 π rLq ʹ′
rʹ′ = heat flow is uniform
dr ln(r2 r1 )
€ qr 2πk(Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
qʹ′r = = heat flow per unit length
L ln(r2 r1 )
Notes:
€ •  heat flux is not uniform è function of position (r)
•  both heat flow and heat flow per unit length are uniform è independent
D.  B.  Go  
of position (r)  2    

AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
1-D Steady Conduction: Spherical Shell
Governing Equation:

1 d ! 2 dT $ d ! 2 dT $
2 # kr & = 0 ⇒ #r &=0
r dr " dr % dr " dr %

Dirichlet Boundary Conditions:


T(r1) = Ts,1 ; T(r2 ) = Ts,2

1− (r1 r)
Solution: T(r) = Ts,1 − (Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
1− (r1 r2 )

dT k (Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
q
Heat Flux: rʹ′
ʹ′ = −k = heat flux is non-uniform
dr r 2 [(1 r1) − (1 r2 )]

dT 2 4πk(Ts,1 − Ts,2 ) heat flow is uniform
q
Heat Flow: r = −kA = 4 π r q ʹ′
rʹ′ =
dr (1 r1) − (1 r2 )

Notes:
•  heat flux is not uniform è function of position (r)
€•  heat flow is uniform è independent of position (r)
D.  B.  Go    3    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Thermal Resistance

D.  B.  Go    4    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Thermal Circuits: Composite Plane Wall

Circuits based on assumption of


(a)  isothermal surfaces normal to x direction
or
(b)  adiabatic surfaces parallel to x direction

−1
LE ⎡ kF A kG A ⎤ LH
Rtot = + ⎢ + ⎥ +
kE A ⎣ 2LF 2LG ⎦ kH A


Rtot =
−1
⎡⎛ ⎞
−1
⎛ ⎞
−1⎤
2L 2L 2L 2L 2L
⎢⎜ E + F + H ⎟ + ⎜ E + G + H ⎟ ⎥ 2L
⎢⎣⎝ kE A k F A k H A ⎠ ⎝ kE A kG A k H A ⎠ ⎥⎦

Actual solution for the heat rate q is bracketed by these two approximations
D.  B.  Go   €  5    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Thermal Circuits: Contact Resistance
In the real world, two surfaces in contact do not transfer heat perfectly

TA − TB Rʹ′ʹ′
Rt,c
ʹ′ʹ′ = ⇒ Rt,c = t,c
qʹ′xʹ′ Ac

Contact Resistance: values depend on materials (A and B), surface roughness,


interstitial conditions, and contact pressure è typically calculated or looked up

LA Rʹ′ʹ′ L
Equivalent total thermal resistance: Rtot = + t,c + B
k A Ac Ac k B Ac

D.  B.  Go    6    


AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  

D.  B.  Go    7    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  

D.  B.  Go    8    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Fins: The Fin Equation
•  Solutions

D.  B.  Go    9    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Fins: Fin Performance Parameters
•  Fin Efficiency
–  the ratio of actual amount of heat removed by a fin to the ideal
amount of heat removed if the fin was an isothermal body at the base
temperature
•  that is, the ratio the actual heat transfer from the fin to ideal heat transfer
from the fin if the fin had no conduction resistance
qf qf
ηf ≡ =
q f ,max hA f θ b
•  Fin Effectiveness
–  ratio of the fin heat transfer rate to the heat transfer rate that would exist
€ without the fin
qf qf R
εf ≡ = = t,b
q f ,max hAc,bθ b Rt, f

•  Fin Resistance
€ –  defined using the temperature difference between the base and fluid as
the driving potential
θb 1
Rt, f ≡ =
q f hA f η f
D.  B.  Go    10    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Fins: Efficiency

D.  B.  Go    11    


AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Fins: Efficiency

D.  B.  Go    12    


AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Fins: Arrays
•  Arrays
–  total surface area
N ≡ number of fins
At = NA f + Ab
Ab ≡ exposed base surface (prime surface)

–  total heat rate


€ θ

qt = Nη f hA f θ b + hAbθ b = ηo hAtθ b = b
Rt,o

–  overall surface efficiency


NA f
€ ηo = 1−
At
(1− η f )

–  overall surface resistance


θb 1
Rt,o = =
€ qt hAtηo


D.  B.  Go    13    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Fins: Thermal Circuit
•  Equivalent Thermal Circuit

•  Effect of Surface Contact Resistance


θ
qt = ηo(c )hA f θ b = b
Rt,o(c )

NA f $ ηf '
ηo(c ) = 1− &1− )
At % C1 (
% R$$ (
C1 = 1− η f hA f ' t,c *
& Ac,b )
1
Rt,o =
D.  B.  Go  
hAtηo(c )  14    
AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Fins: Overview
•  Fins
–  extended surfaces that enhance fluid heat transfer
to/from a surface in large part by increasing the
effective surface area of the body
–  combine conduction through the fin and
convection to/from the fin
•  the conduction is assumed to be one-dimensional

•  Applications
–  fins are often used to enhance convection when h is
small (a gas as the working fluid)
–  fins can also be used to increase the surface area
for radiation
–  radiators (cars), heat sinks (PCs), heat exchangers
(power plants), nature (stegosaurus)
Straight fins of (a) uniform
and (b) non-uniform cross
sections; (c) annular
fin, and (d) pin fin of non-
uniform cross section.

D.  B.  Go    15    


AME  60634    
Int.  Heat  Trans.  
Fins: The Fin Equation
•  Solutions

D.  B.  Go    16