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American: Colonel William Prescott

British: Gen. Thomas Gage

Events Leading to War: Second Continental Congress sends Olive Branch Petition
to king and is awaiting his response. Meanwhile, British soldiers slept off the Boston
shore while Continental forces built a fort up on a hill.

What Happened? When the British awoke, they charged up the hill but retreated
after they encountered heavy Continental fire. This happened once more but upon
the third charge, the Continentals were out of ammunition, so they retreated in the
mainland of Massachusetts and the British took over the hill.

Who Won? British Win however, it gave Americans confidence to fight!

Effects: King Rejects Olive Branch Petition and declare “ Colonists in Open
• American: George Washington
British- n/a

• Events Leading to War: George Washington

wanted to win a battle, after losing the
Battle of Long Island, so that his troops
would not lose hope. Washington decided
to surprise attack an enemy camp in Trenton,
New Jersey.

• What Happened? The soldiers at this camp

were German Hessians (soldier who is paid
to fight for another country). Washington’s
army crossed the Delaware River and
attacked Trenton during the night.

Who Won? GW army took almost 1,000

prisoners. The Patriots were victorious.
© Erin Kathryn 2014
• American: George Washington
• British: William Howe

• Events Leading to the Battle: During the winter

Continental Army was forced to stay in Valley
Forge, Pennsylvania, after the British captured

What Happened? There were no huts to sleep on, so

soldiers had to sleep on the frozen ground.
There was little food and many soldiers died of
disease. Washington’s great leadership helped
keep the soldiers going. He worked hard to get
the soldiers the things they needed.

Who won? British? Colonist lose 2,500 men due to

diseases, malnutrition, and etc. Lower morale..

© Erin Kathryn 2014

• British: General John Burygone
• American: Horatio Gates

Events leading up to the War? Burygone

marching South from Canada to New York
and separate the colonies in half. He was
planning on meeting up with General Howe
to fight the colonies.

What Happened? The Patriots attacked

along the root and used Gureilla style
warfare and caught him by surprise.
General Howe never reached General

Who Won? The Continental Army; France

decides to finally help the American
American: Lafayette, Washington
British: Cornwallis

Events Leading to the War? Cornwallis

makes his way into Virginia and
George Washington along with 17,000
French allies begin to surround
Cornwallis in Yorktown.

What Happened? The French navy

fires cannons on the British from the
sea while Continental and French
troops come at them from two different
sides, closing in on them like a

Effects? Many British troops are killed

and their supplies are closed off from
the ports.
Consequences of the
American Revolution
Consequences of the American
• The Treaty of Paris, 1783
– Britain forced to recognize U.S. independence
– Set U.S. borders (U.S. originally asked for
Canada…didn’t happen )
• West to the Mississippi River
• North to Canada
• South to Georgia
• East to the Atlantic
– All property owned or confiscated by the British army
(including slaves) would be returned
– States would encourage the property of Loyalists to be
returned and prevent further confiscation of Loyalist
– All debts on both sides would be paid
Consequences of the American
• Loyalists
– 1/5 to 1/3 of colonial white population were Loyalists
– What were their options?
– Loyalists were harassed by Patriots
• 100,000 fled the country after the war
• Those who could afford it moved to England, but many fled to Canada
– When they moved
• Left everything behind
• Some returned to America once the memories of the war faded
• African-Americans
– Hundreds of slaves in the South had been freed by the British during
– Others were exposed to the idea of freedom, liberty, pursuit of
happiness, etc.
• In some areas, African-Americans outnumbered whites
• Whites feared revolutionary sentiment would lead to slave revolts
Consequences of
the American
• Women
– Learned to be more independent  Men were away at
– Many left in charge of the family farm
– Many impoverished  looted and rioted for food
– Women’s Rights? Not really such a thing!
• Women felt like following the revolution there
would be a change, but ultimately, there was little
• HOWEVER, women were now seen as the first
educators of their sons (Republican Motherhood) 
taught their children the new values of being