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‫مقدمة يف علم التجويد‬

Introduction To
The Science of Tajweed
What is Tajweed?

 Thecorrect recitation of the Qur-aan

giving every letter its rights regarding its
Makhraj and Sifaat, based on where it
appears in The Qur-aanic text.
Sifaatul Huroof – Qualities of the Letters

 Sifaatul
Huroof means:
Characteristics/qualities which are
inherent in each of the Arabic letters.
 More specifically, Sifaat refers to the
manner in which a letter is pronounced
which differentiates it from other letters of
the same Makhraj.
Categories of Sifaat
 Sifaatul huroof are divided into two categories:
 1. ‫( صفات الزمة‬Sifaat laazimah )- Intrinsic (Permanent)
Characteristics : These are characteristics that are
part of the intrinsic make up of the letter and never
leave the letter. They are part of the right of the letter
which must be fulfilled.
 2. ‫( صفات عارضة‬Sifaat Áaridah)- Conditional
(Temporary) Characteristics: These are characteristics
which are present in a letter in some cases, and not
present in other cases, such as Idghaam (merging),
Idh-haar (making clear), or pronouncing some letters
with Tafkheem (roundness) in some cases. These
sifaat add to the perfection of the letter in different
circumstances and are part of its dues.
Intrinsic (Permanent) Qualities
There are Seventeen Permanent Sifaat which are
divided into two categories:

1. Sifaat with 2. Sifaat without

opposites: opposites:
These are Ten These are seven
characteristics divided individual
into five pairs. characteristics.

Each of the Arabic letters has Sifaat FIVE from the

first category, with some having one or two
additional sifaat from the second category.
Permanent Sifaat with Opposites
Hams – ‫الهمس‬ Jahr – ‫الجهر‬
1 Trapping of Air
Flow of Air

Shiddah – ‫الشدة‬ Tawassut – ‫التوسط‬ Rakhaawah – ‫الرخاوة‬

Trapping of Sound Moderation Flow of Sound

Isti’laa – ‫االستعالء‬ Istifaal – ‫االستفال‬

Elevation (Roundness) Lowering (Flatness)

Itbaaq – ‫اإلطباق‬ Infitaah – ‫االنفتاح‬

Closing/Clasping Opening

Idhlaaq – ‫اإلذالق‬ Ismaat – ‫اإلصمات‬

Fluency Restraint
First Pair:
Hams vs Jahr
Second Pair:
Shiddah Tawassut Rakhaawah
Result of Shiddah, Tawassut and Rakhaawah:
Timings of the Letters with Vowels (Fathah, Kasrah, Dummah)
Result of Shiddah, Tawassut and Rakhaawah:
Timings of the Letters when they have Sukoon
Result of Shiddah, Tawassut and Rakhaawah:
• Differentiate between the Letters of Hams and Jahr, as well as Shiddah,
Tawassut and Rakhaawah.
• Identify the letters with sukoon and differentiate between their timings
based on whether they are letters of Shiddah, Tawassut or Rakhaawah.
Phrases To Memorize:
 Letters of Hams:

ْ ‫ص َس َك‬
‫ت‬ ٌ ‫خ‬
ْ ‫ش‬
َ ‫ه‬
ُ ‫ث‬
ّ ‫ح‬
َ ‫ف‬
 Letters of Shiddah:

‫ت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ٍ

‫ط‬ ‫ق‬
ْ ََ َ ُ ‫أ‬‫د‬ ِ
 Letters of Tawassut:
‫ل ْن عُ َم ْر‬
Third Pair:
Isti’laa (Elevation) vs Istifaal (Lowering)
• Result of Isti’laa: Tafkheem (Roundness of the Letters)
• Result of Istifaal: Tarqeeq (Flatness of the Letters)
Letters Which are sometimes Round and sometimes Flat
 The Letters of Isti’laa are always Round (Have Tafkheem).
 The Letters of Istifaal are generally flat (Have Tarqeeq).
 Three letters are sometimes Round and sometimes Flat.
They are: (‫ ر‬،‫ ل‬،‫ (ا‬in addition to Ghunnah (‫)الغنّة‬

letters of Istifaal Letters of Isti’laa

Remaining Letters

Always Flat Sometimes Round

Always Round

Remaining Letters
Fourth Pair:
Itbaaq vs. Infitaah
Result of Itbaaq: Letters are roundest of all the letters of
Isti’laa, with the same level even when they have Kasrah
Levels of Isti’laa
 Letters Of Isti’laa are of two levels:
1. Letters of Isti’laa and Itbaaq together: ‫ ظ‬،‫ ط‬،‫ ض‬،‫ص‬
2. Letters of Isti’laa and Infitaah: ‫ ق‬،‫ خ‬،‫غ‬
 The letters of Isti’laa and Itbaaq combined have
greater Tafkheem than those of Isti’laa and Infitaah

Istifaal + Infitaah Isti’laa + Infitaah Isti’laa + Itbaaq

More Tafkheem

More Tafkheem

The Above Letters Have greater

Tafkheem Than Those Below