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Refrigeration &

Air Conditioning
Vapour Compression Refrigeration System

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Carnot Cycle

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Carnot Cycle

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration

h1  h4 h1  h f 3
COP  
h2  h1 h2  h1

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration

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Vapour Compression Refrigeration

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Comparison between Carnot cycle and Vapour
Compression Refrigeration cycle

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Types of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycles
1. Cycle with dry saturated vapour after compression,
2. Cycle with wet vapour after compression,
3. Cycle with superheated vapour after compression,
4. Cycle with superheated vapour before compression, and
5. Cycle with undercooling or subcooling of refrigerant.

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Vapour compression cycle with dry saturated vapour
after compression

h1  h4 h1  h f 3
COP  
h2  h1 h2  h1
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Vapour compression cycle with wet vapour after
compression

h1  h4 h1  h f 3
COP  
h2  h1 h2  h1
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Vapour compression cycle with super heated vapour
after compression

h1  h4 h1  h f 3
COP  
h2  h1 h2  h1
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Vapour compression cycle with super heated vapour
before compression :

h1  h4 h1  h f 3
COP  
h2  h1 h2  h1
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Vapour compression cycle with under cooling or sub
cooling:

h1  h4 h1  h f 3
COP  
h2  h1 h2  h1
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Actual Vapour compression cycle:

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Example
Find the theoretical C.O.P for a CO2 machine working between the temperature
range of 25°C and -5°C. The dryness fraction of CO2 gas during the suction
stroke is 0.6. Following properties of CO2 are given:
Liquid Vapour
Latent heat
Enthalpy Entropy Enthalpy Entropy kJ/kg
kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg kJ/kg K
25 164.77 0.5978 282.23 0.9918 117.46
-5 72.57 0.2862 321.33 1.21460 248.76

Solution. Given T2  T3  25C  25  273  298K ; T1  T4  5C  5  273  268K ;


x1  0.6; h f 3  h f 2  164.77kJ / kg ; h f 1  h f 4  72.57kJ / kg ; s f 2  0.5978
kJ / kgK ; s f 1  0.2862kJ / kgK ; h2'  282.23kJ / kg ; h1'  321.33kJ / kg ; s '2 
0.9918kJ / kgK ; s1'  1.2146kJ / kgK ; h fg 2  117.46kJ / kg ; h f 4  248.76kJ / kg
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First of all, let us find dryness fraction at point 2, i.e x2 . We Know that entropy at
point 1, x1h fg1 0.6  248.76
s1  s f 1   0.2862   0.8431 ...(i)
T1 268
x2 h fg 2 x2 117.46
Similarly, entropy at point 2, s2  s f 2   0.5978   0.8431
T2 298
= 0.5978  0.3941 x2 ...(ii)

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Since the entropy at point 1 (s1) is equal to entropy at point 2 (s2), therefore
equating equations (i) and (ii).

0.8431 = 0.5978 + 0.3941 x2 or x2 = 0.622

We know that enthalpy at point 1,

h1 = hf1 +x1hfg1 = 72.57 + 0.6 × 248.76 = 221.83 kJ/kg

h2 = hf2 +2hfg2 = 164.77 + 0.622 × 117.46 = 237.83 kJ/kg

And enthalpy at point 2,


h1  h f 3 221.83  164.77 57.06
Theoretical COP     3.57 Ans.
h2  h1 237.83  221.83 16

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Example
An ammonia refrigerating machine fitted with an expansion valve works between
the temperature limits of -10 °C and 30 °C . The vapour is 95% dry at the end of
isentropic compression and the fluid leaving the condenser is at 30 °C. Assuming
actual C.O.P as 60% of the theoretical, calculate the kg of ice produced per kW
hour at 0 °C from water at 10 °C. Latent heat of ice is 335 kJ/kg. Ammonia has
the following properties :
Temperature Liquid heat (hf) Latent heat (hfg) Liquid Total entropy of dry
°C kJ/kg kJ/kg entropy (sf) saturated vapour
30 323.08 1145.80 1.2037 4.9842
-10 135.37 1297.68 0.5443 5.4770
Work to be spent corresponding to 1 Kw hour = 3600 kJ,
Actual refrigerating effect produced per kW hour (Qa) =3600*actual COP
Heat extracted to produced 1kg of ice at 0 °C from 1kg of water at 10 °C =
(m*cp*dt) + m'*hfg = Qa
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Example
A simple saturated refrigerant 134a heat pump for space heating, operates
between temperature limits of 15 °C and 50 °C. The heat required to be pumped
is 100 MJ/h. Determine : 1. The dryness fraction of refrigerant entering the
evaporator; 2. The discharge temperature assuming the specific heat of vapour as
0.996 kJ/kg K; 3. The theoretical piston displacement of the compressor; 4. The
theoretical power of the compressor; and 5. The C.O.P.
The specific volume of refrigerant 134a saturated vapour at 15 °C is 0.4185
m3/kg. The other relevant properties of R-134a given below:

Pressure Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) Specific entropy (kJ/kg K)


(bar)
Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
15 4.887 220.26 413.6 1.0729 1.7439
50 13.18 271.97 430.4 1.2410 1.7312

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1. Dryness fraction of refrigerant entering the evaporator
We know that dryness fraction of refrigerant entering the evaporator i.e. at
point 4,
h4  h f 1 271.97  220.26 51.71
x4     0.2675 Ans.
h1  h f 1 413.6  220.26 193.34

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2. The discharge temperature

Let T = Discharge temperature


We know that entropy at discharge i.e. at point 2,
T2
s2  s2'  2.3c p log( '
)
T2
T2
1.7439  1.7312  2.3  0.996 log( '
)
T2
T2 1.7439  1.7312
log( )   0.0054
T2'
2.3  0.996
T2
'
 1.0123 ...(Taking antilog of 0.0054)
T2

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3. Theoretical piston displacement of the compressor
We know that entropy at discharge i.e. at point 2,
h2  h2'  c p (T2  T2' )
 430.4  0.996(327.13  323)  434.5kJ / kg
Q 100 103
mR    615.3kg / h  10.254kg / min
h2  h f 3 434.5  271.97
Theoretical piston displacement of the compressor
 mR  v1  10.254  0.4185  4.29m3 / min Ans.

4. Theoretical power of the compressor


We know that work done by the compressor
 mR (h2  h1 )  10.254(434.5  413.6)  214.3kJ / min
Power of the compressor = 214.3/60 = 3.57 kJ/s or kW Ans.

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5. C.O.P
We know that,
h1  h f 3 413  271.97 141.63
COP     6.8 Ans.
h2  h1 434.5  413.6 20.9

Example
A simple saturation cycle with R-12 is designated for taking a load of 10 tonnes.
The refrigerator and ambient temperature are -0 °C and 30 °C respectively. A
minimum temperature difference of 5 °C is required in the evaporator and
condenser for heat transfer. Find: 1. Mass flow rate through the system; 2. Power
required in kW; 3. C.O.P. ; and 4. Cylinder dimensions assuming L/D = 1.3, For a
single cylinder, single acting compressor if it runs at 300 r.p.m with volumetric
efficiency of 90%.

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Example
The following data refers to a single stage vapour compression system:
Refrigerant used (Ozone friendly) R-134a; Condensing temperature = 35 °C; Evaporator
temperature = -10 °C ; compressor R.P.M = 2800; Clearance volume/Swept volume = 0.03;
Swept volume = 269.4 × 10-6 m3; Expansion index = 1.12; compression efficiency = 0.8;
Condensate subcooling = 5 °C
Find: 1. Capacity of the system in TR; 2. Power required; 3. C.O.P.; 4.Heat rejection to
condenser. The properties of R-134a given below:
Assuming isentropic compression and suction vapour at dry saturated. The specific heat of
vapour and liquid refrigerant is taken as 1.1 kJ/kg.K and 1.458 kJ/kg.K

Specific enthalpy Specific entropy


Pressure Specific Volume (kJ/kg) (kJ/kg K)
(bar) of vapour, m3/kg
Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
-10 2.014 0.0994 186.7 392.4 0.9512 1.733
35 8.870 - 249.1 417.6 1.1680 1.715

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Solution: Given T2  T3  35C  35  273  308K ; T1  T4  10C  10  273  263K
' '

N  2800r. p.m; Vc / Vs  C  0.03; Vs  269.4 106 m3 ; n  1.12; c  0.8; T3  35  5 


30C  30  273  303K ; p1  p4  2.014bar; p2'  p3'  8.870bar; v1  0.0994m3 / kg

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First of all, let us find the temperature of superheated vapour at point 2 (T2). We
know that entropy at point 2,
T2
s2  s2'  2.3c p log( '
)
T2
T2
1.733  1.715  2.3 1.1log( )
308
T 1.733  1.715
log( 2 )   0.007114
308 2.3 1.1
T2
 1.0165
308
T2  1.0165  308  313.08K
We know the enthalpy at point 2,
h2  h2'  c pv (T2  T2' )  417.6  1.1(313.08  308)  432.2kJ / kg

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And enthalpy of liquid refrigerant at point 3,
h f 3  h'f 3  c pi (T3'  T3 )
 249.1  1.458(308  303)  241.81kJ / kg
We know that volumetric efficiency of the compressor,
1 1
 p2  n
 8.87  1.12
v  1  C  C    1  0.03  0.03  2.014   1.03  0.113  0.917
 p1 

Let, mR = Mass flow rate of the refrigerant in kg/min


We know that piston displacement per minute
= Swept volume x R.P.M.
= 269.4 X 10-6 X 2800 = 0.75432 m3 /min …(i)

We also know that piston displacement per minute


1 1
 mR  v1   mR  0.0994   0.1084mR ...(ii)
v 0.917
From equation (i) and (ii) mR = 0.75432/0.1084 = 6.96 kg/min

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1. Capacity of the system
We know that refrigerant effect per minute
 mR (h1  hf 3 )  6.96(392.4  241.81)  1048kJ / min
Capacity of the system = 1048/210 = 4.991 TR
Ans.
2. Power required
We know that workdone during compression of the refrigerant
 mR (h2  h1 )  6.96(423.2  392.4)  214.47kJ / min
Power required = 214.47/60 = 3.57 kJ/s or kW Ans.

3. C.O.P.
Refrigerant effect 1048
We know that C.O.P    4.89 Ans.
Workdone 214.4

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4. Heat rejected to condenser
We know that heat rejected to condenser
 mR (h2  hf 3 )  6.96(423.2  241.81)  1262.47kJ / min Ans.

5. Refrigerant efficiency
We know that C.O.P of carnot cycle
T1 263
(C.O.P)Carnot    5.844
T2  T1 308  263
'

(C.O.P)Cycle 4.89
Refrigeration efficiency =   0.8367 or 83.67% Ans.
(C.O.P)Carnot 5.844

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Example
A vapor compression refrigeration machine, with Freon-12 as refrigerant, has a
capacity of 12 ton of refrigeration operating between -280C and 260C.The
refrigerant is subcooled by 40C before entering the expansion valve and the vapor
is superheated by 50C before leaving the evaporator. The machine has six cylinder
single-acting compressor with stroke equal to1.25 times the bore. It has a clearance
0f 3% of the stroke volume. Determine : 1) theoretical power required; 2) C.O.P;
3) Volumetric efficiency ; and 4) bore and stroke of the cylinder . The speed of
compressor is 1000 rpm ; Cp(liquid): 0.963 kJ/kgK ; Cp (superheated): 0.615
kJ/kgK. The following properties of Freon-12 may be used:
Sat temp Pressure Specific Enthalpy Enthalpy Entropy Entropy
0C bar volume of Liquid , vapor, liquid, vapor,
vapour kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kgK
-28 1.093 0.1475 10.64 175.11 0.0444 0.7153
26 6.697 0.0262 60.67 198.11 0.2271 0.6865

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Effect of superheat on system COP:

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Effect of evaporator pressure/ temperature on system COP:

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Effect of condenser pressure/ temperature on system COP

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Liquid suction heat exchanger (SSC with sub cooling of
refrigerant with vapour refrigerant

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Liquid Suction heat exchanger:

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Liquid Suction heat exchanger:
QLSHX = mr (h3-h4) = mr(h1-h6 )
= (h3-h4) = (h1-h6)
If we Take average values of specific heats for the vapour and liquid, then we can
write above equation as
cp,l(T3 – T4) =cp,v(T1– T6)
Since the specific heat of liquid is larger than that of vapour i.e
cp,l > cp,v we can write (T3 – T4 )<(T1– T6)
That means the degree of subcooling (T3 – T4 ) will always be less than degree of
superheating
Qact m r c p ,v (T1  T6 ) (T1  T6 )
 LSHX   
Qmax mr c p ,v (T3  T6 ) (T3  T6 )
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Example
In a R-22 based refrigeration system, a liquid-to-suction heat exchanger with
effectiveness 0.65 is used. The evaporative and condensing temperature are 7.2 0C
and 54.4 0C respectively. Assuming the compression process to be isentropic. Find:
1. Specific refrigeration effect
2. Specific work of compression
3. COP of system
4. Temperature of vapor at the exit of compression.
Comment on the LSHX by comparing the performance of the system with a
SSS cycle operating between same evaporating and condensing temperature.

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Liquid to Liquid heat exchanger (sub cooling of liquid
refrigerant with liquid refrigerant)

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Heat lost by liquid refrigerant from condenser
= Heat gained by liquid refrigerant from expansion valve
m2 (h f 3  h f 3' )  m3 (h1  h f 4' )
 h f 3  h f 3'   h f 3  h f 3' 
m3  m2    m2  

 1 f 4' 
h h  h1  h f 3' 
RE  m1 (h1  h f 4' )  (m2  m3 )(h1  h f 4' )
  h f 3  h f 3'  
  m2  m2    (h1  h f 4' )
 
 1 f 3'  
h h

 m2 (h1  h f 4' )  m2 (h f 3  h f 3' )
 m2 h1  m2 h f 4'  m2 h f 3  m2 h f 3'
 m2 h1  m2 h f 3  m2 (h1  h f 3 )
W  m2 (h2  h1 )
RE m2 (h1  h f 3 ) (h1  h f 3 )
C.O.P   
W m2 (h2  h1 ) (h2  h1 )

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SSC with flash chamber

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Heat taken by the flash chamber = Heat given out by the flash chamber
m2 h4  m1h f 4'  (m2  m1 )h1
m2 (h1  h4 )  m1 (h1  h f 4' )
 h h   h  hf 3 
m1  m2  1 4   m2  1  ...( h4  h f 3 ) ...(i)
 1
h  h f 4' 
  1
h  h f 4' 

We know that the heat extracted or refrigerating effect
RE  m1 (h1  h f 4' )
 h1  h f 3 
 m2   ( h1  h f 4' )
 1
h  h f 4' 

= m2 (h1  h f 3 )
And workdone in compressor
W  m2 (h2  h1 )
RE m2 (h1  h f 3 ) h1  h f 3
 C.O.P   
W m2 (h2  h1 ) h2  h1

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SSC with accumulator

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Heat taken in the accumulator = Heat given out by the accumulator
m2 h4  m1h1'  m2 h1  m1h f 4'
m1 (h1'  h f 4' )  m2 (h1  h4 )
 h1  h4   h1  h f 3 
m1  m2    m2   ...( h4  h f 3 ) ...(i)
 1'
h  h f 4' 
  1'
h  h f 4' 

We know that the heat extracted or refrigerating effect,
RE  m1 (h1'  h f 4' )
 h  hf 3 
 m2  1  (h1'  h f 4' )
 h1'  h f 4' 
= m2 (h1  h f 3 )
And workdone in compressor
W  m2 (h2  h1 )
RE m2 (h1  h f 3 ) h1  h f 3
 C.O.P   
W m2 (h2  h1 ) h2  h1

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Compound Vapour Compression Refrigeration System

Learning Objectives:
• Multistage compression and its advantages
• Usefulness of inter-cooler, sub-cooler and flash chamber in compound
compression system
• Multi-evaporator systems with individual and multi-expansion valves
• Working of cascade vapour compression and its advantages over multi-
stage compression system

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Multiple compression systems:

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Multistage compression and its necessity

• Single stage compression is suitable for low delivery pressure


• High pressure ratio would be in two cases:
• Higher condenser temperature
• Lower evaporator temperature
• In such cases
• Low volumetric efficiency
• Increased compression work
• Higher compressor discharge temperature - damaging lubrication system
• Higher capital cost of compressor cylinder to withstand high pressure

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Draw the schematic diagram of Compound vapour compression refrigeration
systems and show the thermodynamic processes onto the P-h diagram

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Two stage compound compression with flash inter
cooler/liquid inter cooler:

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Two stage compound compression with flash inter
cooler/liquid inter cooler:

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m1 = Mass of refrigerant passing through the evaporator (or low pressure
compressor) in kg/min, and
m2 = Mass of refrigerant passing through the condenser (or high pressure
compressor) in kg/min, and
m3 = Mass of liquid evaporated in the intercooler, then
m3 = m2 - m1
Heat taken by the liquid intercooler = Heat given by the liquid intercooler
m2 h f 5  m1h2  m1h6  m2 h3
m1 (h3  h6 ) m1 (h2  h f 5 )
m2  
h3  h f 5 h3  h f 5
And mass of liquid evaporated in the intercooler,
m1 (h2  h f 5 ) m1 (h2  h3 )
m3  m2  m1   m1 
h3  h f 5 h3  h f 5

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Refrigerating effect,
RE  m1 (h1  hf )  m1 (h1  h f 5 )

Total workdone in both the compressors,


W  m1 (h2  h1 )  m2 (h4  h3 )
And C.O.P of the system
RE m1 (h1  h f 5 )
 
W m1 (h2  h1 )  m2 (h4  h3 )

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Two stage compound compression with water inter
cooler and liquid sub cooler:

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Two stage compound compression with water inter
cooler and liquid sub cooler and flash chamber

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Two stage compound compression with water inter
cooler and liquid sub cooler and flash chamber
Heat taken by the flash chamber = Heat given by the flash chamber
m2 h8  m3h9  m1h f 10
=m3h9  ( m2  m3 ) h f 10
m2 (h8  h f 10 )  m3 (h9  h f 10 )
 h8  h f 10   h f 7  h f 10 
 m3  m2   m2 
 h  h   h  h 
 9 f 10   9 f 10 

Also, m2 h4  m3 h9  m1h3
 m3h9  (m2  m3 )h3
We know that refrigerating effect of the system,
RE  m1 (h1  h11 )  210Q kJ / min

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Two stage compound compression with water inter
cooler and liquid sub cooler and flash chamber
Work done in low pressure compressor,
WL  m1 (h2  h1 )
Work done in high pressure compressor,
WH  m1 (h5  h4 )
Total work done in both the compressors,
W  WL  WH  m1 (h2  h1 )  m1 (h5  h4 )
⸫Power required to drive the system,
m1 (h2  h1 )  m1 (h5  h4 )
P kW
60
C.O.P of the system RE m1 (h1  h11 ) 210Q
  
W m1 (h2  h1 )  m1 (h5  h4 ) P  60
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Two stage compound compression with water inter
cooler, liquid sub cooler & flash inter cooler

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Two stage compound compression with water inter
cooler, liquid sub cooler & flash inter cooler
m1 = Mass of refrigerant passing through the evaporator (or low pressure
compressor)
m2 = Mass of refrigerant passing through the condenser (or high pressure
compressor)
If Q tonne of refrigeration is the load on the evaporator, the
210Q 210Q
m1   kg / min
h1  h10 h1  h f 9
Now for the thermal equilibrium of the flash intercooler,
Heat taken by the flash intercooler = Heat given by the flash intercooler
m2 h8  m1h3  m2 h4  m1h f 9
m1 (h3  h f 9 )  m2 (h4  h8 )
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Two stage compound compression with water inter
cooler, liquid sub cooler & flash inter cooler
 h  hf 9   h3  h f 9 
 m2  m1  3   m1  kg / min

 h4  h8   h4  h f 7 
We know that refrigerating effect,
RE  m1 (h1  h10 )  m1 (h1  h f 9 )  210Q kJ / min
And work done in both the compressors,
W = Work done in L.P. compressor + Work done in H.P. compressor
W  m1 (h2  h1 )  m2 (h5  h4 )
Power required to drive the system,
m1 (h2  h1 )  m2 (h5  h4 )
P kW
60
And C.O.P of the system,
RE m1 (h1  h f 9 ) 210Q
  
W m1 (h2  h1 )  m2 (h5  h4 ) P  60
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Three stage compound compression with water inter
cooler:

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Three stage individual compression with flash chamber:

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Three stage compound compression with flash inter
cooler:

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Example
A two stage compression ammonia refrigeration system operates between
overall pressure limits of 14 bar and 2 bar. The temperature of the desuperheated
vapour and subcooled liquid refrigerant are limited to 30°C. The flash chamber
separates dry vapour at 5 bar pressure and the liquid refrigerant then expands to
2 bar.
Estimate the C.O.P of the machine and power required to drive the compressor,
if the mechanical efficiency of the drive is 80% and load on the evaporator is
10TR.

Solution:
Given: pC = 14bar; pE = 14bar; pF = 14bar; t3 = t7 = 30°C; ƞm = 80% = 0.8;
Q = 10TR

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Example

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Example

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Example
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant entering the low pressure compressor at
point 1, h1 = 1420 kJ/kg
Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant entering the low pressure compressor at
point 1, s1= 5.6244 kJ/kg K
Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the low pressure compressor at
point 2, h2= 1550 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the water intercooler at point
3, h3 = 1510 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the flash tank at point 9,
h9= 1432 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of liquid refrigerant leaving the liquid sub-cooler at point 7,
hf7 = h8 = 323 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of saturated liquid refrigerant leaving the second expansion valve at
point 10, hf10 = h11= 198 kJ/kg

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Example
Let, m2 = Mass of refrigerant passing through the condenser

We know that the mass of vapour refrigerant formed in the flash tank,
 h8  h f 10   323  18 
 m3  m2    m2    0.1m2 ...(i)
h h   1432  198 
 9 f 10 

And mass of refrigerant passing through the evaporator,


210Q 210 10
m1  m2  m3    1.72kg / min ...(ii)
h1  h f 10 1420  198
From equation (i) and (ii),
m2  0.1m2  1.72 or m2  1.9kg / min
m3  0.1m2  0.11.9  0.19kg / min

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Example
The desuperheated vapour refrigerant (m2 – m3) as represented by point 3 is
mixed with the vapour refrigerant from the flash tank as represented by point 9.
the enthalpy of the mixed refrigerant entering the high pressure compressor as
represented by point 4 is given by
m2 h4  m3h9  (m2  m3 )h3
=0.1m2 h9  (m2  0.1m1 )h3 ...[From equation (i)]
or h4  0.1 h9  0.9  h3  0.11432  0.9 1510  1502kJ / kg
We see from p-h diagram that at point 4 (intersection of pressure 5 bar and
enthalpy 1502 kJ/kg) the entropy is s4 = 5.51 kJ/kgK. Now from point 4, draw a
line of entropy equal to 5.51 kJ/kgK along the constant entropy line which
intersects the condenser pressure (14 bar) line at point 5. Thus, the point 5 is
located. From p-h diagram, we find that enthalpy of refrigerant leaving the high
pressure compressor at point 5 is h5 = 1650 kJ/kg.

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Example
C.O.P of the machine
We know that refrigerating effect, RE  m1 (h1  hf 10 )  210Q  210 10  2100 kJ / min

Work done in both the compressors, W  m1 (h2  h1 )  m2 (h5  h4 )


 1.72(1550  1420)  1.9(1650  1502)
 223.6  281.2  504.8kJ / min
Since the mechanical efficiency of the drive is 80%. Therefore actual workdone in both
the compressors = 504.8/0.8 = 631 kJ/min
Refrigerating effect 2100
Actual C.O.P =   3.32 Ans.
Actual work done 631

Power required to drive the compressors


We know that power required to drive the compressors
Actual work done 631
   10.5kW Ans.
60 60
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Example
In a 15 TR ammonia plant, compression is carried out in two stages with water and flash
intercooling and water subcooling. The particulars of the plant are as follows:
Condenser pressure = 12 bar
Evaporator pressure = 3 bar
Flash intercooler pressure = 6 bar
Limiting temperature for intercooling and sub-cooling = 20°C
Draw the cycle on p-h chart and estimate (a) the coefficient of performance of the plant,
(b) the power required for each compressor, and (c) the swept volume for each
compressor if the volumetric efficiency of both the compressors is 80%.

Solution:
Given: pC = 12bar; pE = 3bar; pF = 6bar; t3 = t7 = 20°C; ƞm = 80% = 0.8;
Q = 15TR

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Example

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Example
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant entering the low pressure compressor at
point 1, h1 = 1422 kJ/kg
Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant entering the low pressure compressor at
point 1, s1= 5.49 kJ/kg K
Specific volume of saturated vapour refrigerant entering the low pressure
compressor at point 1, v1= 0.42 m3/kg
Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the low pressure compressor at
point 2, h2= 1505 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the water intercooler at point
3, h3 = 1465 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the flash intercooler at point 4,
h4= 1440 kJ/kg
Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant at point 4, s4= 5.25 kJ/kg K

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Example
Specific volume of saturated vapour refrigerant at point 4, v4 = 0.215 m3/kg
Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant at point 5, h5 = 1530 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of liquid refrigerant leaving the liquid sub-cooler at point 7,
hf7 = h8 = 265 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of saturated liquid refrigerant leaving the flash intercooler at point 9,
hf9 = h10= 224 kJ/kg
(a) Coefficient of performance of the plant
We know that mass of refrigerant passing through the evaporator (or low pressure
compressor), 210Q 210 15
m1  1
  2.63kg / min
h1  h f 9 1422  224

And mass of refrigerant passing through the condenser (or high pressure
compressor),  h3  h f 9   1465  224 
m2  m1   2.63    2.78kg / min
 h  h   1440  265 
 4 f7 

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Example
Therefore coefficient of performance of the plant,
m1 (h1  h f 9 )
C.O.P 
m1 (h2  h1 )  m2 (h5  h4 )
2.63(1422  224)
  6.725
2.63(1505  1422)  2.78(1530  1440)
(b) Power required for each compressor
We know that work done in low pressure compressor,
W1  m1 (h2  h1 )  2.63(1505  1422)  218.3kJ / min
Power required for low pressure compressor
218.3
PL   3.64kW Ans.
60

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Example
Similarly, work done in high pressure compressor,
WH  m2 (h5  h4 )  2.78(1530  1440)  250.2kJ / min
Power required for high pressure compressor,
250.2
PH   4.17kW Ans.
60
(b) Swept volume for each compressor
We know that swept volume for low pressure compressor,
m  v 2.63  0.42
 1 1  1.46 m3 / min Ans.
v 0.8
And swept volume for high pressure compressor
m v 2.78  0.215
 2 4  0.747 m3 / min Ans.
v 0.8
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Example
A three stage ammonia refrigeration system with flash intercooling operates
between the overall pressure limits of 2 bar and 12 bar. The flash intercooler
pressures are 4 bar and 8 bar. If the load on the evaporator is 10 TR, find the
power required to run the system and compare the C.O.P. of the system with that
of simple saturation cycle working between the same overall pressure limits.

Solution: pe= 2 bar ; pc= 12 bar ; pF1= 4 bar ; pF2 = 8bar ; Q = 10 TR


The p-h diagram for three stage compression system with intercooling is shown in
figure. The various values as read from the p-h diagram are as follows:
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant entering the low pressure compressor at
point 1, h1= 1420 KJ/kg
Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant at point 1, s1= 5.564 KJ/kg K

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Example
Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the low pressure compressor at
point 2,
h2= 1515 KJ/kg
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the first flash intercooler or
entering the intermediate pressure at point 3,
h3=1442 KJ/kg
Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant at point 3,
s3= 5.367 KJ/kg K

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Example

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Example

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Example
Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the intermediate pressure
compressor at point 4,
h4= 1525 KJ/kg
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the second flash chamber or
entering the high pressure compressor at point 5,
h5=1461KJ/kg
Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant at point 5,
s5= 5.1186 KJ/kg K
Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the high pressure compressor
or entering the condenser,
h6=1500 KJ/kg
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the condenser at point 7,
hf7= h8= h9= h10= 328KJ/kg
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Example
Power required to run the system
We know that mass of refrigerant passing through the evaporator or L.P. compressor,
210Q1 210 10
m1    1.92kg / min
h1  h f 7 1420  320
Mass of liquid refrigerant evaporated in the flash intercooler after the first stage of
compression,
m1 (h2  h3 ) 1.92  (1515  1442)
m2    0.126kg / min
h3  h f 7 1442  328
Mass of refrigerant passing through the I.P. compressor,
m3  m1  m2  1.92  0.126  2.046kg / min
Mass of liquid refrigerant evaporated in the flash intercooler after the second stage of
compression, m (h  h ) 2.046  (1525  1461)
m4  3 4 5
  0.116kg / min
h5  h f 7 1461  328
Mass of refrigerant passing through the H.P. compressor,
m5  m3  m4  2.046  0.116  2.162kg / min

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Example
We know that work done in L.P. compressor,
WL  m1  (h2  h1 )  1.92  (1515  1420)  182.4kJ / min
Work done in I.P. compressor,
WI  m3  (h4  h3 )  2.046  (1525  1442)  169.8kJ / min
Work done in H.P. compressor,
WH  m5  (h6  h5 )  2.162  (1500  1461)  84.3kJ / min
And total work done in the three compressors,
W  WL  WI  WH  182.4  169.8  84.3  436.5kJ / min
Power required to run the system,
436.5
  7.27 kW
60

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Example
Comparison of C.O.P. of the system with that of simple saturation cycle
We know that refrigerating effect of the system,
RE  m1  (h2  h10 )  210  Q  2100kJ / min
RE 2100
C.O.P of the system    4.81
W 436.5
For a simple saturation cycle working between the same pressure limits of 2 bar and 12
bar, the enthalpy of the superheated vapour leaving the compressor at point 2' is
h2'  1670kJ / kg …(From p-h chart)
Work done in the compressor for simple saturation cycle,
W1  m1  (h2'  h1 )  1.92  (1670 1420)  480kJ / min

And C.O.P. of the simple saturation cycle  RE  2100  4.375


W1 480
Percentage increase in C.O.P. as compared to simple saturation cycle
4.81  4.375
  100  9.9% Ans.
4.375
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Multiple evaporator at the same temperature with single
compressor and expansion valve:

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Multiple evaporator at the same temperature with single
compressor and expansion valve:

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with single compressor,
individual expansion valve and back pressure valve:

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with single compressor,
individual expansion valve and back pressure valve:

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with single compressor,
individual expansion valve and back pressure valve:
Qe, I  Qe, II mI (h7  h5 )  mII (h6  h4 )
COP  
WC (mI  mII )(h2  h1 )
Where ṁI and ṁII are the refrigerant mass flow rates through evaporator I and II
respectively. They are given by:
Qe, I Qe, II
mI  mII 
(h7  h5 ) (h6  h4 )

Enthalpy at point 2 (inlet to compressor) is obtained by applying mass and energy


balance to the mixing of two refrigerant streams i.e.,
mI h7  mII h8
h2 
mI  mII
If the expansion across PRV is isenthalpic, then specific enthalpy h8 equal to h6

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with single compressor,
multiple expansion valve and back pressure valve:

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with single compressor,
multiple expansion valve and back pressure valve

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with individual
compressor and individual expansion valve :

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with individual
compressor and individual expansion valve :

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor and individual expansion valve :

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor and individual expansion valve :

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor and individual expansion valve :
Let Q1, Q2 and Q3 = Load on the evaporator EP1 and EP2 and EP3 respectively in
tonnes of refrigeration

Mass of refrigerant flowing through the first evaporator EP1 or the first compressor C1,
210Q1
m1  kg / min
h1  h12
Similarly, mass of refrigerant flowing through the second evaporator EP2
210Q2
m2  kg / min
h3  h11
And mass of refrigerant flowing through the third evaporator EP3
210Q3
m3  kg / min
h6  h10

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor and individual expansion valve :
We see that the mass of refrigerant (m1) coming out from the first compressor C1 is
mixed with the mass of refrigerant (m2) coming out from the second evaporator EP2
before entering into the second compressor C2. The condition of the mixed refrigerant
entering into the second compressor C2 is shown by point 4 in p-h diagram. The
enthalpy at point 4 is given by
(m1  m2 )h4  m1h2  m2 h3
m1h2  m2 h3
h4 
m1  m2
The enthalpy at point 7 is given by
(m1  m2  m3 )h7  (m1  m2 )h5  m3h6
(m1  m2 )h5  m3h6
h7 
m1  m2  m3

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor and individual expansion valve :
We know that power required to drive the first compressor C1,
m (h  h )
P1  1 2 1 kW
60
Similarly, power required to drive the second compressor C2,
(m  m2 )(h5  h4 )
P2  1 kW
60
And power required to drive the third compressor C3,
(m1  m2  m3 )(h8  h7 )
P3  kW
60
⸫Total power required to drive the system, P  P1  P2  P3

We know that refrigerating effect of the system,


RE  210(Q1  Q2  Q3 )kJ / min

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor and individual expansion valve :
And the total work done by the three compressors,
W  P  60 kJ / min
C.O.P. of the system
RE 210(Q1  Q2  Q3 )
 
W P  60

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor, individual expansion valve and flash inter cooler :

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor, individual expansion valve and flash inter cooler :

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor, individual expansion valve and flash inter cooler :
Let Q1, Q2 and Q3 = Load on the evaporator EP1 and EP2 and EP3 respectively in
tonnes of refrigeration
Mass of refrigerant flowing through the first evaporator EP1 or the first compressor C1,
210Q1
mC1  m1  kg / min
h1  h10
Mass of refrigerant required to be circulated through the second evaporator EP2
210Q2
m2  kg / min
h3  h9
Mass of refrigerant required to be by-passed (at point 9) to the flash intercooler F1 for
de-superheating the superheated vapour refrigerant mc1 coming out from the
compressor C1 to the dry saturated condition at point 3 is given by
mC1 (h2  h3 )
m2' 
h3  h9
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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor, individual expansion valve and flash inter cooler :
Total mass of refrigerant passing through second compressor C2,
mC 2  mC1  m2  m2'
Mass of refrigerant required to be circulated through the third evaporator EP3
210Q3
m3  kg / min
h5  h8
Mass of refrigerant required to be by-passed (at point 8) to the flash intercooler F2 for
de-superheating the superheated vapour refrigerant mc2 coming out from the
compressor C2 to the dry saturated condition at point 5 is given by
mC 2 (h4  h5 )
m3' 
h5  h8
⸫Total mass of refrigerant passing through third compressor C3,
mC 3  mC 2  m3  m3'

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Multiple evaporator at different temperature with compound
compressor, individual expansion valve and flash inter cooler :
We know that power required to drive the first compressor C1,
m (h  h )
P1  C1 2 1 kW
60
Similarly, power required to drive the second compressor C2,
m (h  h )
P2  C 2 4 3 kW
60
And power required to drive the third compressor C3,
mC 3 (h6  h5 )
P3  kW
60
⸫Total power required to drive the system, P  P1  P2  P3

We know that refrigerating effect of the system,


RE  210(Q1  Q2  Q3 )kJ / min

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Example
A single compressor using R-12 as refrigerant has three evaporator of capacity 30
TR, 20 TR and 10 TR. The temperature in the three evaporator is to be maintained
at -10 , 5 and 10 respectively the condenser pressure is 9.609 bar. The liquid
refrigerant leaving the condenser is sub-cooled to 30. The vapor leaving the
evaporator are dry and saturated. Assuming the isentropic compression , find (a)
the mass if refrigerant flowing through each evaporator ;(b) power require to drive
the compressor ; and C.O.P of the system.

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Example

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Example

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Example
The p-h diagram of a single compressor with three evaporator at -10°C, 5°C and
10°C is shown in Fig. 6.4. The various values as read from the p-h diagram for
R-12 are as follows:
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the first evaporator at -10°C at
point 11,
h11 = 183.19 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the first evaporator at -5°C at
point 8,
h8 = 189.65 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the first evaporator at -10°C at
point 5,
h5 = 191.74 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of sub cooled liquid refrigerant at 30°C at point 3,
hf3 = h4 = h7 = h10 = 64.59 kJ/kg

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Example
(a) Mass of refrigerant flowing through the each evaporator
We know that mass of refrigerant flowing through the first evaporator,
210Q1 210  30
m1    53.12kg / min
h11  h10 183.19  64.59
Mass of refrigerant flowing through the second evaporator,
210Q2 210  20
m2    33.58kg / min
h8  h7 183.19  64.59
And mass of refrigerant flowing through the third evaporator,
210Q3 210 10
m3    16.51kg / min
h5  h4 191.74  64.59

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Example
(b) Power required to drive the compressor
The refrigerant coming out of the three evaporators are mixed together before
entering into the compressor is shown by
m1h11  m2 h8  m3 h5
h1 
m1  m2  m3
53.12 183.19  33.58 189.65  16.51191.74

53.12  33.58  16.51
 (9731.05  6368.45  3165.63) /103.21  186.6 kJ / kg
Mark point 1 on p-h diagram such that h1 = 186.6 kJ/kg. The specific entropy at
this point s1 = 0.717 kJ/kgK. Now from point 1, draw a constant entropy line
intersecting the horizontal condenser pressure line at point 2 as shown in Fig. 6.4.

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Example
The enthalpy at point 2 as read from p-h diagram is
h2 = 213.4 kJ/kg
We know that work done in the compressor
W  (m1  m2  m3 )(h2  h1 )
 (53.12  33.58  16.51)(213.4  186.6)  2786.7kJ / min
Power required to drive the compressor
2786.7
P  46.44kW Ans.
60
(c) C.O.P of the system
We know that the total refrigerating effect of the system,
RE  210(Q1  Q2  Q3 )
 210(30  20  10)  12600kJ / min
RE 12600
COP of the system    4.521
W 2786.7
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Example
A compound refrigeration system is used for multi load purposes, as shown in fig .
R-12 is used as refrigerant Find (a) the power require to run the system ; and (b)
the coefficient of performance of the combine system. Use p-h chart ,there is no
under cooling and saturated vapor leaving the evaporator.

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Example
Solution:
Given: Q1 = 10TR; t1 = t10 = -10°C; Q2 = 20TR; t3 = t7 = 5°C
The p-h diagram of a given compound refrigeration system is shown in Fig. 6.13.
The various values as read from the p-h diagram for R-12 are as follows:
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the first evaporator at
-10°C or entering the first compressor at point 1,
h1 = 183.19 kJ/kg

Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant at point 1,


s1 = 0.702 kJ/kgK

Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the first compressor at point 2,


h2 = 195 kJ/kg

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Example

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Example
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the second evaporator EP2 at
-10°C at point 3,
h3 = 191.74 kJ/kg

Enthalpy of saturated liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser at 30°C at point 6,


hf6 = h7 = h8 = 64.6 kJ/kg
We know that the mass of refrigerant passing through the first evaporator or the
first compressor,
210Q1 210 10
m1    17.7kg / min
h1  h8 183.19  64.6

And mass of refrigerant passing through the second evaporator,


210Q2 210  20
m2    33kg / min
h3  h7 191.74  64.6
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Example
The refrigerant leaving the first compressor at point 2 is mixed with the refrigerant
coming out the second evaporator at point 3 before entering into the second
compressor. The condition of refrigerant after mixing is shown by point 4 on the
p-h diagram. The enthalpy at point 4 is given by
m1h2  m2 h3
h4   193kJ / kg
m1  m2
Mark point 4 on p-h diagram such that h4 = 193 kJ/kg. The entropy at this point is
0.7 kJ/kgK. Now from point 4, draw a constant entropy line intersecting the
horizontal condenser.

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Example
Pressure line at point 5 as shown in the figure. The enthalpy at point 5 as read
from the p-h diagram is
h5 = 205 kJ/kg
(a) Power required to run the system
We know that power required to run the first compressor,
m1 (h2  h1 ) 17.7(195  183.19)
P1    3.48kW
60 60
And power required to run the second compressor,
(m1  m2 )(h5  h4 ) (17.7  33)(205  193)
P2    10.14kW
60 60
⸫Total power required to run the system,
P  P1  P2  3.48  10.14  13.62kW Ans.

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Example
(b) Coefficient of performance of the combined system

We know that the total refrigerating effect of the system,


RE  210(Q1  Q2 )  210(10  20)  6300kJ / min
And total work done in the compressors,
W  P  60  13.62  60  817.2kJ / min

RE 6300
⸫C.O.P. of the system    7.71 Ans.
W 817.2

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Example
A compound refrigeration system using R-12 as refrigerant consists of three
evaporators of capacities 20 TR at -5°C, 30 TR at 0°C and 10 TR at 5°C. The
vapour leaving the evaporators are dry and saturated. The system is provided with
individual expansion valves and flash intercoolers. The condenser temperature is
40°C and the liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser is sub-cooled to 30°C.
Assuming isentropic compression at each stage, find (a) the mass of refrigerant
passing through each compressor, (b) the power required to drive the system, (c)
C.O.P. of the system.

Solution:
Given: Q = 20TR; t1 = t10 = -5°C; Q2 = 30TR; t3 = t9 = 0°C; Q3 = 10TR;
t5 = t8 = 5°C; tc = 40°C; t7 = 30°C

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Example

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Example
The p-h diagram of a refrigeration system consisting of three evaporators with
compound compression, individual expansion valves and flash intercoolers is
shown in Fig. 6.15. The various values as read from the p-h diagram for R-12 are
as follows:
Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the first evaporator at
5°C or entering the first compressor at point 1,
h1 = 185.4 kJ/kg

Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant at point 1,


s1 = 0.6991 kJ/kgK

Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the second evaporator at 0°C or


entering the second compressor at point 3,
h3 = 187.5 kJ/kg
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Example
Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant at point 3,
s3 = 0.6965 kJ/kgK

Enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant leaving the third evaporator at 5°C or


entering the third compressor at point 5,
h5 = 188.6 kJ/kg

Entropy of saturated vapour refrigerant at point 5,


s5 = 0.6943 kJ/kgK

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Example

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Example
In order to obtain the condition of refrigerant leaving the first compressor (i.e.
point 2), a constant entropy line from point 1 with s = 0.6991 intersecting the
second evaporator pressure line corresponding to 0°C at point 2. Similarly, the
condition of refrigerant leaving the second compressor at point 4 and third
compressor at point 6 may be obtained by drawing the constant entropy lines from
points 3 and 5 with s3 = 0.6965 and s5 = 0.6943 as shown in Fig. 6.15. Now from
p-h diagram,

Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the first compressor at point 2,


h2 = 189 kJ/kg

Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the second compressor at


point 4,
h4 = 190 kJ/kg

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Example
Enthalpy of superheated vapour refrigerant leaving the third compressor at point 6,
h6 = 206 kJ/kg

Enthalpy of sub-cooled liquid refrigerant at 30°C at point 7,


hf7 = h8 = h9 = h10 = 64.8 kJ/kg

(a) Mass of refrigerant passing through the first evaporator or the first
compressor, 210Q 210  20
mc1  m1    34.7kg / min
h1  h10 185.4  64.6
Mass of refrigerant passing through the second evaporator,
210Q 210  30
m2    51.26kg / min
h3  h9 187.5  64.6

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Example
Mass of refrigerant required to be by-passed at point 9 to the flash intercooler for
desuperheating the superheated refrigerant(mc1) coming from the first compressor
to the dry saturated condition as at point 3 is given by
m (h  h ) 34.7(189  187.5)
m2'  c1 2 3   0.42kg / min
h3  h9 187.5  64.6
⸫Total mass of refrigerant passing through the second compressor
mc 2  mc1  m2  m2'  34.7  51.26  0.42  86.38kg / min

Mass of refrigerant passing through the third evaporator,


210Q3 210 10
m3    16.93kg / min
h5  h8 188.6  64.6
Mass of refrigerant by-passed at point 8 to the flash intercooler for desuperheating
the superheated refrigerant(mc2) coming from the second compressor to the dry
saturated condition as at point 5 is

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Example
mc 2 (h4  h5 ) 86.38(190  188.6)
m3'    0.28kg / min
h5  h8 188.6  64.6
⸫Total mass of refrigerant passing through the third compressor
mc3  mc 2  m3  m3'  86.38  16.93  0.28  103.59kg / min

(b) Power required to drive the system


We know that power required to drive the first compressor
mc1 (h2  h1 ) 34.7(189  185.4)
P1    2.08kW
60 60
Power required to drive the second compressor
mc 2 (h4  h3 ) 86.38(190  187.5)
P2    3.6kW
60 60
Power required to drive the third compressor
mc 3 (h6  h5 ) 103.59(206  188.6)
P3    30.04kW
60 60
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Example
⸫Total power required to drive the system
P  P1  P2  P3  2.08  3.6  30.04  35.72kW

(c) C.O.P. of the system


We know that C.O.P. of the system
210(Q1  Q2  Q3 ) 210(20  30  10)
   5.88 Ans.
P  60 35.72  60

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Cascade Refrigeration system:
 In a cascade system a series of
refrigerants with progressively
lower boiling points are used in
a series of single stage units.
 The condenser of lower stage
system is coupled to the
evaporator of the next higher
stage system and so on
 An example of refrigerant
combination is the use of carbon
dioxide (NBP = -8.4oC) in low
temperature cascade and
ammonia (NBP = -33.33oC,) in
high temperature cascade
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Cascade Refrigeration system:

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Cascade Refrigeration system:
Applications of cascade systems:
i. Liquefaction of petroleum vapours
ii. Liquefaction of industrial gases
iii. Manufacturing of dry ice
iv. Deep freezing etc.

Advantages of cascade systems:


i. Since each cascade uses a different refrigerant, it is possible to select a
refrigerant that is best suited for that particular temperature range. Very high or
very low pressures can be avoided

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Cascade Refrigeration system:
For a two-stage cascade system working on Carnot cycle, the optimum cascade
temperature at which the COP will be maximum, Tcc,opt is given by
Tcc ,opt  Te .Tc
Where Te and Tc are the evaporator temperature of low temperature cascade and
condenser temperature of high temperature cascade, respectively
For cascade systems employing vapour compression refrigeration cycle, the
optimum cascade temperature assuming equal pressure ratios between the stages is
given by  
 b b 
Tcc ,opt  1 2 
 b2  b1 
T T 
 c e  b
Where b and b are the constants in Clausius-Clayperon equation: ln P  a 
For low and high temperature refrigerants, respectively T

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Example
The required refrigeration capacity of a vapour compression refrigeration system
(with R-22 as refrigerant) is 100 kW at –30°C evaporator temperature. Initially the
system was single-stage with a single compressor compressing the refrigerant
vapour from evaporator to a condenser operating at 1500 kPa pressure. Later the
system was modified to a two-stage system operating on the cycle shown below.
At the intermediate pressure of 600 kPa there is inter cooling but no removal of
flash gas. Find a) Power requirement of the original single stage system; b) Total
power requirement of the two compressors in the revised two-stage system.
Assume that the state of refrigerant at the exit of evaporator, condenser and
intercooler is saturated, and the compression processes are isentropic.

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Example

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Example
From refrigerant property data, the following values are obtained for R-22:

Point Pressure Dryness Density Enthalpy Entropy


kPa fraction kg/m3 kJ/kg kJ/kg K
1 -30 163.9 1.0 7.379 392.7 1.802
3 39.1 1500 0.0 - 248.4 -
2 76.93 1500 - - 449.9 1.802
2''' 53.55 1500 - - 429.6 1.742
2'' 5.86 600 1.0 - 407.2 1.742
2' 28.94 600 - - 424.4 1.802

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Example

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