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Refrigerant Expansion and Control Device

Refrigerant Flow Control


1. To meter the liquid refrigerant from liquid line into the
evaporator at a rate commensurate with the rate at
which vaporization of liquid is occurring in the later
unit.
2. To maintain a pressure differential in the system to
permit the refrigerant to vaporize at desired low
pressure in the evaporator while condensing at a high
pressure in the condenser.
Refrigerant flow control devices include the following:
a. Automatic Expansion device
b. Thermostatic Expansion device
c. Thermal Electric Expansion device
d. Electronic Expansion device
e. High-side & Low-side float valves 1
Superheat sensor on directEdited
expansion
by Foxit Reader
Copyright(C) circuit
by Foxit Corporation,2005-2009
For Evaluation Only.

Thermostatic expansion valves (TEVs) for this kind embody a mechanism


which will detect the superheat of this gas leaving the evaporator.
Refrigerant boils in the evaporator at Te and Pe , until it is all vapour, point A
and then superheats to a condition Ts , Pe , at which it passes to the suction
line, point B. A separate container of the same refrigerant at temperature Ts
would have a pressure Ps, and the difference Ps - Pe represented by C - B
is a signal directly related to the amount of superheat.

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Edited by Foxit Reader
Thermostatic Expansion Device (TXV)
Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation,2005-2009
For Evaluation Only.

TXV’s are the most widely


used refrigerant flow control
device. Operation is based on
maintaining a constant degree
of suction superheat at the
evaporator outlet. In case of
possible large pressure drop
in evaporator, equalizing
connectors are often used.

3
Edited by Foxit Reader
Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation,2005-2009
For Evaluation Only.

Thermostatic Expansion Device (cont.)

The basic thermostatic expansion valve has a detector and power


element, charged with the same refrigerant as in the circuit.

The pressure Ps generated in the phial by the superheated gas passes


through the capillary tube to the top of the diaphragm.

An adjustable spring provides the balance of Ps- Pe at the diaphragm,


and the valve stem is attached at the centre.

Should the superheat fall for any reason, there will be a risk of liquid
reaching the compressor. The Ts will decrease with a corresponding
drop in Ps . The forces on the diaphragm are now out of balance and
the spring will start to close the valve.

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Edited by Foxit Reader
Automatic Expansion ValveCopyright(C) by Foxit Corporation,2005-2009
For Evaluation Only.

AXV’s maintain a constant pressure in the evaporator by flooding


more or less of the evaporator surface in response to the
refrigeration load. It close off tightly when the compressor cycles off
and remains closed until the compressor cycle is on.
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Thermo Electric Expansion Valve

Signal from a suitable thermistor placed at the evaporator out let will
vary, depending on whether it senses dry refrigerant gas or liquid
traces. It can be used to control the current through a thermal
element to modulate the expansion valve.

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Edited by Foxit Reader
Electronic Expansion Valve (EXV)
Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation,2005-2009
For Evaluation Only.

The electronic expansion valve offers a finner degree of control and


system protection.

The benefits can be summarized as:

1. Precise flow control over a wide range of capacities


2. Rapid response to load changes
3. Better control at low superheats so that less evaporator surface
is required for superheat. More surface for evaporation results in
higher evaporating temperature and better efficiency.
4. Electrical connection between components offers greater
flexibility in system layout, which is important for compact
systems.
5. The valve can close when the system shuts down, which
eliminates the need for an additional shut off solenoid valve.

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Electronic Expansion Valve (cont.)

Electronic expansion devices are now widely used on automatic


system in an integrated control circuit.

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Capillary Tube
Edited by Foxit Reader
Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation,2005-2009
For Evaluation Only.

Simplest / no moving parts / inexpensive.


Consists of merely fixed length of small diameter tube.
Not adjustable to changing load; susceptibility to clogging by
foreign particles.
Equalize pressure during off cycle. 9
High Pressure Float Valve

A high-side float valve is located at the high pressure side of the


system, between the compressor discharge outlet and the inlet of the
TXV. It control the refrigerant feed to the evaporator indirectly by
maintaining a constant liquid level in it.
10
Edited by Foxit Reader
Low Pressure Float Valve
Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation,2005-2009
For Evaluation Only.

It controls the liquid refrigerant feed to maintain a constant liquid


level in the evaporator. As the liquid level in the evaporator drops,
the float ball moves downward and opens the float valve wider so
that more refrigerant is feed to the evaporator. 11