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# CE 422: Structural Design 1 (Reinforced Concrete)

 Definition of Terms
 Modulus of rupture – the bending tensile stress at which concrete begins to crack
 Cracking moment – the moment at which cracks begin to form
 Modular ratio – ratio of elastic modulus of steel to elastic modulus of concrete;

 Notations
 fcr - modulus of rupture
 Mcr - cracking moment
 n - modular ratio
 ft - tensile stress
 fy - yield strength
 Es - modulus of elasticity of steel
 Ec - modulus of elasticity of concrete

 Design Methods

##  Working Stress Design (Alternate Design Method)

Design principle: The design concept is based on Theory of Elasticity in which the stress-strain diagram is within the
proportional limit and will obey Hooke’s Law.

##  Ultimate Strength Design

Design principle:

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CE 422: Structural Design 1 (Reinforced Concrete)

## Uncracked Concrete Concrete Cracked (Elastic) Beam Failure (Ultimate)

Occurrence Tensile Stress< Rupture Rupture Modulus ≤ Tensile Stress < Yield Stress Yield Stress ≤ Tensile Stress
Modulus (ft<fcr) (fcr ≤ ft < fy) (fy ≤ ft)
Resistance Compression: Concrete Compression: Concrete Compression: Concrete
Tension: Concrete Tension: Steel Tension: Steel
Steel action No action Starts to act Yielded
Stress
Diagram

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CE 422: Structural Design 1 (Reinforced Concrete)

Strain
Diagram

## 1. Uncracked Concrete Stage

-occurs at small loads when the tensile stresses are less than the modulus of rupture; entire cross section of the beam resists
bending with compression on one side and tension on the other
2. Concrete Cracked (Elastic Stresses Stage)
-occurs after the modulus of rupture is exceeded; crack begins to develop in the beam; cracking moment is reached; the steel
begins to resist tension and the concrete alone resists compression;
3. Beam Failure (Ultimate Strength Stage)
-reinforcing bars have yielded (meaning tensile stress is greater than fy); compressive stresses are greater than 0.50 f’c;

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