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Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland

(Dated: October 17, 2007)

The ab-plane thermal conductivity κ of single-crystalline hexagonal MgB2 has been measured as

arXiv:cond-mat/0201517v3 [cond-mat.supr-con] 25 Jun 2002

a function of magnetic field H with orientations both parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis and at

temperatures between 0.5 and 300 K. In the mixed state, κ(H) measured at constant temperatures

reveals features that are not typical for common type-II superconductors. The observed behavior

may be associated with the field-induced reduction of two superconducting energy gaps, significantly

different in magnitude. A nonlinear temperature dependence of the electronic thermal conductivity

is observed in the field-induced normal state at low temperatures. This behavior is at variance with

the law of Wiedemann and Franz, and suggests an unexpected instability of the electronic subsystem

in the normal state at T ≈ 1 K.

field-induced normal state, in obvious disagreement with

the law of Wiedemann and Franz.

The discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 below

an unexpectedly high critical temperature Tc of the or-

der of 40 K1 initiated intensive studies of its physical

properties. Numerous results indicate that the super-

conducting state of MgB2 is conventional in the sense

that the electron pairing is mediated by the electron-

phonon interaction. In most reports the superconduct- II. SAMPLE AND EXPERIMENT

ing energy gap is claimed to be nodeless, compati-

ble with s-wave pairing. However, various types of

experiments,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 mainly using powder The investigated single crystal with dimensions of

or polycrystalline samples and often surface-sensitive, 0.5 × 0.17 × 0.035 mm3 was grown with a high-pressure

have given evidence for two gaps of different magnitude cubic anvil technique, similar to the one presented in

in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of this super- Ref. 17 but with a slightly different thermal treatment,

conductor. Calculations of the Fermi surface of this described in Ref. 18. The high quality of similar crystals

material14 reveal three-dimensional sheets (π-bands) and from the same batch was confirmed by single crystal X-

two-dimensional tubes (σ-bands) and it seems quite pos- ray diffraction and energy dispersive (EDX) X-ray anal-

sible that the gap values for these different parts of the ysis. A standard uniaxial heat flow method was used for

Fermi surface differ substantially. It has been argued15 the κ(T, H) measurements. Temperatures between 0.5

that the hole-like quasiparticles on the 2D parts of the and 2.4 K were achieved in a non-commercial 3 He cryo-

Fermi-surface experience the larger superconducting gap stat and the regime between 2 and 300 K was covered by

with a maximum value close to 1.76kB Tc , as predicted by using a 4 He flow cryostat. The thermometers for moni-

the original weak-coupling BCS theory.16 The second and toring the temperature difference in the κ(T, H) measure-

smaller gap is associated with the 3D sheets of Fermi sur- ments were Chromel-Au+0.07%Fe thermocouples with

face. This intriguing situation and other possible anoma- thin wires (25 µm diameter) for T ≥ 2 K and a pair

lous features of this seemingly simple metallic compound of ruthenium oxide thermometers below 2.4 K. In the

ought to be checked experimentally on single crystalline region of temperature overlap, the results of the mea-

material. surements of κ(T ) gave identical values for both types of

Below we present the results of measurements of the thermometers. Since the thermopower of the Au+Fe al-

thermal conductivity κ and the electrical resistivity ρ loy is strongly field-dependent at low temperatures, spe-

parallel to the basal ab-plane of the hexagonal crystal cial efforts were made to ensure a reliable calibration of

lattice of MgB2 as a function of temperature T between the thermocouples in magnetic fields. Possible errors due

0.5 and 300 K, and varying magnetic fields H between to the thermal conductivity of connecting wires are es-

0 and 50 kOe, oriented both parallel and perpendicu- timated to be below 1% of the total measured thermal

lar to the c-axis. In the mixed state, the observation of conductivity. Additional measurements of the electrical

a rapid increase of the electronic thermal conductivity resistivity ρ(T ) in the ab-plane in magnetic fields oriented

with increasing H at constant T ≪ Tc is consistent with along the hexagonal c-axis were made as well. The elec-

a field-induced reduction of the smaller of the two super- trical resistivity was measured by employing a 4-contact

conducting energy gaps. Another important observation configuration with the same contacts used for measuring

is that of an unusual nonlinear temperature dependence the voltage and the temperature difference, respectively.

2

2 102

15

ρ (µΩ cm)

H = 50 kOe H =0 Tc c

1

ρ (µΩ cm)

κ (W m -1 K -1)

10 101

0 4

0 10 20 30 40 50 a

T (K)

ρ (µΩ cm)

3

5

100

H =0 2

0 1 2

T 3 (106 K3)

0

0 100 200 300 400 b d

T (K) 10-1

MgB2 . The upper inset emphasizes the low temperature part T (K)

for H = 0 and 50 kOe oriented along the c-axis. The lower

inset demonstrates the cubic temperature dependence of ρ(T ) FIG. 2: Thermal conductivity vs temperature in the ab-plane

for T ≤ 130 K. of MgB2 in zero magnetic field. The solid lines represent κ(T )

measured on polycrystalline samples (data from: a - Ref. 25,

b - Ref. 26, c - Ref. 23, d - Ref. 24).

III. RESULTS

from those earlier data. Instead of a monotonous in-

crease with temperature we note a distinct maximum of

The electrical resistivity ρ(T ) in zero magnetic field is κ(T ) at T ∼ 65 K. The cause of these differences is obvi-

presented in Fig. 1. The narrow (∆Tc = 0.15 K) su- ously the strong influence of intergrain boundaries on the

perconducting transition occurs at Tc = 38.1 K. As it is heat transport in polycrystals, which masks the intrinsic

shown in the lower inset of Fig. 1, in the temperature mechanisms of quasiparticle scattering. As may be seen

region between Tc and 130 K, ρ(T ) may well be approx- in Fig. 2, no anomaly in κ(T ) provides evidence for the

imated by ρ = ρ0 + AT 3 , where ρ0 and A are constants. superconducting transition at Tc . A distinct change of

At temperatures below 50 K, ρ ≈ ρ0 = 2.0 µΩ cm. A slope in κ(T ) at approximately 6 K is observed, however.

cubic ρ(T ) dependence has often been observed in multi-

band transition metals and is associated with interband In Fig. 3 we display κ(T ) in the range between 0.5 and

electron-phonon scattering.19,20 The upper inset of Fig. 1 40 K, measured at selected fixed magnetic fields, oriented

emphasizes ρ(T ) close to the superconducting transitions parallel to the c-axis. The practically overlapping curves

in fields of H = 0 and H = 50 kOe, respectively. For our for H = 33 and 50 kOe indicate that for this field ori-

sample, the bulk upper critical field for the field direction entation and these H values, the normal state has been

c

parallel to the c-axis Hc2 is about 30 kOe at zero tem- reached in the whole covered temperature range. The ini-

perature and decreases with increasing temperature,21 tial decrease of κ with increasing field is relatively large

as shown in the inset of Fig. 3. Therefore the data for at higher temperatures, but is progressively reduced with

H = 50 kOe were obtained with the bulk of the sam- decreasing temperatures. It finally turns into an increase

ple in the normal state. The abrupt slope change in of κ(H) at constant temperatures below approximately

ρ(T, H = 50 kOe) at 17 K is most likely related to the 1 K. This behavior of the low-temperature thermal con-

onset of spurious superconductivity in the surface region ductivity in the mixed state 0 < H < Hc2 is better il-

of the sample.21,22 lustrated in Fig. 4 where we present the κ(H) curves,

measured at constant temperatures below 8 K for field

directions both parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis.

B. Thermal conductivity The typical features of these curves are the rapid ini-

tial decrease of κ with increasing field, narrow minima

The thermal conductivity data κ(T ) in zero mag- in κ(H) at field values that are low with respect to Hc2 ,

netic field are presented in Fig. 2. The κ(T ) values and a subsequent s-shape type increase of κ with fur-

are about an order of magnitude higher than previously ther increasing field. The latter feature is particularly

reported for polycrystalline samples.23,24,25,26 Also the pronounced for the κ(H) curves at the lowest tempera-

3

25 10

102 4.03 K 0.60 K

H || c

0 kOe 5.13 K 1.02 K

0.63 kOe Tc 6.40 K 1.76 K

1.88 kOe 7.94 K 2.83 K

8

20

3.75 kOe

10 kOe

κ (W m-1 K -1)

κ (W m-1 K -1)

101 33 kOe

κ (W m -1 K -1)

6

50 kOe 15

60 4

ab 10

H c2

100

H c2 (kOe)

40

2

20 c

5

H c2

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

0

10-1 0 10 20 30 40 H (kOe) H (kOe)

T (K)

T (K) H at several fixed temperatures. The arrows denote the upper

critical field Hc2 for H k c. The closed and open symbols

FIG. 3: Thermal conductivity vs temperature in the ab-plane correspond to the field direction perpendicular and parallel

of MgB2 for several values of magnetic fields parallel to the to the c−axis, respectively.

c-axis. The arrow indicates the zero-field critical temperature

Tc . The temperature dependences of the upper critical fields

c ab

Hc2 and Hc2 as established in Ref. 21 are shown in the inset.

In what follows, we first discuss the low-temperature

temperature part of κ(T ) in the field-induced normal

state, i. e., for H ≥ Hc2 . Subsequently we discuss κ(T )

tures. The low-field increase is practically independent in the superconducting state for H = 0 and finally turn

of the field direction as may clearly be seen in Fig. 4, to the data of κ(H), measured at constant temperatures

where data for H k c (open symbols) and H ⊥ c (solid in the mixed state, i. e., H < Hc2 .

symbols) are displayed for comparison. The increasing

slope at higher fields and H k c is certainly caused by

approaching the normal state at Hc2 . This trend is not A. Thermal conductivity in the normal state

observed for H ⊥ c, for which Hc2 is estimated to be

about 130 kOe at low temperatures, obviously far be- One of the main problems encountered in the analy-

yond our experimental possibilities. sis of the thermal conductivity of a conductor is that a

separate identification of the two terms in Eq. (1) at arbi-

trary temperature is not straightforward. In the normal

IV. DISCUSSION state, a convenient and often used way to estimate κe

is to employ the Wiedemann-Franz law (WFL), relating

the electrical resistivity and the electronic contribution

The thermal conduction of a superconductor is usually to the thermal conductivity via

provided by electronic quasiparticles (κe ) and phonons

(κph ), such that κe (T ) = L0 T /ρ(T ), (2)

ber. The validity of this law requires an elastic scatter-

Upon decreasing the temperature to below Tc in zero ing of electrons and it is well established that Eq. (2) is

magnetic field, the reduction of the number of unpaired applicable if the scattering of electrons by defects dom-

electrons leads to a decrease of κe and an increasing κph . inates. This is usually true at low temperatures, where

The overall behavior of κ(T ) in the superconducting state ρ(T ) ≈ ρ0 . In our case, the data in Fig. 1 suggest

depends on the relative magnitudes of κe and κph and that Eq. (2) is applicable at temperatures below about

also on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction. 50 K. Inserting the appropriate numbers into Eq. (2) sug-

Applying external magnetic fields induces vortices in the gests that, at temperatures Tc ≤ T ≤ 50 K, κe (T ) pro-

sample. The quasiparticles associated with the vortices vides about half of the total thermal conductivity. As

not only provide additional contributions to phonon scat- we demonstrate below, the applicability of the WFL for

tering and hence a reduction of κph , but also enhance κe . MgB2 at low temperatures is questionable, however.

The competition of these two processes leads to κ(H) Before discussing the validity of WFL at low tempera-

curves as shown in Fig. 4. tures, we note the complications that arise from unusual

4

features in the ρ(T ) data shown in Fig. 1, most likely ticular its temperature dependence, revealing a peak-like

caused by the influence of superconductivity in minor re- structure of κe /T vs T , shown in the inset of Fig. 5, is a

gions of the sample with enhanced Tc and Hc2 , different reliable result of our investigation.

from the corresponding bulk values. The onset of this su- The violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law at low tem-

perconductivity is clearly seen in the upper inset of Fig. 1 peratures is very unusual because the validity of this law

by inspecting ρ(T ) measured in a field of 50 kOe, substan- is expected to hold for the Fermi-liquid ground state of

tially exceeding Hc2 (0), the maximum bulk upper critical common metals. A similar set of data of Hill an cowork-

field of the same sample.21 Superconducting traces in a ers for (Pr,Ce)2 CuO4 was interpreted as evidence for

minute fraction of the sample may cause a considerable a breakdown of the Fermi-liquid theory for this oxide

reduction of the total measured electrical resistivity but material.28 The non-Fermi-liquid behavior of cuprates

leave the thermal conductivity virtually unchanged. In was speculated to be the consequence of possible spin-

this case a failure of the WFL would not be surprising. charge separation, a scenario that is considered in rela-

However, because the electrical resistivity of the sam- tion with high-Tc superconductivity.29 The same argu-

ple above Tc is practically temperature-independent, we ments are hardly relevant for the case of MgB2 where a

can, with a great deal of certainty, expect that the intrin- spin-charge separation is not expected. Another expla-

sic electrical resistivity of the bulk remains constant also nation for the results of Ref. 28 was recently offered in

at lower temperatures. The constant residual resistivity Ref. 30. It was argued that a peak-type structure of κe /T

ρ0 is caused by defects which actually set the maximum plotted versus T might be the consequence of some kind

mean free path for electrons, independent of temperature. of transition leading to a gap formation in the electronic

Indeed, results by Xu et al.27 of ρ(T ) measurements on excitation spectrum of the normal state. This scenario

single crystalline MgB2 at magnetic fields which presum- would lead to a peak of κe /T at T0 , close to the transition

ably exceed the upper critical field of the minor phase, temperature, an exponential decrease of κe /T below T0 ,

demonstrate that in, e.g., H = 90 kOe the electrical re- and a gradual approach to the Wiedemann-Franz value

sistivity remains constant with decreasing temperature of L0 /ρ0 at T > T0 . Such a peak at T0 ∼ 1 K indeed

down to at least 2 K. follows from our analysis of the MgB2 data (see the inset

of Fig. 5). Unfortunately our data set does not extend

In Fig. 5, we plot as a solid line, the normal-state elec-

to low enough temperatures in order to confirm the ex-

tronic thermal conductivity κWFL e below 8 K, calculated

ponential temperature dependence of κe well below T0 .

using Eq. (2) with the experimental value ρ0 = 2.1 µΩcm

for H = 33 kOe. The measured total thermal conductiv-

ity, shown by open circles, is considerably higher than

κWFL across the entire covered temperature range. For B. Thermal conductivity in the superconducting

e

the estimate of the upper limit of the phonon contribu- state (H = 0)

tion we assume that the minima of κ(H) shown in Fig. 4

are caused by the competition of a decreasing κph and an A rather unexpected feature in the temperature depen-

increasing κe . With this interpretation it is clear that the dence of κ in zero magnetic field is the absence of even the

values of κmin (H) represent at most the maximum value slightest manifestation of the transition at Tc = 38.1 K,

of the lattice contribution κph . The smooth interpolation as has already been mentioned in previous reports on

between these minimum values of κ(H) for different tem- κ(T ) for polycrystalline materials.23,24,25,26 This obser-

peratures, denoted as κmax ph , is shown as the broken line vation is quite unusual for superconductors with non-

in Fig. 5. The difference between the measured thermal negligible phonon heat transport, because the opening

conductivity at H = 33 kOe and the upper limit of the of the superconducting gap rapidly reduces the rate of

phonon contribution, κmin e = κ − κmaxph , obviously repre- phonon scattering on electrons and should lead to a fast

senting the lower limit of the electronic contribution, is increase of κph below Tc . The assumptions that either the

shown in Fig. 5 by open squares. It may be seen that phonon-electron scattering is much weaker than phonon-

at least below 8 K, the electronic contribution is consid- defect scattering, or that κph is negligibly small in the

erably larger than predicted by WFL. With increasing vicinity of Tc , which, in principle, might explain the ab-

temperature, κmine approaches the WFL prediction, as is sence of a κ(T ) feature at Tc , are all incompatible with

demonstrated in the inset of Fig. 5. Nevertheless, it is the observation that applying a relatively weak external

impossible to identify the temperature limit where the magnetic field of 0.63 kOe, introducing some additional

validity of the WFL is recovered if such a limit exists quasiparticles in the cores of vortices, considerably re-

at all. Considering our procedure it is clear that the duces the thermal conductivity at intermediate tempera-

true electronic contribution exceeds our estimate, partic- tures (see Fig. 3). The possibility that the enhancement

ularly towards the upper end of the considered temper- of κph below Tc is exactly compensated by a reduction

ature range. However, at very low temperatures where of κe , is not considered because, for a BCS supercon-

κ(H = 0) ≪ κn (e. g., at 0.60 K the zero field thermal ductor, the slope change in κph (T ) at Tc is much more

conductivity is less than 6% of the normal-state thermal pronounced than that in κe (T ).31 The latter statement

conductivity), κmine must be very close to the true κe . is not true for special cases of extremely clean samples of

Thus the observed deviation from the WFL and in par- strong-coupling superconductors, such as Pb and Hg,32,33

5

4

superconducting state takes the form

κ /T (W m-1 K-2)

3

20 s n

τp−e (ω) = g(ω/T, ∆/T )τp−e (ω), (5)

2

n

1 where τp−e (ω) is the normal-state relaxation time. The

κ (W m -1 K -1)

15 0

0 1 2 3 4 feature is a step-like increase of the phonon relaxation

T (K) rate at the phonon frequency ω = 2∆/h̄, a consequence

of the fact that a phonon with an energy less than 2∆

10 cannot brake a Cooper pair and interacts only with quasi-

particles that have already been excited above the gap.34

In the “dominant phonon” approximation35 it is assumed

5 that, at temperature T , the main contribution to the heat

transport in the lattice is due to phonons with frequen-

cies close to ωdom , where h̄ωdom ≈ 3.8kB T . For weak-

coupling BCS superconductors, where ∆(0) = 1.76kB Tc

0 and ∆(T ) is a standard function tabulated in Ref. 36,

0 2 4 6 8

T (K) h̄ωdom (T ) = 2∆(T ) is always fulfilled at the temperature

0.73Tc, i. e., not far below Tc . This is the reason why

FIG. 5: Normal-state thermal conductivity measured in κph (T ) increases rapidly below Tc , leading to a maximum

H = 33 kOe between 0.6 and 8 K (open circles). The upper of the measured κ, typically close to Tc /2.34 For MgB2 ,

limit of the phonon thermal conductivity κmaxph (dashed line) instead of a peak near Tc /2, κ(T ) exhibits a distinct fea-

and the lower limit of the electronic contribution κmin

e (open ture at about Tc /6 ≈ 6 K, which can also be regarded as

squares) are calculated as described in the text. The solid a peak-type structure on top of the background which de-

line represents the electronic contribution κWFL

e calculated creases monotonously with decreasing T . This suggests

using the Wiedemann-Franz law in Eq. (2). In the inset, we that the relevant superconducting energy gap is equal to

plot κmin

e (open squares) and L0 /ρ0 (solid line), respectively. h̄ωdom at much lower temperatures than 0.73Tc. Hence,

The error bars in the inset mark the maximum uncertainty of for the quasiparticles which scatter phonons most effec-

κe /T .

tively, the energy gap ∆(T ) is about 3 times smaller than

the values given by the original BCS theory.

In principle, more information could have been ex-

where the scattering of electrons by defects is negligibly tracted from our data by direct comparison with ex-

small. Our sample of MgB2 with ρ(300)/ρ(0) ≈ 6.8 can- isting theories for the thermal conductivity in multi-

not really be regarded as fulfilling the extreme clean limit band superconductors.34,37,38,39 However, since the WFL

criteria. It is possible, however, to account for both the seems to be invalid in the normal state of MgB2 at low

absence of a feature in κ(T ) at Tc and the obvious slope temperatures, any attempt to analyze κ(T ) quantita-

change in κ(T ) centered around 6 K, by postulating that tively in the superconducting state is hampered by the

the superconducting energy gap ∆(T ) for quasiparticles difficulties in separating κe and κph in a reliable manner.

which strongly interact with low-frequency phonons, is

considerably smaller than the values given by the BCS

theory. C. Thermal conductivity in the mixed state

In the simplest approximation, the phonon thermal

conductivity can be calculated as Before discussing the features of κ in magnetic fields, it

Z is important to note that the zero-field values of κ at tem-

2 peratures T ≪ Tc are almost entirely due to the phonon

κph = (v /3) C(ω)τ (ω)dω, (3)

contribution. The electronic thermal conductivity in the

where v is the mean sound velocity, and C(ω) and τ (ω) superconducting state κe,s (T ) can be estimated using the

are the specific heat and the average relaxation time of theory of Bardeen, Rickayzen, and Tewordt31 . In their

a phonon mode with frequency ω, respectively. The to- model

tal phonon relaxation rate may be calculated by assum-

ing that the simultaneous influence of all independent κe,s = κe,n f (y), (6)

phonon scattering mechanisms τi can be accumulated in where

the form

X 2F1 (−y) + 2y ln(1 + e−y ) + y2

τ −1 = τi−1 . (4) f (y) = 1+ey

, (T < Tc )

i 2F1 (0)

The phonon-electron relaxation time τp−e changes most and (7)

rapidly upon the opening of the superconducting gap. f (y) = 1, (T ≥ Tc ),

6

R∞

as well as Fn (−y) = 0 z n (1 + ez+y )−1 dz, y = ∆L , and normal-state electronic densities of states at the

∆(T )/kB T . Using for κe,n the values of κmin e,n shown

Fermi level N0,S and N0,L , respectively. The analysis

in Fig. 5, and taking into account the lowest previously presented in Ref. 41 shows that the quasiparticle states

claimed value of ∆(0) = 1.7 meV,10 it may be shown in the vortices are highly confined in the L-band but only

that κe,s is negligibly small below 4 K, and therefore, loosely bound in the S-band. Therefore the quasiparti-

κ(H = 0) ≈ κph . cle states of the vortices in the S-band start to overlap

As it may clearly be seen in Fig. 4, the κ(H) curves re- already in weak fields and the resulting density of states

veal very similar features at all temperatures below 8 K. equals that of the normal-state N0,S at H ≪ Hc2 . The

The most intriguing aspect of these curves is the very situation can be visualized as a vortex lattice involving

rapid increase of κ at relatively weak fields, after the ini- the L-band states, coexisting with the normal state in

tial decrease of κph . This increase is undoubtedly due to the S-band where the energy gap is suppressed. This

a field induced enhancement of the number of electronic model explains very well the behavior of the electronic

quasiparticles and thus to an increase of κe . For com- specific heat in a magnetic field.2,42 The field-induced

mon type II superconductors in their mixed state, the suppression of the smaller gap is claimed to be consistent

features of κe (H) are expected to depend on the ratio with the results of point-contact measurements3,9 and re-

between the electron mean free path ℓ and the coher- cent scanning tunneling spectroscopy experiments.43 In

ence length ξ0 . A rough estimate of ℓ can be obtained terms of the two-gap model, the saturation of the ther-

from the residual resistivity ρ0 employing the Drude re- mal conductivity much below Hc2 may be regarded as

lation ρ0 = 3/[N0 ℓvF e2 ], where N0 is the electronic den- the result of the closing of the energy gap in the S-band.

sity of states at the Fermi level and vF /3 is the aver- The heat transport via quasiparticles of the band associ-

age in-plane component of the Fermi velocity. Using ated with the larger gap is significant only in the vicin-

the values N0 = 0.7 states/(eV unit cell) (Ref. 14) and ity of Hc2 , and, eventually, above Hc2 the full normal

vF = 4.9 × 107 cm/sec (Ref. 4), we obtain ℓ ≈ 80 nm. state electronic heat transport is restored. The lack of

Since this value is considerably larger than the in-plane a substantial dependence of κe on the field orientation

coherence length ξab,0 = 11.8 nm (Ref. 21), our sample for H ≪ Hc2 is an obvious consequence of the weakly

is in the moderately clean limit. In this limit, κe is ex- anisotropic 3D nature of the π-bands. From this we con-

pected to be small at all fields below Hc2 , except close to clude that the smaller gap must open in the π-band. The

Hc2 , where it grows according to rapid increase of the number of quasiparticles in the π-

bands also naturally explains the very fast drop of κph (H)

κe = κe,n (1 − CT (Hc2 − H)1/2 ), (8) in small fields, because the corresponding excited quasi-

particles are the dominant scattering centers for phonons

where κe,n ∝ T is the normal-state electronic ther-

at low temperatures.

mal conductivity above Hc2 and CT is a temperature-

dependent coefficient.40 As may be seen in Fig. 4, for A more quantitative analysis of κe (H) can be made

MgB2 , the largest positive slope dκ/dH is observed well for the lowest temperatures where, as may be seen from

below Hc2 for both orientations of the magnetic field. Al- Fig. 3, the phonon contribution is relatively small in

though the form of Eq.(8) implies that κ(H) should scale comparison with the field-induced electronic contribu-

with the value of Hc2 , the thermal conductivity depends tion. At very low temperatures, the phonon scattering

only weakly on the field direction up to approximately by electronic quasiparticles is less effective,35 therefore

6 kOe. This is amazing because the anisotropy of the κph (H > 0) should not much deviate from κph (H = 0).

ab c

upper critical field Hc2 /Hc2 ≈ 4.2 at low temperatures.21 Indeed, at temperatures of 0.60 and 1.02 K, there is no

For H ⊥ c, after a steep initial increase, κ(H) reaches initial decrease of κ(H) in small fields. Assuming that the

a region where it exhibits only a relatively weak H- phonon contribution is essentially H-independent and

dependence. The same tendency is also observed for H||c that the smaller gap is completely suppressed in fields

but it is partly masked by yet another increase of κ(H) exceeding 20 kOe, we may establish the individual con-

ab

close to Hc2 . For H ⊥ c and T ≤ 8 K, Hc2 ∼ 130 kOe tributions to κe of the quasiparticles associated with ei-

(Ref. 21 ) and is not accessible in our experimental setup. ther the σ- or the π-band. This is illustrated in Fig. 6. A

Therefore the region of weak H-dependence extends to possible reduction of κph with increasing H could slightly

the highest fields reached in this study. change this ratio in favor of κe,π , but only by a few per-

The field dependence of κe , although very different cent. The ratio κe,π /κe,σ is 0.57/0.43, as estimated from

from what one would expect from a conventional super- the κ(H) data at T = 0.60 K. This ratio is remarkably

conductor, can qualitatively be explained in terms of a close to the ratio of the densities of electronic states in the

two-band model with two energy gaps of different magni- two bands N0,π /N0,σ of 0.58/0.42, as calculated by Liu et

tude associated with each band. Nakai and co-authors41 al.15 and 0.55/0.45 by Belashchenko et al.44 . Similar ra-

analyzed such a model where one band with strong pair- tios of 0.55/0.45 and 0.50/0.50 have been extracted from

ing (L-band) is responsible for superconductivity, and su- tunneling spectroscopy measurements43 and from specific

perconductivity in the second band (S-band) is induced heat experiments,2 respectively. From this comparison,

by Cooper pair tunneling. Consequently, the two bands we reach the important conclusion that the electron mean

are characterized by a smaller gap ∆S and a larger gap free paths on different sheets of the Fermi surface are

7

2

T = 0.60 K Nb

1.0

UPt3

LuNi2B2C

κe,σ MgB 2 (H||c)

κ (W m-1 K -1)

0.8

MgB 2 (H||ab)

κe / κe,n

0.6

κe,π

0.4

κph

0

0 10 20 30 40 50

H (kOe)

0.2

σ- and π-band quasiparticles, and the phonons to the normal 0.0

state thermal conductivity of MgB2 at T = 0.60 K. 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

H/Hc2

close to being equal. Indeed, the electronic thermal con- its normal state value vs. H/Hc2 . The data for MgB2 are

ductivity may be calculated from κe = Ce vF ℓ/3, where from this work, the results for Nb, UPt3 , and LuNi2 B2 C are

Ce is the electronic specific heat. Since Ce,i ∝ N0,i , and from Refs. 51, 52, and 50, respectively.

the ab-components of the Fermi velocity vF,i (i = π, σ)

are similar for different sheets of the Fermi surface in

MgB2 ,45 the equality κe,π /κe,σ ≈ N0,π /N0,σ is tanta-

mount to saying that, at low temperatures, the ratio of Hc2 , in agreement with Eq. (8). A considerably faster,

the electron mean free paths in different bands ℓπ /ℓσ is almost linear in H, increase of κe is observed for a su-

close to unity. This observation is essential in view of perconductor with nodes in ∆(k), here exemplified by

the current discussion of the possibly different impurity UPt3 .52 A similar H-variation of κe has been observed

scattering rates in different bands of electronic states of for LuNi2 B2 C, which led the authors of Ref. 50 to claim

MgB2 .46,47,48 an anisotropy of the energy gap ∆max /∆min > 10. The

Although the absence of any particular feature at Tc in increase of κe (H) in MgB2 is much faster than in any of

the zero-field κ(T ) data, discussed in Section IV B, gives these materials. For the field direction H ⊥ c, more than

only qualitative support for the existence of parts of the half of the normal-state thermal conductivity is restored

Fermi surface with a gap much smaller than predicted by already at H = 0.05Hc2! This means that, with increas-

the standard BCS theory, the magnetic field induced vari- ing H, instead of the gradual increase of the number of

ation of the low-temperature thermal conductivity may quasiparticles contributing to the heat transport, that is

be regarded as strong evidence in favor of the multigap characteristic of single-gap anisotropic superconductors,

scenario. we are dealing with the suppression of an energy gap on

a significant portion of the total Fermi surface by rela-

At the same time we believe that the model of Haas and

tively weak magnetic fields. Thus the features of κe (H)

Maki49 for explaining thermodynamic and optical prop-

of MgB2 displayed in Fig. 7 may be regarded as a natural

erties of MgB2 is not appropriate. They proposed the

consequence of the existence of two different gaps.

k-dependence of a single energy gap to adopt the form

of a prolate ellipsoid. Our claim is based on the com-

parison of our data set with similar results for materials

with strongly anisotropic gap functions. In Fig. 7, we V. SUMMARY

redraw a figure from Ref. 50, which compares the field-

induced variation of κe at temperatures well below Tc for Our κ(T, H) data provide evidence for a rapid field-

different conventional and unconventional superconduc- induced enhancement of quasiparticles in the supercon-

tors, amended by our data for MgB2 at T = 0.60 K. The ducting state of MgB2 well below Hc2 , consistent with an

Nb data51 reveal the typical salient features of a clean, al- efficient field-induced closing of the smaller energy gap,

most isotropic s-wave superconductor, and confirms the thus provoking a fast growth of the electronic thermal

very weak energy transport by quasiparticles far below conductivity. At higher fields, the growth of κe (H) tends

8

to saturate until, in the vicinity of Hc2 , the contribu- close to this temperature.

tion to κ from the electrons of the band associated with

the larger energy gap grows rapidly, merging into the

practically field-independent thermal conductivity in the

normal state above Hc2 .

Acknowledgments

At low temperatures, the electronic thermal conduc-

tivity of the field-induced normal state is nonlinear in

T and deviates considerably from the prediction of the We acknowledge useful discussions with I.L. Landau,

Wiedemann-Franz law. This deviation peaks at about R. Monnier, M. Chiao, and M. Sigrist. This work was fi-

1 K, suggesting the existence of some transition provok- nancially supported in part by the Schweizerische Nation-

ing a gap formation in the electronic excitation spectrum alfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung.

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