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Background of the Study

Transportation is the means to carry people and goods from one place to another.

This has become very important in each stage of human civilization. For the

contribution, transportation has a high effect on the public, sometimes it is the basis of

economic, social, political and cultural development1. In real-time monitoring,

transportation depends on the present happenings on its front. Transportation can be

affected by some factors such as weather, obstructions, accidents, time delays, length of

travel and availability of carriers.

Transportation can be classified into three modes: land, air, and water. These

modes are used in most countries including the Philippines. Water transport is the most

convenient because of its reasonable advantages. This mode of transportation has a good

cost advantage and can be a very cost-effective alternative to land transportation as the

transport network already exists naturally and often requires no or little improvement to

be functional compared to other modes.2 This means that the travel cost in this mode

becomes inexpensive because it does not need roads or rails to travel distances. Land

transportation is also very convenient for many concrete reasons and it is significant to

have this kind of transportation as it saves time and energy traveling farther distances.

But land transportation has more major disadvantages: traffic, obstructions, maintenance

Marketinglord (2012), Role and Importance of Transportation: Retrieved from
(Accessed on September 11, 2019)
Gascho , L., Peichert, H., and Renner S. (2006), Inland Waterway Transport (IWT): Retrieved from
(Accessed on September 11, 2019)

and the cost of roads and railway construction. These major disadvantages mostly cause

time delays and lose some opportunities.3

In the Philippines, Tacloban City is one of the places affected by land

transportation disadvantages.4 In 2015, the City has a population density of about

242,089 making it the most populous city in Eastern Visayas.5 It is also visited vastly as

it is the busiest and most progressive city in Region 8 (Eastern Visayas). The City's

population triples during business hours due to the influx of residents from nearby Leyte

and Samar municipalities who avail of the city's utilities and services. Demand for both

transient and permanent housing has steadily increased because of its central location for

business, education, health and leisure activities.6 Such influences often pull commercial

and private vehicles and passenger thus causing traffic congestion daily.7

The issue was worsened by the devastation caused by typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan)

and has resulted in a traumatic experience thus making the City cautious with coastal

areas. The government took an action in reducing the dangers by relocating those

residents who live within and near Tacloban City’s coastal zones. The flagship project

toward realizing this vision for a resilient and economically vibrant future is the

Accountlearning, Land Transport-Road & Railway|Advantages & Disadvantages: Retrieved from
(Accesed on Nov. 06, 2019)
Abella, L.A. (2018), One-way traffic schemeto end 3 major Tacloban roads: Retrieved from (Accessed on Nov. 15, 2019)
Philippine Statistics Authority (2019), @
(Accessed on Nov. 06, 2019)
City Government of Tacloban (2019), City Profile- Economic Drivers and Role in Development: Retrieved
(Accessed on Sept. 30, 2019)
Downs, A. Traffic: Why It’s Getting Worse, What Government Can Do: Retrieved from traffic-why-its-getting-worse-what-government-can-do/amp/
(Accessed on Nov. 06, 2019.)

establishment of a new township in an area referred to as Tacloban North. City planners

and various international organizations have helped Tacloban City visualize the

possibilities for the area: (a) Prosperous communities, which will have access to quality

education, health care, sanitation, and government services; (b) Green belts, that will help

in the conservation and protection of local biodiversity and water resources; (c) and new

world-class hotels, convention centers, and commercial/recreational developments will

add to existing ones in the central business district, contributing toward Tacloban City’s

aspiration to become an attractive new MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, and

Exhibits) destination, to rival other Philippine MICE cities like Cebu, Davao, and


However, the start of implementation of the development plan for Tacloban North

resulted in traffic congestion, a worsening problem that should be addressed immediately

by the local government. Congestion occurs when traffic on the road is delayed because

of the presence of other vehicles. Along with the increase in demand exceeding the

capacity of an infrastructure facility, the costs of users grow and the quality of using the

facility deteriorates.9 Multiple factors contribute, including increasing populations and

urbanization; public transport shortcomings; and major infrastructure projects and

ongoing maintenance.10

City Government of Tacloban, City Profile: Retrieved from
(Accessed on Sept. 30, 2019)
Kozlak, A., Wach, D., Causes of traffic congestion in urban areas. Case of Poland: Defining congestion and
characterising its causes: Retrieved from
(Accessed on Sept. 30, 2019)
Sue Weekes, Traffic Congestion: Retrieved from
reports/special-reports/traffic-congestion-cutting-through-the-complexity (Accessed on Nov. 06, 2019)

In the year 2017, the plans for Tacloban North have also been developed further.

According to the Local Government Unit (LGU), the population of Tacloban North

reached 90,000 in 2018 – representing around 40 percent of the City’s total population.

This includes 75,000 relocated families from the No-Build Zone (NBZ) and is reflected

in the current draft of the CLUP.11 As a result of Tacloban North’s rapid increase in

population, the level of transportation in Tacloban City had been intensified. More Public

Utility Vehicles (PUV’s) had been assigned to Tacloban North but still fail to

accommodate efficiently all the commuters residing in the area. Most commuters from

Tacloban North often suffer from being stranded during peak hours because of the

disproportionate number of commuters and PUV’s.12

Together with Tacloban North development in the year 2017, the Eastern Visayas

Regional Medical Center (EVRMC) was transferred completely to Barangay Cabalawan 13

and this exacerbated the traffic problems. Difficulties with transportation are experienced

by clients and employees of the hospital, especially those coming from the urban core

and its southern fringes. This means that many of the passengers affected by the delay of

transportation during peak hours in going to and from the northern direction of Tacloban

are clients who have patients in EVRMC and the hospital employees. Furthermore, the

clients of the hospital come from different parts of Leyte and Samar and many would

travel farther south to purchase supplies needed by their patients.

Parker, E., Maynard, V., Garcia, D. and Paulus R. Y., (2017) Urban planning Following humanitarian
crises: Retrieved from
usg=AOvVaw2MN32DYgk2MTIVfvUx8su4 (Accessed on Nov. 06, 2019)
Palagi S., Lesson 3: Waiting is resource-intensive: Retrieved from
3-waiting-is-resource-intensive/ (Accessed on Nov. 06, 2019)
Isumat News Team (Sept. 2016), Complete transfer of EVRMC’ to its new location is set on Sept. 2017 (Accessed on
Dec. 07, 2019)

Another rising issue is the unorganized sea transport system and lack of sufficient

facilities in the Quezon Boulevard located near Tacloban City market and downtown

area. Because of its strategic coastal location, this street became a landmark for

passengers from Samar's barangays heading to Tacloban City. The passengers ride this

kind of locally produced boats called pump boats usually made of wood and recycled

vehicle engines.14 According to Ricky N. Soniega, the staff sergeant of Tacloban City’s

Coast Guard Office, Quezon Boulevard is a strategic location for sea transport since it is

located in the urban core of Tacloban City. However, in terms of safety and natural

exposures (direct sunlight, rain, dust and winds, etc.), the location is considered as

undeveloped. During these natural occurrences, passengers and responding coast guard

officials often use McDonald's Restaurant as a refuge since it is the nearest covered

structure present in the location. Likewise, the Traffic Operations, Management,

Enforcement and Control Office (TOMECO) of Tacloban City also gave an order that the

passengers and the responding coast guard officials should vacate the street for the safety

of the passengers and to lessen traffic congestion.

Providing water transport and developing the Quezon Boulevard for its terminal

can be one of the solutions for Tacloban North and downtown issues presented. The

researchers believe that reducing the demand for land transportation by utilizing

waterways as an alternative route and adding a new pump boat track that connects

Tacloban North and Quezon Boulevard will help ease traffic congestion. The issue

regarding the coastguard officials and passenger’s safety can be addressed by providing a

Caindoy M. L., A Tour around my town: Small boat of Tacloban City, Philippines 2018: Retrieved from
tacloban-city-philippines (Accessed on Sept. 30, 2019)

structure that will exclusively accommodate the pump boats that are licensed to berth on

Quezon Boulevard.

The researchers therefore resolute to design a Sea Transport Terminal on the

Quezon Boulevard (the main building) and provide three sub-terminals on the

northbound and one on the southbound coasts of Tacloban City near its populated area

and prioritizing the new socialized housing projects and the new EVRMC hospital in

Tacloban North. The proposed sea transport terminal will be an active public utility and

will serve as an administrating facility purposely organizing the incoming and outgoing

boats from certain places, regulating policies and developing the transport system in the

area. The researchers believe that the proposed project could possibly regulate the

transport system on the area as it will be a network for the coastguard, boat owners

(captains) and passengers prioritizing safety and convenience. The goal is to move

towards optimizing the potential usage and capabilities of the proposed project through

designing analytically.

Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to design sea transport terminals for

Tacloban City to help reduce land traffic problems in the downtown area, lessen land

traffic congestion along routes to and from Tacloban North, and improve travel efficiency

for affected passengers by utilizing sea transport. Specifically, the study aims to:

1. Identify the most strategic sites in Tacloban City for the ports.

2. Know the design and planning standard requirements for sea transport terminals;

3. Determine the design factors that contribute engaging experience with a sea

transport terminal;

4. Identify modern technologies and facilities that could be used in the proposed


5. Identify applicable sustainable features;

6. Identify applicable disaster-resilient features;

7. Know the laws to conform to when designing a sea transport terminal;

Significance of the Study

This part of the study determined the following as those who will benefit from the


Coast Guard Officials

This study will be beneficial to the Coast Guard Officials who are studying

coastal management extending their knowledge on the field. This will serve as a

basis for improving sea transportation and help promote sea transport terminals for

small boats, not only in Tacloban City, but also in other cities and municipalities that

use or consider to adopt this kind of transportation system.


Tacloban City Government and Other Local Government Units (LGU)

This study will be beneficial to the city government of Tacloban and other local

government units by contributing knowledge and awareness on the relation of traffic

and sea transport as alternative to land transportation in places with and seas.


The study will be beneficial to architects by providing information and data about

sea transport terminal.

Architecture Students

This study will provide information and data which could be utilized by

architecture students who are pursuing or will pursue studies/researches related to sea

transport terminal design.

Future Researchers

This study will aid and encourage people to further research on additional

solutions to traffic problems in Tacloban City and in other cities facing similar ordeal.

The study will also serve as a reference for future related studies.

Significance of the Project

This section refers to the impacts of the project to different factors such as social,

economic, cultural, environmental, etc. Furthermore, this section will discuss the benefits

that the project can provide to the following:


City Government of Tacloban

This proposed project will help the local government unit’s concern for

marine security and safety of Tacloban City as some boats are illegally using the

port in Quezon Boulevard and freely utilizing the location. The proposed project

will only accommodate boat owners who are licensed to berth on Quezon

Boulevard and will handle the location strictly.

Tacloban North commuters

The proposed project will help the Tacloban North commuters as one of

its priority is to resolve the transportation deficiency in Tacloban North and help

Tacloban North commuters have a convenient and efficient travel, especially

during peak hours.

Job Seekers and pump boat owners

The proposed project will also generate jobs, trainings and livelihood and

help Tacloban to be a more sustainable city. This will also help promote pump

boats as one of the primary transport services to places with similar geographic

location like Tacloban City.

Other Cities and Municipalities

The proposed project will not only help Tacloban City but also influence

other cities and municipalities which similarly have waterways and seas to create

or provide water transport facilities that help manage the incoming and outgoing

boats; thus, improving safety and convenience of passengers and staff.


Economy and Environment

The proposed project may contribute to the economic development of the

City by reducing traffic congestion through the use of waterways of Tacloban

City. Likewise, by providing an alternative solution to the problem without

causing much degradation to the environment but focuses on economic

convenience and efficiency, the proposed sea transport terminal will generally be

environment-friendly and economically-efficient. This mode of transportation

has a good cost advantage and can be a very cost-effective alternative to land

transportation as the transport network already exists naturally and often requires

no or little improvement to be functional compared to other modes. This means

that the travel cost in this mode becomes inexpensive because it does not need

roads or rails to travel distances.


The design will be a part of another public attraction as it will be

promoting green architecture and contemporary designs therefore giving multiple

positive impacts on the City and to the architectural field.