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A Vehicle to Vehicle Communication for Cooperative Collision Warning 2017

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
Traffic accidents have been taking thousands of lives each year, outnumbering any deadly
diseases or natural disasters. Studies show that about 60% roadway collisions could be
avoided if the operator of the vehicle was provided warning at least one-half second prior to a
collision. Actually, traffic accidents have become the main cause of mortality, quite above
illnesses. Emerging technologies appears to provide faster, safer and more reliable
communication techniques. Bring together, this communication can be used in order to
reduce collisions, as well as to support and improve the quality of the traffic. There are
different kinds of systems to assist drivers in the roads. This paper is focused on the vehicle
to vehicle communication system (V2V).
The objective of ambient intelligence is to create an intelligent daily
space, which is immediately usable and integrated into our homes, our offices, our roads, our
cars, and everywhere. This new concept must be invisible; it must blend in with our normal
environment and must be present when we need it.
Vehicle to vehicle communication is an emerging type of network in
which vehicle uses a dynamic wireless exchange of data between nearby vehicles providing
each other with information’s such as safety warnings, vehicles sped, location and traffic
information. As a result, information gathered through V2V can help improve the road traffic
safety and efficiency. On the other hand, moving vehicles equipped with communication
devices form exactly an instance of long envisioned vehicle ad hoc networks (VANET).

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CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW
Lee ET. al. propose a wireless token ring MAC protocol (WTRP) for platoon vehicle
communication, in which all participating vehicles form a group and drive cooperatively.
Since the members of the platoon change infrequently, a token ring protocol can be used to
provide bounded latency and reserved bandwidth for each vehicle. However, for the
application using cooperative collision warning to improve road safety, non-platoon scenarios
appear more often. The relative position among vehicles and the group of affected vehicles
when emergency occurs change fast, which limits the applicability of WTRP. A slot-
reservation MAC protocol, RALOHA, for inter-vehicle communication. The Fleet net Project
aims at developing ad hoc networks for inter-vehicle communications and for data exchange
between moving vehicles and fixed roadside gateways. UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access with
Time Division Duplexing (UTRA-TDD), which supports communication range of more than
1 km, is adopted by Fleet net as the radio interface. Supported by such large communication
range, propose the slot reservation MAC protocols.

Xu Yang ET. Al. discusses a vehicle-to-vehicle Location-Based Broadcast


communication protocol, in which each vehicle generates emergency messages at a constant
rate. The optimum transmission probability at MAC layer for each message is then identified
to reduce the packet collision probability and the channel occupancy of emergency messages,
given the constant sending rate of emergency messages.

Message forwarding can help warning message reach vehicles beyond the
radio transmission range or vehicles within the communication dead angle. In, the authors
discuss the importance of message forwarding in nonplatoon inter-vehicle communication
and propose a multi-hop broadcast protocol based on slot-reservation MAC. Considering the
scenario that not all vehicles will be equipped with wireless transceivers, emergency message
forwarding in sparsely connected ad hoc network consisting of highly mobile vehicles is
studied in. To quickly spread messages, receivers that are far away from the sender can
forward the message faster. Motion properties of vehicles are exploited in to help with
message relay. One protocol makes use of the relative position information among vehicles to
eliminate redundant message forwarding. Another protocol inserts random waiting time
before each forwarding, and a vehicle determines if its message forwarding can be dropped or
not when the waiting time expires. When an emergency event occurs, there are usually a

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A Vehicle to Vehicle Communication for Cooperative Collision Warning 2017

group of vehicles affected by the abnormal situation. In terms of group management, defines
so called “proximity group” based on the location and functional aspects of mobile hosts
defines a “peer space”, in which all traffic participants share a common interest; also
discusses group membership management for inter-vehicle communication.

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A Vehicle to Vehicle Communication for Cooperative Collision Warning 2017

CHAPTER-3
PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF V2V
COMMUNICATION

Fig1. Visual Representation of V2V Communication


V2V communications systems are composed of devices, installed in vehicles that use
dedicated short-range radio communication (DSRC) to exchange messages containing
vehicle information (e.g., vehicle’s speed, heading, braking status). V2V devices use this
information from other vehicles and determine if a warning to the vehicle’s driver is needed,
which could prevent a vehicle crash. In order to allow V2V communication, vehicles must
form some kind of network. As vehicles are on the road and are moving, no available
infrastructure can support a network deployment. The answer to this problem is ad-hoc
networking. An ad-hoc network is a network with either no infrastructure or a minimal
infrastructure. An ad-hoc network is composed of nodes that come together to form a
network. An ad-hoc network is self organizing. Each node can function as a network router,
data source, or data destination. Thus, when several (two or more) nodes come together into
an ad-hoc network, they become capable of communicating with one another and therefore
relaying information. Based upon the preceding, a Vehicle Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is an
ad-hoc network that has vehicles as network nodes. The nodes move relatively to one
another, but within the constraints of the road.

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A Vehicle to Vehicle Communication for Cooperative Collision Warning 2017

3.1 SPECIFICATIONS OF V2V COMMUNICATION

Fig2. Intelligent vehicle


As an integral part of an ITS system V2V combines the following technologies and
disciplines, as represented in Fig 2.
 Forward radar: Forward radar will be used to detect any forward obstacles at distances up
to 120-150m, depending upon the terrain. The radar may operate in the unlicensed wideband
(UWB) frequency range in the 60-GHz spectrum and will be integrated into a vehicle’s
braking system.
 Event data recorder: The event data recorder is used in vehicles to store all important
Parameters, such as acceleration, position, velocity, and status of subsystems, to include tire
pressure. By examining the contents of the event data recorder, it may be possible to
determine the cause of vehicle problems ranging from a collision to the failure of an engine to
start.
 Rear radar: The purpose of rear radar is to detect the presence of vehicles in a vehicle’s
blind spots. Because the primary purpose of rear radar is to look for obstacles in the blind
spots of a vehicle, it will operate on low power and have a transmission range of less than
3m.
 Positioning System: Used to locate vehicles and Accuracy can be improved by knowledge of
road topology.
 Computing platform: Inputs from various components is used to generate useful
information.
 Communication facility: It acts as a medium for communication between the vehicles.

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A Vehicle to Vehicle Communication for Cooperative Collision Warning 2017

 Display: It displays the output signals in the form of LED or any alert.
 Sensing and close environment perception: by using different sensors (weather conditions,
state of the road, state of the vehicle, pollution and others) and cameras, the driver have a
certain amount of information and a better visibility inside his vehicle, enabling him to react
appropriately to changes in his immediate environment.
 Storage: a large storage space is required in this context in order to store different classes and
types of information. These data structures are updated via events and decisions from the
communication system. We should note that in a network of vehicles, energy and storage
space are sufficiently available.
 Routing and communication: for information exchange and diffusion in the vehicular
network itself or with other networks (IP or cellular for example). This permits to increase the
precaution perimeter with the help of an extended perception of the environment and thus
give a more accurate prediction of driving problems.

Fig 3. Car in trouble Fig 4. Roadwork

Fig 5. Intelligent parking lot Fig 6. Collision risk

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A Vehicle to Vehicle Communication for Cooperative Collision Warning 2017

CHAPTER-4
EXISTING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR V2V
COMMUNIATION
4.1 Bluetooth
Bluetooth is a wireless technology optimized for short-range communication with low power.
A Bluetooth ad-hoc network, called a piconet, accommodates up to seven users. Piconets that
have common users can form a scatter net. However, the common user can be active in one
piconet at a time. It is reliable up to a speed of 80 km/h and range of 80 m. However, it can
take up to 3 seconds to establish the communication.

4.2 Dedicated Short Range Wireless Communications (DSRC)


DSRC is a communication protocol that is relatively short range (up to 1000m), line-of-sight,
and based on a command-response control of communications between road infrastructure
and vehicles. DSRC has also been identified with dedicated ITS spectrum allocations in
various parts of the world.

4.3 Wireless Access for Vehicular Environments (WAVE)


WAVE can be considered to be a superset of DSRC as it supports the traditional
characteristics of DSRC but has some remarkable advantages. WAVE supports a longer
operational range (over 1 km depending on environmental conditions); higher data transfer
rates, and allows peer-to-peer communications.

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A Vehicle to Vehicle Communication for Cooperative Collision Warning 2017

CHAPTER-5
ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS

5.1 ADVANTAGES OF V2V COMMUNICATION SYSTEM


 Provides real time safety.
 Merging and lane changing warning.
 It does not need any roadside infrastructure.
 Reduced traffic congestions.
 Helps in streamlining of the flow of vehicles on road.

5.2 APPLICATION OF V2V COMMUNICATION SYSTEM


 Alert in case of abnormally slow traffic
This service alerts car drivers of particular traffic situations. The driver is informed
that it is necessary to slow down regardless of the nature of the traffic problem. The
alert message is transmitted by a vehicle detecting traffic problems.
 Forward Collision Warning
Forward Collision Warning (FCW) warns the driver of the risk of an impending rear-
end collision with a vehicle ahead in traffic in the same lane and direction of travel.
 Blind Spot Warning and Lane Change Warning
Blind Spot Warning (BSW) notifies the driver that a vehicle in an adjacent lane is
positioned in the driver’s “blind spot” zone. If a driver attempts a lane change when
another vehicle is in his or her blind spot, Lane Change Warning (LCW) warns the
driver that a vehicle is present in or approaching the “blind-spot” zone.
 Information and Warning Functions
Dissemination of road information to vehicles distant from the subjected site.
 Communication based longitudinal control
Exploiting the look through capacity to avoid accidents, platooning vehicles etc.
 Co-operative Assistant Systems
Coordinating vehicles at critical points.
 Added Value Applications
Internet Access, Location based services, Multiplayer games.

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A Vehicle to Vehicle Communication for Cooperative Collision Warning 2017

CONCLUSION
The Inter vehicle communication is an emerging area and important source of research thanks
to the improvements of in-vehicle computing and processing capabilities and also the
advancements in mobile and wireless communication. This paper proposes a Vehicular to
vehicle Communication to improve road safety. In particular, it defines congestion control
policies for emergency warning messages so that a low emergency warning message delivery
delay can be achieved and a large number of coexisting abnormal vehicles can be supported.
Protocols have potential to support many new innovative applications.
In addition, since vehicles will get more “smart”, partially due to the
installation of inter vehicle communication systems, security and privacy are becoming new
concerns that both academia and industry should pay attention to. These technologies can
greatly enhance the infotainment, safety, comfort, communication and convenience value of
new vehicles.

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A Vehicle to Vehicle Communication for Cooperative Collision Warning 2017

REFERENCES
1. Inter-Vehicular Communication Systems Daniel Lopez Garcia Danckelmannstrasse 46/47
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3. Yang, X., Liu, J., Zhao, F., Vaidya N. H.: A Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Protocol for
Cooperative Collision Warning. pp 1--14. (2003).
4. Thangavelu, A., Saravanan, K. Rameshbabu, K.: A Middleware Architectural Framework for
Vehicular Safety over VANET (InVANET). pp 277--282 (2009).
5. Luo, J., Hubaux, J.: A survey of Inter-Vehicle Communication. pp 1--12. (2004).
6. Vahidi and A. Eskandarian. Research advances in intelligent collision avoidance and
adaptive cruise control. IEEE Trans. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 4(3), 2003.
7. S.Thrun, D.Fox, W.Burgard, F.Dellaert(2001), Robust Monte-Carlo localization for mobile
robots, Elsevier Journal, pp.99-141.

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