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Module 1 - General Introduction

1.2 Renewable Energy - Introduction


Osamu Iso

Workshop on Renewable Energies


November 14-25, 2005
Nadi, Republic of the Fiji Islands

1
2. Renewable energy - introduction

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Contents
2-1. Photovoltaic
2-2. Wind power
2-3. Micro hydro power
2-4. Biomass energy
2-5. City-Waste power generation
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

2-6. Other renewable technologies


2-6-1. Solar thermal power
2-6-2. Geothermal power
2-6-3. Ocean energy (Tidal, Tide-flow, Wave, OTEC)
2-7. Comparison of characteristics and cost of renewable
energy

2
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies 13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-1. Photovoltaic
2. Renewable energy - introduction

3
2-1-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Mechanism
Solar cell is composed of P-type semiconductor and N-type semiconductor.
Solar light hitting the cell produces two types of electrons, negatively and
positively charged electrons in the semiconductors.
Negatively charged (-) electrons gather around N-type semiconductor while
positively charged (+) electrons gather around P-type semiconductor.
When you connect loads such as light bulb, electric current occurs between
two electrodes.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Electrode
Reflect-Proof Film
Solar Energy N-Type Semiconductor
- P-Type Semiconductor
+ Load
- Electric Current
+
- Electrode
- +
+

Photo Voltaic cell


4

I will introduce the principle to begin with.

Solar cell, invented in the USA in 1954, is a kind of semiconductor to convert energy
of light directly into electricity. Most semiconductor used for solar cell are silicon
semiconductors and it is composed of P-type semiconductor and N-type
semiconductor.

Sunlight hitting the cell produces two types of electrons, negatively charged and
positively charged electrons in the semiconductors. Negatively charged electrons
gather around N-type semiconductor while positively charged electrons gather
around P-type semiconductor.

When youconnect loads such as a light bulb or motor, electric current occurs
between two electrodes.

4
2-1-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Characteristics of Photovoltaic

Advantages
(1) Clean
Solar energy is a clean energy. It emits very small
amount of carbon gases or sulfur oxides.
(2) Infinite
Solar energy is infinite and permanent.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

(1) Volatile in output


The amount of sunlight varies according to seasons
Disadvantages

and weather. Therefore, generating electric power


to meet the demand anytime is impossible.
(2) Low in power density
Regardless of the vast solar energy coming down to
the earth, power density in sunlight can be as low as
1,000 watts/m2. Acquisition of vast amount of
energy needs vast surface area of the solar cell.
5

Characteristics of photovoltaic

Solar energy is a clean energy. It emits very small amount of carbon gases or sulfur
oxides. And it is infinite and permanent.
On the other hand, the amount of sunlight varies according to seasons and weather
conditions. Regardless of the vast solar energy coming down to the earth, power
density in sunlight can be as low as 1,000 watts/m2. Acquisition of vast amount of
energy require vast surface area of the solar cell.

5
2-1-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Types and Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cell
Conversion
Conversion Efficiency
Efficiency
of
of Module
Module

Single-crystal
Single-crystal 10
10 -- 17%
17%
Crystalline
Crystalline
Silicon
Silicon Polycristalline
Polycristalline 10
10 -- 13%
13%
Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Non-crystalline
Non-crystalline Amorphous
Amorphous 77 -- 10%
10%
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Solar
Solar Compound
Compound
Cell
Cell Semiconductor
Semiconductor Gallium
Gallium Arsenide
Arsenide (GaAs)
(GaAs) 18
18 -- 30%
30%

Dye-sensitized
Dye-sensitized Type
Type 77 -- 8%
8%
Organic
Organic
Semiconductor
Semiconductor Organic
Organic Thin
Thin Layer
Layer Type
Type 22 -- 3%
3%

Electric Energy Output


Conversion Efficiency = x 100%
Falling Sunlight Energy

Variety of solar cell and conversion efficiency

There are 2 major types of solar cell: one using silicon semiconductor and one
using compound semiconductor. Solar cell using silicon semiconductor is further
divided into crystalline and non-crystalline or amorphous semiconductor.The
crystalline type silicon semiconductor is widely used for its high conversion rate and
reliability track record. The amorphous type semiconductor performs well even
under a fluorescent lamp, so, it is used as a source of power for calculators and
wrist watches.

Compound semiconductor’s conversion rate is very high. But it is difficult to obtain.

Organic semiconductor is under development for further reducing cost.

6
2-1-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• PV Cell (Single-crystal and Polycrystalline Silicon)
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Single-crystal Polycrystalline

7
2-1-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Solar Panels (Single-crystal and Polycrystalline Silicon)
Single Crystal Polycrystalline

128W 120W
(26.5V , (25.7V ,
4.8A) 4.7A)
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1200mm 1200mm
(3.93ft) (3.93ft

800mm (2.62ft) 800mm (3.93ft)

formed by melting high purity silicon, “metal silicon pure enough to


then sliced very thinly and processed manufacture solar cell”
into solar panel. is poured into a mold and crystallized.
8

Solar Panels (Single-crystal and Polycrystalline Silicon)

On the left is a single-crystal silicon solar panel. Single-crystal is formed by


melting high purity silicon, then sliced very thinly and processed into solar panel.

On the right is a polycrystalline silicon solar panel. To reduce the cost of solar
panels, metal silicon pure enough to manufacture solar cell is poured into a mold
and crystallized. Solar cell consists of many crystalline silicon.

8
2-1-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Amorphous (Non-Crystaline) Silicon Solar Panels
•manufactured by applying thin layer manufacturing technology
for semiconductor
•increases the possibility of reducing cost or of improving efficiency

Glass-substrate type Film-substrate type


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Amorphous silicon Solar Panels

This solar panel is manufactured by applying thin layer manufacturing technology


for semiconductor to non-crystallized or amorphous silicon. It can be manufactured
in quantity.

It is said that this solar panel increases the possibility of reducing cost or of
improving efficiency.

Moreover, there are 2 types of amorphous silicon solar pane: glass-substrate


type and film-substrate type.

9
2-1-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Photovoltaic System for Residence (House)

DC
6,600V Solar Panel
Grid Connection in
inverse flow case
Pole
Indoor Air
wire Conditioner
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Sensor
(voltage, current) Switching
Board
100 Water
/200V Wattmeter
Heater
For sale For purchase
Refrigerator
Legend
Inverter
:AC Switch
:DC for DC Sensor DC/AC Converter
(voltage, current) Grid Control Device
(Protection Relay)
Power company’s devices Customer’s devices
10

Photovoltaic system for residence

Output from solar panel is in direct current. In order to use the output for usual
home appliances, direct current must be converted into alternating current through
an inverter. In the system shown in the figure, solar panel is connected with the
home electric circuit by way of inverter. In Japan, voltage in the home electric circuit
is 100 or 200.

Moreover, when there is excess output, surplus may be sold to an electric


company. In the case, wattmeter for sale is installed in addition to wattmeter for
purchase.

10
2-1-2. Installed Capacity in the World

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Trends in Photovoltaic capacity in the world
2,000,000
Other
Italy 1.4% 8.2%
1,800,000 Netherlands 1,809,000kW
2.5%
1,600,000 JAPAN
Capacity (kW)

Australia 47.5%
1,400,000 2.9%

1,200,000 USA
15.2%
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

1,000,000 Installed capacity


Germany 22.7% per year
Installed capacity
800,000 Accumulated
per year
Accumulated
capacity
Accumulated capacity[MW] capacity
600,000 at the end of 2003
400,000
200,000
0
92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03
Year
11

Trends in installed photovoltaic capacity in the world

This is a graph showing trends in installed photovoltaic capacity in the world. The
installation is accelerating year by year. It reached 1,327,000 kW in 2002.

Top 3 countries in the installed capacity are Japan, Germany and the USA, which
collectively accounts for over 80% of the world total.

11
2-1-2. Installed Capacity in the World

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Capacity by Country
(in the end of 2002)

Country Capacity (MW) Country Capacity (MW)


1 Japan 636.8 (48.0%) 12 Austria 9.0 (0.7%)
2 Germany 277.3 (20.9%) 13 Norway 6.4 (0.5%)
3 United States 212.2 (16.0%) 14 Korea 5.4 (0.4%)
4 Australia 39.1 (2.9%) 15 England 4.1 (0.3%)
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5 Netherlands 26.3 (2.0%) 16 Sweden 3.3 (0.2%)


6 Italy 22.0 (1.7%) 17 Finland 3.1 (0.2%)
7 Switzerland 19.5 (1.5%) 18 Portugal 1.7 (0.1%)
8 France 17.2 (1.3%) 19 Denmark 1.6 (0.1%)
9 Mexico 16.2 (1.2%) 20 Israel 0.5 (0.0%)
10 Spain 16.0 (1.2%)
11 Canada 10.0 (0.8%) TOTAL 1327.7 (100%)

12

Photovoltaic capacity by country

This chart shows the accumulated capacity by country. As shown in the previous
figure, the total of major countries is 1327.7 MW at the end of 2002. Japan has
636.8MW(48.0%), followed by Germany of 277.3MW(20.9%), the USA of
212.2MW(16.0%). These countries account for nearly 85% in total.

12
2-1-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Roof-top type Solar Panels

Solar Cell Capacity: 4.35 kW Solar Cell Capacity: 3.48 kW


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Solar Cell Capacity: 14.36kW Solar Cell Capacity: 3.92kW


installed in various forms according to the size, shape of the roof or capacity needed
13

Roof-top type solar panels

These pictures are examples of installed roof-top type solar panels.


Solar panels can be installed in various forms according to the size, shape of the
roof or capacity needed.

13
2-1-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• School (Eco-School Program supported by MEXT)

Solar cell capacity:250 kW Solar cell capacity:20 kW


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Solar cell capacity:10 kW Solar cell capacity:30 kW

14

Example of installation to schools (Eco-School Program supported by Ministry of


Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan)

These are examples of installed solar panel with relatively large capacity in schools.
MEXT implements various measures to build environmentally friendly facilities.
Under this initiative, MEXT subsidizes half of the installation cost.

14
2-1-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Photovoltaic - Wind Power combined in Mongolia
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Site: Mongolia
Installation: May & June in 1999
Purpose: For lighting, refrigerator
and outlet in a hospital

Solar cell capacity: 3.4kW


Wind Power capacity: 1.8kW
Inverter capacity: 5kVA
15

Photovoltaic-wind power combined in Mongolia

This is the example of combined photovoltaic with wind power in Mongolia.


Capacity for solar cell and wind power is 3.4 kW and 1.8 kW respectively.
Generated power is used for lighting, refrigerator and outlets in a hospital.

15
2-1-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Solar Home System (SHS50W-class)
Solar array

Solar array
Solar array
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Controller

Light

Solar array

Storage battery

16

Solar Home System

This is the example of solar home system by which solar array supplies power for
lighting. The system consists of solar cell of 50 kW capacity and storage battery.

16
2-1-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Electrification of a village (in Thailand)
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The system supplies alternating current


electricity to 240 residences in 3 villages.
*Solar cell capacity: 151kW (total of 3 villages)
*Type of solar cell: single-crystal
*Inverter capacity: 100kW
*Battery:7,700kWh (total of 3 villages)
*Year of installation: 1986
17

Electrification of a village in Thailand

This is the example of village electrification in Thailand. The system consists of


solar panel with 1a capacity of 51kW, 100kW inverter and storage battery with
7,700kWh. It supplies alternating current electricity to 240 residences in 3 villages.

17
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies 13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-2. Wind power


2. Renewable energy - introduction

18

18
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Conventional turbine

Speed-increasing gear

Variable Generator
Pitch
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1
Blade P = ρπ r 2 × V 3

2
P : Power of wind
ρ : Density of air
r : Blade length
V : Wind speed

19

Let me explain how to electricity is generated by wind power. The power in the wind
turns propeller like blades around a rotor which spins the connected generator.

Power of wind is proportional to the function of the square of the blade length, and
the cube of wind speed. Therefore, the longer the blade length and higher the wind
speed, we can get bigger power of wind.

19
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Ancient Wind Mill
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(Poul la Cour, Denmark)


Year of 1897, Diameter 22.8m (74.8ft)
20

The first use of windmill in human history is unknown. But, record tells us that
windmills were used for pumping water and irrigation in Egypt around 3600 BC.

Prototype of the current windmill was built by Poula la Cour who was a researcher
and marketer or windmill. Starting the invention of wind power generation device in
Ascow in 1891, he introduced large scale wind power generation device with
diameter as large as 22.8 meters.

20
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Vertical-axis wind turbine
do not require controlling of the blades according to wind direction,
gets a high torque with relatively slow spinning, and the noise level low.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Savonius type Darrieus type Hybrid type


*similar efficiency with
*efficiency is not so high propeller type turbines
(it gains spinning power
*high torque from the lift)
*can not start up by itself
21

Windmills are divided into two major categories: the vertical-axis turbines, and the
horizontal-axis turbines.

The pictures shows two major types of vertical-axis turbines. One on the left is
Sabonius turbine. One in the middle is the Darrieus turbine.

Savonius turbine spins by the air resistance when the wind pushes the blades. It
cannot spin faster than the wind speed. And thus its efficiency is not so high. But it
has an advantage of yielding a high torque.

Darrieus turbine is similar to the propeller type turbines in efficiency because it gains
spinning power from the lift. However, it can not start up by itself so it needs to be
combined with other motors or windmills.

Shown on the right is the hybrid turbine which combines Savonius and Darrieus.

Vertical-axis wind turbines do not require controlling of the blades according to wind
direction, yields a high torque with relatively slow spinning, and the noise level low.

21
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Horizontal-axis wind turbines
the most common type used today

used as power
source for
pumping water

Dutch type
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Propeller type
multi-blade type sail wing type (two or three blades)
22

Horizontal-axis wind turbines are the most common type used today. These are
wind turbines with an axis horizontal to the ground.

The upper left is a Dutch type which has been in use for a long time. It has been
used as power source for pumping water.

The lower left is a multi-blade type being used in the USA.

In the middle is a type of receiving wind by sails. These type can gain big power
from the wind.

On the right is the most typical type of wind turbine.

Most horizontal-axis turbines build today have two or three blades, although some
have fewer (I.e. one) or more blades.

22
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Size of wind turbine (1/2)
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23

Wind turbines are available in various sizes.

Small turbines with a capacity of less than 10 kW is usually for household use.

Intermediate turbines with capacity between 10 kW and 250kW are for commercial
use such as a small scale power generation.

Large scale wind turbines (with a capacity of more than 250 kW) is used for large
scale power generation.

23
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Size of wind turbine (2/2)

(262feet
feet)

t)
(144 m

(180fee
55m
80m
44


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3.0MW 4.2MW
24

These are the latest type of large scale wind turbine.

On the left is a wind turbine manufactured by Vestas in Denmark. The output is


3000kW. The length of blade is 44 meters. The height of the tower is 80 meters.

On the right is a wind turbine manufactured by NEG Micon in Denmark. Its output is
4200kW. The length of blade is 55 meters.

In recent years, we see a growth in manufacturing of large wind turbine like these.

24
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Transporting the rotor (1/2)

Rotor
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Truck

Power output: 1,500 kW


Rotor: 34m 33,700 kg (made in Germany)
25

This is a picture of a rotor of a large scale wind turbine, with a capacity of 1500kW,
being transported. The blade in the picture is made in Germany and is 34 meters
long.

Transporting rotors of this size is no easy task. There are many issues to consider.

25
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Transporting the rotor (2/2)

Rotor
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26

This is another picture. Many constraints such as width of roads, the height of
tunnels, should be considered.

26
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Features of Wind Power
Feature
Wind energy is the function of the cube of the wind speed.
35 - 45 % of wind energy can be converted into electricity.
Utility rate is around 30 % at best.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Advantages Disadvantages
Non-depletion Volatile output
Clean Unable to respond when needed
Suitable construction sites are limited
due to wind conditions.

27

Let me recap the features of wind power generation.

Energy of wind is the function of the cube of speed of wind.


35 to 45% of energy of wind can be transformed into electricity.
Utility rate is around 30% at best.

Advantages are:
Wind is a non-depleting power source and is also clean energy.

Disadvantages include:
Output volatility as it totally dependent on the wind.
Which also means that the plant is unable to respond when needed.
Limited suitable construction sites due to wind conditions.

27
2-2-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Fluctuations of wind power and photovoltaic
Rating = 1 Wind Power generation is “tough” to the grid system.
1.2

1
Output
風力発電from
0.8 wind power fluctuates.
Even in the 太陽光発電
mid-night,
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

output fluctuates.
0.6
Wind Power
0.4 Photovoltaic

0.2

0 0:00 12:00 24:00


28

It is known that wind power can put a strain on the grid system.

For energy of wind is the function of the cube of wind speed, slate changes in wind
speed result in large fluctuations. Electricity is difficult to store. So, balance of
supply and demand must be taken by power grid system as a whole. When wind
power is connected to the power grid in high volume, unpredictable fluctuations of
output makes the power grid difficult to keep the balance between supply and
demand.

In the figure, fluctuations of output are compared between wind power and
photovoltaic. Blue and red lines indicate output from wind power and photovoltaic
respectively.

As you see, output from wind power can fluctuate down to zero in a short cycle.
Making matters worse, it fluctuates even in off-peak mid-night when demand to the
grid is small. Fluctuations in the mid-night affect the grid more than daytime.

28
2-2-2. Installed Capacity in the World

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Capacity changes of Wind Power Generation
(at the end of December 2003)
45000 France Japan Others
2% 2% Germany
40000 Netherlands 37%
2%
Capacity (MW)

35000 Italy
2%
39,430,000kW
India
30000 5%

25000 Denmark
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

8%
20000 Spain USA
16% 16%
Accumulated capacity[MW]
15000 at the end of 2003
10000 Installed capacity
per year
Accumulate
5000 d Accumulated
capacity
capacity
0
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03
Year
29

This graph shows the history of generating capacity by wind power in the world.

Since the second half of 1990s, capacity has been growing sharply. Compared to
the accumulated capacity of 2000MW in1990, it reached 39430MW in 2003.

By country, Germany is ranked first, followed by USA, Spain, and Denmark.

In 2003, Germany had 15387 units of wind turbines which gave total nominal output
of 14609MW. This accounts for more than one third of the world total, and almost a
half of EU.

29
2-2-2. Installed Capacity in the World

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Capacity by major country
(at the end of December 2003)
Country Capacity (MW) Country Capacity (MW)
1 Germany 14,609 (37.0%) 12 Sweden 399 (1.0%)
2 United States 6,352 (16.1%) 13 Greek 398 (1.0%)
3 Spain 6,202 (15.7%) 14 Canada 326 (0.8%)
4 Denmark 3,115 (7.9%) 15 Portugal 299 (0.8%)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

5 India 2,120 (5.4%) 16 France 240 (0.6%)


6 Italy 912 (2.3%) 17 Ireland 225 (0.6%)
7 Netherlands 891 (2.3%) 18 Australia 198 (0.5%)
8 England 704 (1.8%) 19 Norway 112 (0.3%)
9 Japan 644 (1.6%) 20 Costa Rica 71 (0.2%)
10 China 566 (1.4%) Others 636 (1.6%)
11 Austria 415 (1.1%) Total 39,434 (100%)

30

Here is a list of installed capacity by country.

As you can see, capacity varies greatly by country although note that they are
concentrated in Europe.

Japan is now ranked 9th in the world. Japanese government set an indicative target
of installing as much as 3000MW by 2010.

30
2-2-2. Installed Capacity in the World

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Unit Capacity movement of commercial wind turbine

Unit Capacity (kW) More and more big turbine !

5,000kW Unit is under


testing for off-shore site.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

3,000kW Unit is already


commercially constructed.

Year
31

This graph shows the history and estimate of wind power generation up to 2020.

The vertical axis scales output. In the early 1980s,output hovered around 50kW.
As you can see, it reached 250kW in the early 1990s, then jumped from 750kW to
1500kW in 2000.

Among currently introduced wind turbines, the largest has a capacity of 3000kW.
Capacity is expected to increase even to 10MW in the future.

31
2-2-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Wind farms in California
Wind farms in California
Alta Monte Path 640,000kW
Tehachapi 630,000kW
San Golgonia 270,000kW
(Total) 1,540,000kW
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

32

Recently the number of wind farms are increasing. Wind farms are clusters of wind
turbines installed side by side.
This is a picture of one of the wind farms in California, USA.
Here, rather small size wind turbines are installed.

32
2-2-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Wind farms in Europe
Netherlands Denmark in land
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Germany Denmark off-shore

33

Pictures show sites of wind power generation in various countries in Europe. In


recent years due to issues such as lack of suitable site, noise prevention, and
preserving the view, we are seeing more offshore wind farms, like that of Denmark
shown on the bottom right.

33
2-2-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Off-shore Wind Farm, Denmark (1/2)
Middelgrunden Off-shore Wind Farm
(3 km off the shore of Copenhagen / 2000kW x 20 units)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

34

Advantage of off-shore wind power generation includes gaining wind condition


better than inland, relief from issues of lack of site or prevention of noises.
Disadvantage is transmitting electricity to inland through submarine cable resulting
in high capital cost. Therefore, from the view point of cost, inland wind power is
superior to off-shore wind power.

The picture shows an offshore wind farm in Denmark. Three kilometers off the
coast of Copenhagen, 20 units of large wind turbine each with a capacity of
2000kW were installed. Commercial operation started in May, 2001 and is going
well.

34
2-2-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Off-shore Wind Farm, Denmark (2/2)
Horns Reef Project, Denmark
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

2,000kW x 80 units = 160MW in total


35

This is another off-shore wind farm project in Denmark. In Horns reef, 80 2000kW
turbines were installed for a total of 160MW.

Denmark has five off-shore wind farm projects with a total output of around 750MW
accounting for approximately 8 % of Danish domestic demand. It is said to have
CO2 reduction effect as 2.1 million tons per year.

35
2. Renewable energy - introduction

13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-3. Micro hydro power


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

36

36
2-3-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Basics of hydro power generation
ht :Turbine efficiency
Output(W)=ht x hg x r x g x Q x He hg :Generator efficiency
r :Density of water (kg/m3)
g :Acceleration of gravity (m/s2)
Q :Volumetric flow rate (m3/s)
He :Effective head (m) vertical
distance
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

pipe

vertical
distance
(Small intake dam)

Source:NEDO, Micro hydropower guidebook


37

Basics of hydro power generation

Water runs from a high place to a low place due to gravity. By bringing
the flow into the water turbine, we can spin the generator directly
attached to the turbine.
Amount of electricity produced depend on 2 factors: (1) vertical distance
between the two points (the “head”) and (2) the flow rate. As such,
output of electricity can be calculated using the following formula:

Output(W)=η x ρ x g x Q x H

However not all of the hydro power derived from the head is exploited.
Some power is lost when water is channeled to the turbine through a
pipe called the headrace channel. In addition, some of hydro power are
lost in the process of the turbine turning the generator axis converting
the power of the spinning axis into electricity.

37
2-3-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Variety of micro hydro power generation

Water source
(a) Mountain stream ( Normal case )
(b) Agricultural water (Apply to Irrigation system )
(c) City water ( Apply to City water or Waste water
system )
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Turbine type
(a) Pelton turbine
(b) Cross flow turbine Various type for
(c) Francis turbine various flow
(d) Tube-type propeller turbine

38

There is a variety of micro hydro power generation according to water sources or


turbine types.
Water source includes mountain stream, agricultural water, city water and sewerage.
Configurations of power plant varies accordingly.
Among equipments of the configuration, turbine is the most important. The type of
turbine to install is decided based on the head and flow rate on the sites. This is an
example of turbine types.

38
2-3-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Mountain stream utilization ( Normal application case )
Portion of a mountain stream is If the slopes surrounding the
taken in from the intake with a weir stream is too steep or when
(dam). open channel construction is
The water runs toward a power difficult, laying long penstock
plant through the open channel, along the steam (with no open
settling tank, and penstock. After channel) may be an alternative
power generation, water goes back method.
into the stream.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Water channel ( long channel ) Penstock (pipe)


Weir (dam) Settling tank
Settling tank

Penstock (pipe)
Power plant
Power plant

39

Portion of a mountain stream is taken in from the intake with a weir.


The water runs toward a power plant through the open channel, settling
tank, and penstock. After power generation, water goes back into the
stream.

The level difference between the water tank at the end of the open
channel and the power plant is used for power generation. This system
is suitable on sites with a gentle landscape. If the slopes surrounding
the stream is too steep or when open channel construction is difficult,
laying long penstock along the steam (with no open channel) may be an
alternative method.

If the slopes surrounding the stream is too steep or when open channel
construction is difficult, laying long penstock along the steam (with no
open channel) may be an alternative method.

39
2-3-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Agricultural water utilization ( Apply to Irrigation system)
Small Head Large Head
Open
Channel Excess water
channel Settling
Step tank
structure
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Pen-
stock
Generator (pipe)
Turbine
Draft tube
Power plant
Simple power generating facility is set near step structure
on the existing waterway for agricultural use.
40

Simple power generating facility is set near the step structure


of the existing waterway for agricultural use. A submerged turbine
generator is used for a site with small head. On the site with large head, water may
be taken bypassing step structure and generator may be installed by the main
stream.

40
2-3-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Apply to City water or Waste water system
Water
Reserve

Water treatment
process

The vertical difference between the


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

drawing point and supply point is used


for power generation.

In this system using city water supply, “the


valve which reduces pressure is installed at
the end of the penstock (pipe) ”allowing for
the use of water pressure to generate
electricity, before depressurization.
41

This example shows the power generation using water supply.

The vertical difference between the drawing point and supply point is used for power
generation.

In this system using city water supply, the valve which reduces pressure is installed
at the end of the penstock allowing for the use of water pressure to generate
electricity, before depressurization.

41
2-3-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Water turbines for micro hydro power
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Pelton turbine Francis turbine

Cross flow turbine Tube-type propeller turbine


42

These are the typical turbine types for micro hydro power generation.
Blue arrow indicates the flow of water.

Pelton turbine and cross flow turbine rotate in the air. On the other hand,in Francis
turbine and tube-type propeller turbine, turbines are encapsulated and running
water is pressurized.

42
2-3-1. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Head-flow ranges of micro hydro turbines

(vertical distance (m)) Pelton


Pelton wheel
or Turgo Wheel
Head (m) (Head is Large)

Francis turbine
Francis
(both Flow and Head
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

are in Middle)
Crossflow
Cross flow turbine
(widely applicable)
Propeller
Propeller turbine
or Kaplan
•Flow is Large
•but Head is Small

Flow rate (m3/sec)


43

This is a figure showing applicability of 4 types of turbine. Flow rate is on the


horizontal axis. Head is on the vertical axis. Cross flow turbine is widely applicable,
even under the condition of small flow rate and small head. Pelton turbine is most
recommendable where large head is secured. In contrast to Pelton turbine, propeller
turbine is recommendable on sites where flow rate is large but head is small.
Francis turbine is applicable where both of flow rate and head are in the middle.

43
2-3-2. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example of mountain stream utilization ( High head case )
Kotawei power plant (Indonesia)
Start of operation 1998
Taking advantage of the 45 m Maximum output 93 kW
natural head of waterfall, power Flow rate 0.57 m3/s(20.1ft3 /s)
is generated by the water Effective head 36.8 m(12.7ft)
brought into the power plant Turbine Cross flow turbine
down the waterfall. Generator Synchronous generator
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Overview of the power plant Water turbine generator


44

The project is located in Waikanan prefecture, Sumatra, Indonesia.


Taking advantage of the waterfall (approximately 45m), power is
generated by the water brought into the power plant down the waterfall.
So there was no need to set a man-made weir.

All the generated power is consumed at Kotawei village.

44
2-3-2. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example for mountain stream utilization ( Low head case )
Birkelwehr power plant (Germany)
Start of operation 1998
Max Output 40 kW x 4 units
Max. flow rate 1.5 m3/s(21.1ft3/S)
Effective head 2.82 m(9.25ft)
Turbine Kaplan turbine
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Generator Synchronous generator


Upstream side
Turbine generator

Downstream side
45

The power plant was built to re-utilize a dam once used in an abolished
plant.
On the flood control gate, 4 siphon style Kaplan water turbines and 4
synchronous generators are installed for generation.
Therefore, this power plant needs no water channel or penstock.

45
2-3-2. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example for agricultural water utilization (1)
Nanaga-Yohsui power plant (Japan)
Start of operation 2004
Upstream side Output (kW) 630 (max) 110 (usual)
Flow rate (m3/s) 15.0 m3/s (530ft3) (max)
2.94 m3/s (104ft3) (usual)

Effective head 5.45m(17.9ft) (max)


6.25m(20.3ft) (usual)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Turbine type Tubler propeller turbine


Generator type Syncronus generator

Downstream side Sectional drawing

•http://www.pref.ishikawa.jp/nouson/suiri/sitihatu1.htm
46

This is an example of micro hydro power plant using agricultural water in Japan. The
generator is installed in the hatch by the water channel. Although the Head is 5 m
or so, usual output is 110 kW and the maximum output is 630 kW thanks to the
high flow rate. The adopted turbine installed in the water of the channel is of
propeller type which is recommendable under the condition of high flow rate and
small head.

46
2-3-2. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example for agricultural water utilization (Submarine style)
Model HEGP-3.0 HEPG-1.5
Head 1 m(3.28ft) 3 m(9.84ft)
Flow rate 0.6 m3/s(21ft3/s) 0.1 m3/s(3.5ft3/s)
Rotation 300 rpm 1,200 rpm
frequency
Output 2.8 kW 1.3 kW
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Output cable
(to DC/AC converter
Submarine
Turbine Generator Weir generator

784mm
(Head)

460mm
(Stream of Water)

47

This is another plant utilizing agricultural water.

As shown in the figure, if we create head as large as 1 to 3 meters by a simple weir


on the water channel, small-output power generation is possible. Turbine, speed-
increasing gear and generator are in one package. Installation work is easy.

47
2-3-2. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
micro hydro powers (world)
Water Max output Max water
No source Country Site flow(m3/s) Head (m) Installation
(kW)
1 Thimphu 90×4 0.13 100.5 1967
2 Wangdi 100×3 0.19* 76.0 1969
3 Lhuentshi 20 0.05* 56.0 1986
4 Thinleygang 30 0.13 40.0 1986
5 Rukubji 40 0.17 40.0 1986
6 Tangsibji 30 0.11* 40.0 1986
7 Mountain Trongsa 50 0.21 40.0 1986
8 stream Bubja 30 0.10 50.0 1986
Bhutan
9 Tamshing 30 0.09* 50.0 1986
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

10 Ura 50 0.36* 20.0 1986


11 Yadi 30 0.09* 50.0 1986
12 Kekhar 20 0.10* 30.0 1986
13 Surey 70 0.20* 50.0 1986
14 Darachhu 100×2 0.66* 22.0 1992
15 Damphu 100×2 0.25* 57.3 1992
16 Zhemgang 100×2 0.29* 51.0 1992
17 Indonesia Kotaway 93 0.57 36.8 1998
18 Laos Nam Mong 70 0.55 18.1 1999
19 Vietnam Na Cha 120 0.30 54.2 2000
20 Philippines Mahagnao 65 0.45 25.2 2001
21 Austria Niederranna 76 0.038 232.0 Construction
22 Birkelwehr 40×4 1.50 2.82 1998
Germany
23 Schltach 4 0.13 4.6 -
* Calculated with the max output, the head and a turbine generator efficiency (assumed to be 0.7)
48

The table lists micro hydro power plants around the world.

All use mountain streams as its water source, many of which having heads
measuring several tens of meters.
Of these streams, some have small flow rate but have large heads, and others have
large flow rate but small heads.

48
2-3-2. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
micro hydro powers (Japan)
Max. output Max. water flow
No Water source Location (m3/s) Head (m) Installation
(kW)
1 Ooita 12.5 0.11* 16.0 1990
2 Kohchi 60.0 0.13 65.7 1992
3 Okinawa 75.0 0.89 12.0 1995
4 Gifu 25.0 0.17* 22.0 1995
5 Kagoshima 1.8 0.10* 2.5 1996
6 Iwate 50.0 0.33 22.6 1996
7 Ooita 18.2 0.095 23.0 1997
8 Fukuoka 68.0 0.81 12.2 1998
9 Gumma 51.0 0.259 27.84 1998
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

10 Mountain Yamagata 18.0 0.09* 30.0 1999


11 stream Nagano 1.0 0.006 42-48 2000
12 Kagoshima 1.3 0.005 49.0 2000
13 Mie 9.9 0.05* 27.0 2000
14 Nagano 9.9 0.031 45.0 2001
15 Kagoshima 3.6 0.014 49.0 2002
16 Hyohgo 3.2 0.017 40.0 2002
17 Nara 98.0 0.18 90.98 1993
18 Nagano 6.0 0.10 10.5 2001
19 Niigata 2.1 0.04 11.0 2001
20 Agriculture water Niigata 18.0 2.46 2.24 1984
21 Hyohgo 85.0 0.185 65.0 2002
22 Water supply and Ooita 9.9 0.05 31.0 2000
sewerage
23 Shizuoka 68.0 0.6 14.03 2001
* Calculated with the max output, the head and a turbine generator efficiency (assumed to be 0.7)
49

This is a list of micro hydro plants in Japan.

Many use mountain streams, but some use agricultural water or city water supplies.
Their heads usually measure around several dozen meters.

49
2-3-3. Characteristics

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Features of micro hydro power

(1) ¾ Only small changes made to selected sites


¾ Using small amount of water
¾ Environmentally friendly
(2) ¾ Emit no CO2 when generating power
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

(3) ¾ Can be constructed in a short period of time


¾ Easy maintenance
(4) ¾ Easy to install (i.e. piggy back) on existing facilities
(e.g. facilities for agriculture water or city water
supply) and reduce maintenance cost
(5) ¾ Stable power supply
(managed base on data of available mount of water)
50

Features of micro hydro power generation are summarized as follows:

(1) Due to its size, micro hydro power require only small changes to be made to the
selected sites. For the amount of water required is also small, adverse impact
on water quality and eco-system is small. So, micro hydro power is
environmentally friendly.
(2) Micro hydro power is a clean energy emitting no CO2, and contributes to
mitigate global warming.
(3) Micro hydro power has a simple structure and thus can be constructed over a
short period of time. Maintenance and management are also easy.
(4) It is possible to “piggy-back” on existing facilities such as the facilities for
agricultural water or city water works. This contributes to reducing maintenance
cost.
(5) Since generation of power can be managed based on the data of available
amount of water year around. As such, unlike other renewable energies, such
as photovoltaic or wind power, hydro power is a stable power supply.

50
2. Renewable energy – introduction
13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-4. Biomass energy


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

51

51
2-4-1. What is Biomass energy
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
What is Biomass

BBiioom
maassss

Organic materials originated from plants or animals


which can be used as a source of energy.
(excluding fossil fuels and materials originated from
fossil fuels)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Examples:
• Trees, Grasses, Sea weeds, Phytoplankton
• Residues from agriculture, forestry and livestock
• Municipal wastes (from biological materials)

52

I would like to start with “what is biomass.”

Biomass is a concept referring to “organic matters originated from plants or animals which can be used as
a source of energy. This excludes fossil fuels and materials originated from fossil fuels.

Examples of biomass include: trees; grasses; sea weeds; phytoplankton; residues from agriculture,
forestry and livestock; and municipal wastes originated from biological materials.

52
2-4-1. What is Biomass energy
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Why Biomass is good.
(1) Carbon neutral If Lumbering = Burning = Re-Planting
(2) Renewable
Re-planting after
Lumbering is
very important

CO2
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Absorption Emission

Carbon Cycle

Forest
Timber Farm
Biomass Generation
(By waste timber)
Timber
Industry House Building
&
Removing
53

I would like to start with “what is biomass.”

Biomass is a concept referring to “organic matters originated from plants or animals which can be used as
a source of energy. This excludes fossil fuels and materials originated from fossil fuels.

Examples of biomass include: trees; grasses; sea weeds; phytoplankton; residues from agriculture,
forestry and livestock; and municipal wastes originated from biological materials.

53
2-4-1. What is Biomass energy
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Why Biomass is good.
(3) Reduce Fossil fuel consumption

Methane free to the air. CO2


(powerful Greenhouse gas) (Greenhouse gas)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Methane Bio Gas Generation

Reduce
consumption

Livestock Waste Fossil Fuel


54

I would like to start with “what is biomass.”

Biomass is a concept referring to “organic matters originated from plants or animals which can be used as
a source of energy. This excludes fossil fuels and materials originated from fossil fuels.

Examples of biomass include: trees; grasses; sea weeds; phytoplankton; residues from agriculture,
forestry and livestock; and municipal wastes originated from biological materials.

54
2-4-1. What is Biomass energy
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Classification of biomass and recyclable materials
Biomass Recycled
resources resources

Animal waste used Cooking Oil Used Products


used Paper plastics for packages
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Rise straw, chaff used tires


Food waste
Energy plants Wood waste
( Copra for diesel oil, Byproducts
Sweet Potatoes for
Building waste
plastics, waste
fuel alcohol

Organic
Organicorigin
origin
Source:Guidebook for biomass energy introduction
55

Classification of biomass and recyclable materials.

In Japan, we distinguish between biomass ( or renewable) and recyclable materials.


However, within biomass or “renewable” materials, used cooking oil, paper, food
waste and wood waste can also be considered recyclable materials.
On the other hand, used plastics and fossil fuel byproducts are considered
recyclable but are not “renewable.”

55
2-4-1. What is Biomass energy

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Application and classification of biomass resources
Wooden Agriculture, Construction Direct
Livestock, waste
wooden Fishery combustion
biomass After processed
agricultural residue construction into chips or pellets,
Residues from wood waste they are burnt in
forestry rice straw, corn,
chaff, wheat straw boiler.

Food Industry Bagasse Biochemical


Household conversion
Bagasse
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Animal waste Applied technology


food industry sewage sludge like fermentation,
drainage of cows, pigs sewage methane, ethanol,
food waste and chickens hydrogen, etc. are
processed kitchen waste produced.
fishery residue fishery waste

Paper mill sugar,starch Thermo-chemical


used cocking oil
conversion
black liquor, sweet potato
woody waste Fuels are produced
through gasification,
cellulose rapeseed, palm oil, making in a high
(used paper) copra oil (coconut) temperature and high
pressure process.
Source: Ministry of economy, industry and trade 56

Roughly, there are three applications of biomass resources: namely,direct


combustion, biochemical conversion and thermo-chemical conversion.

In a direct combustion, biomass is burned directly in the boiler to produce steam.


The steam is used to spin the turbine.
In a biochemical conversion, biomass produces methane, ethanol, and hydrogen
through fermentation technology at ordinary temperature, which will then be used to
fuel energy.
In a thermo-chemical conversion, gasification and etherification are performed in
high temperatures and an oxygen-free environment, to convert biomass to a gas.
The gas fuels the turbine.

Residues from forestry, livestock and agricultural and construction waste are
generally processed through direct combustion.

Biomass from the food industry, animal waste produced by the agricultural and
livestock farming industries, and kitchen food waste are processed through
biochemical combustion.

Another type of biomass from agriculture and livestock farming, such as Palm Oil,
and used cooking oil from daily activities are used through thermo-chemical
conversion.

56
2-4-1. What is Biomass energy

13-Nov-05 (21:19) • Conversion Technologies for biomass


Direct Electricity,
combustion heating

Anaerobic Methane,
digestion Hydrogen

biomass Biochemical Aerobic Fertilizer


conversion fermentation
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Alcoholic Ethanol
fermentation

Gasification Synthetic
(indirect liquefaction) gas
Thermo-
chemical Pyrolysis Liquid fuel
conversion
Direct Chemical
liquefaction material
57

Various types of biomass exist on earth. They have different properties in calories,
specific gravity and water content rate. Occurrence patterns and volume are also
different among them. Accordingly, various conversion technologies for energy use
have been developed and commercialized.

As mentioned in the previous side, there are 3 ways to convert biomass: Direct
combustion; Thermo-chemical conversion (such as gasification and carbonization);
and Biochemical conversion (such as methane fermentation).

I would like to explain in detail, each of these conversion processes.

57
2-4-2. Direct combustion of wood and
agricultural biomass
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Combustion

Direct
Directcombustion
combustion
Proven technology using wood waste, unutilized lumber or
bagasse. However,energy utilization rate are low because the
plants are generally for self-use to meet minimum demand.
Although it depends on the size of the plant, in most cases,
conversion rate to electricity is from 10% to 20%.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Co-firing
Co-firing
A technology which combines biomass with fossil fuels like
coal and are fired in a coal-fired power plant. With the help of
coal, it aims at preventing efficiency decrease in caused by
biomass.

58

First, lets talk about Combustion. There are 2 types of combustion: (1) Direct
combustion and (2) Co-firing.

Direct combustion is a technology utilizing steam from burning biomass. No other


fuel source are combined.

This is proven technology which has already been in commercial operation using
wood waste, unutilized lumber or bagasse. However,energy utilization rate in most
existing facilities are low because the plants are generally for self-use to meet
minimum demand. Although it depends on the size of the plant, in most cases,
conversion rate to electricity is from 10% to 20%.

Co-firing is a technology which combines biomass with fossil fuels like coal and are
fired in a coal-fired power plant. With the help of coal, it aims at preventing efficiency
decrease in caused by biomass.

58
2-4-2. Direct combustion of wood and
agricultural biomass
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Image of facility size and application (wooden biomass)
kind of forestry biomass 1 t/day 10 t/day 100 t/day 300 t/day 1000 t/day

direct combustion power


forestry thinned generation, heat utilization,
biomass wood Pellet chip
gasification, generation, co-
(Locally Make firing with coal generation
chip only) (self-use and
factory edge
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

direct combustion supply to


lumber
poweroutside)
generation,
heat utilization
(mainly for self-use)
construction
waste

(Solid line shows Japanese cases) (Broken line shows other countries’
Utilizing thinned wood alone seems to difficult duecase)
to high water content, collecting cost and disposal cost.
Source:Guidebook for biomass energy introduction
59

Energy from wood biomass can be used in many different ways. Heat and electricity
can be obtained by burning factory and construction waste (wood chips, bark), or
they can be used to make pellets. Such waste can also be changed into a gas to
generate electricity. The table shows the classification of wood biomass by type and
amount within the framework of the applied technology. The area indicated with a
solid line shows domestic applications, and the area marked by dotted lines
indicates overseas applications.

Roughly divided, wood biomass are comprised from wood waste from thinning,
waste from factory operation, and waste from construction. In terms of the amount
of use, wood waste from thinning is the least used, followed by factory waste, and
construction waste. As for wood waste from thinning, its independent use is difficult
considering the amount of water content and the cost of gathering and processing.
Accordingly, it is used together with factory waste wood.

In the case of small scale operations, the wood biomass is used to make pellets and
chips for boilers. Some of them are changed into a gas for use in power generation.
As for medium to large scale operations, it is directly used for thermal power and
heat generation. In Japan, some facilities can process up to several hundred tons of
wood biomass per day. Generated electricity and heat are mainly for private
consumption.

59
2-4-2. Direct combustion of wood and
agricultural biomass
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Timber industry’s biomass fuels

Bark Shredded bark Back board Thin board


(longer than tens cm) (5cm long)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Edge lumber Edge lumber Chip(1~3cm) Chip dust


(smaller than
7mm)

Shavings Shavings Sawdust Sawdust


(shorter than 1cm) (in some factories) (smaller than 0.5mm)
60

As you can see, wood biomass varies from bark to sawdust.

60
2-4-2. Direct combustion of wood and
agricultural biomass
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
• Direct Combustion power plant using wood biomass
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

61

This figure shows an example of direct combustion using a steam turbine. Steam is
produced by directly firing wood biomass after being aligned in the same size or
shape for efficient burning.

In this example, biomass is burned to generate steam in the boiler. The steam then
spins the turbine. Exhaust steam from the generator is supplied to the factory.
Exhaust steam, in this case, is used by the factory in the preliminary drying of
biomass fuel.

61
2-4-2. Direct combustion of wood and
agricultural biomass
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Wood biomass Direct-Combustion power generation(1/2)
Timber Industry’s biomass generation. (Noshiro Japan)

Generator
Output: 3000kW
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

External view
This plant uses cryptomeria (Japanese cedar) barks or trees as its fuel
source to generate electricity. Steam is sent to the lumber factory (located
near to the power plant). Steam is used by the factory for drying timbers.
62

This is a wood biomass power plant in Noshiro, Akita Prefecture, Japan.

This plant uses cryptomeria barks or trees as its fuel source to generate electricity.
Steam is sent to the lumber factory (located adjacent to the power plant). Steam is
used by the factory for drying timbers.

62
2-4-2. Direct combustion of wood and
agricultural biomass
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Wood biomass Direct-Combustion power generation (2/2)
• Specification for Noshiro Biomass Power Plant
Output 3000 kW
(Akimoku Board Co., Ltd. accepts
2350kW)
(Efficiency:10 - 12%)
Volume of steam 24 ton/hour
( Akimoku Board Co., Ltd. accepts
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

20 ton/hour)
Consumption of 54360 ton/year
(carrying-in by members: 80%,
wood waste purchase from non-members: 20%)
->200 ton/day

Operation 24 hour in week days, no operation


on Saturdays and Sundays
<electric load of Akimoku Board: 3500kW>
63

This chart shows the technical specification of the plant.

63
2-4-2. Direct combustion of wood and
agricultural biomass
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Wood biomass Gasification power generation
Dust
collector combustor
CO, H2, Tar
air
Gas Generator
Wooden
biomass Ash and
G

char Gas
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Low-temperature Turbine
fluidized
bed gasifier
Electricity
Heat
650degreeC, O2, H2O, Heat exchanger
0.4 MPa Like Charcoal
Roaster Heat
Exhaust gas
Utilization
This system is suited to small-scale operation and
is highly efficient in power generation (targeted to surpass 20%).
64

This is the flow of a power generation system firing gas produced through gasifying
wood biomass.

Wood biomass is gasified in the furnace at relatively low temperatures (about


650 ℃) and the generated tar-containing gas is directly combusted in the gas
turbine. This system is suited to small-scale operation and is highly efficient in
power generation.
In addition to generated electricity, recovered heat is utilized. The power generation
efficiency is targeted to surpass 20%.

64
2-4-3. Conversion to secondary fuel
by fermentation etc.
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Biochemical conversion
Flow of methane fermentation power
generation
Livestock Bio gas district
waste heating

collection, organic
Processed matter Methane
food waste transporta decompo Fermentation
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

tion sition

sewage,
sludge subsequent compost
treatment

Biomass is converted into secondary fuel by fermentation.


-> Gas is used for power generation.
Source:”Biomass,” Hideaki Yukawa, The Chemical Daily Co., Ltd.
65

This shows the methane fermentation process. This system aims at gaining
methane gas through methane fermentation with the help of microorganisms.

65
2-4-3. Conversion to secondary fuel
by fermentation etc.
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Facility size and application (livestock waste)

kind of livestock
biomass 1 t/day 10 t/day 100 t/day 300 t/day 1000 t/day

Cows Methane fermentation for


power generation, heat utilization
(high water contents)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

(mainly for self-


Pigs (mainly for self-use)
use and selling)

Chickens Direct combustion


(law water content)
(Solid line shows Japanese cases) (Broken line shows other countries’ case)

Source:Guidebook for biomass energy introduction


66

Livestock biomass energy can be used in several different ways. Power can be
generated by burning the methane gas produced by fermenting animal waste from
cows and pigs, or heat can be extracted by burning waste from chicken. The table
shows livestock biomass types and the scale of processing. The area inside the
solid line indicates domestic applications, while the zone inside the dotted line is for
overseas applications.

The type of livestock biomass in use can be roughly divided by the type of
animals—cows, pigs, chicken. Animal waste from cows and pigs have high water
contents; it is mainly used for power generation and heat extraction through
methane fermentation. On the other hand, Chicken waste has a low water content
and is directly burned (by itself or with wood chips and industrial waste).
As for cow and pig waste, the amount of processing varies from a few tons/day at
small-scale farms to as much as 300 tons/day at larger ones. As for chicken waste,
300 tons/day can be processed.

Domestically, electricity generated through this system is priced low. Because of


this, most of it is for private consumption, but some are sold on the open market.

66
2-4-3. Conversion to secondary fuel
by fermentation etc.
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example of biomass application (livestock waste)
Yagi Bio-ecology Center (Japan)
Start of operation 1998
Raw materials animal waste (cows 40 t/d, pigs 8.8 t/d, bean-curd
refuse 10 t/d )
System power generation by methane fermentation.
(wet method, medium/high temperature fermentation)
Generator 70kW×2 units, 80kW×1 unit
(use for sewage treatment facility next to the power plant)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Fermenting
Fermentingtank
tank
2100m 3 3
2100m3, ,37℃,
37℃,2200m
2200m3/d/d
600m 3 3
600m3, ,55℃,
55℃,820m
820m3/d/d
Gas 3
Gasholder
holder: :850m
850m3
Composting
Compostingfacility
facility
44.4
44.4t/d
t/d

Source:Guidebook for biomass energy introduction 67

At Yagi Bio-ecology Center, electric power is generated using biogas derived from
animal waste.

67
2-4-3. Conversion to secondary fuel
by fermentation etc.
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Occurrence and power output of animal waste
kind •produc volum wate rate of volume produce average output
ed gas e of r organi of d gas d lower kWh/d
•l/kgVS excret % c organic m3/d heat
ion matter matter value
kg/d % kgVS/d kWh/d

cows
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

(1) 250 65 88 87 6.8 1.7 12.2 3.4

pigs
(10) 450 57 88 86 5.9 2.6 19.0 5.3

chicken
(100) 460 10 70 66 2.0 0.9 6.5 1.8

Source:”On gasification of kitchen garbage,” Juzou MATSUDA, Gekkan Hikibutsu Journal (Monthly Waste),October
2000

Source:Guidebook for biomass energy introduction


68

This chart shows the volume of animal waste and its corresponding power output.

68
2-4-3. Conversion to secondary fuel
by fermentation etc.
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Facility size and application (food; waste, Bio Diesel fuel)

kind of food foods 1 t/d 10 t/d 100 t/d 300 t/d 1,000 t/d
biomass BDF 1 t/d 10 t/d 100 t/d 300 t/d 1,000 t/d
Restaurant
garbage Methane fermentation power
Food generation,heat utilization
waste Households’ (mainly for self-use) (self-use, supply to outside)
kitchen
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

garbage

Food sewage Methane fermentation power


generation, heat utilization
food factories’
sewage (mainly for self-use)

Cooking oil
BDF manufacturing
Copra oil (for
(promoters) (for businesses)
BDF public)
(Bio Diesel Fuel)
(Solid line shows Japanese cases) (Broken line shows other countries’ case)
Source:Guidebook for biomass energy introduction
69

Energy can be extracted from food waste in a number of ways. Food waste can be
burned to recover heat as an intermediate treatment of industrial waste; electricity
can be generated by fermenting kitchen garbage and food waste water; or waste
cooking oil can be refined as an automobile fuel (BDF). The table shows the image
of facility size and application of food waste. The area inside the solid lines indicates
domestic applications, while the zone inside the dotted lines is for overseas
applications.

Generally speaking food biomass energy can be generated by methane


fermentation of food garbage (businesses and household), methane fermentation of
food waste water (waste water from food processing plant), and BDF production
and application.

The amount that can be processed by fermenting food garbage is small (max.
several tons/day). Methane fermentation from plant waste water reaches several
hundred to several thousand tons per day as it contains much more water.
As for BDF, the amount is 100 L/day to 200 L/day if the emphasis is on environment
and energy conservation. For business use, the amount can be as large as 10,000
L/day.
In some other countries, the amount of food waste is much greater than in Japan. It
is often treated along with livestock waste, urine, and sewage. Where BDF is sold,
much larger facilities seem to be operating (several thousand L/day to hundreds of
thousands L/day in Germany). Considering this, it is possible to foresee such large
facilities operating in Japan sometime in the future.

69
2-4-3. Conversion to secondary fuel
by fermentation etc.
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Kitchen waste bio-gasification fuel cell system(1/2)
In cooperation with hotels in Kobe, kitchen waste is collected and
converted into methane gas through fermentation process in the
facility. The gas is used as fuel for fuel cells to generate electricity.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Site:
Site: The
The2nd
2ndstage
stageconstruction
constructionsite,
site,
Port
PortIsland,
Island,Kobe
Kobe
Pretreatment
Pretreatmentfacility:
facility:Kitchen
Kitchenwaste
waste(6(6ton/day)
ton/day)
Fermenting 3
Fermentingtank:
tank: biogas
biogasproduced
produced(1200m
(1200m3/day)
/day)
Fuel cell:
Fuel cell: 100
100 kW Phosphoric AcidFuel
kW Phosphoric Acid FuelCell
Cell
(2400kWh/day)
(2400kWh/day)

Demonstration project by Department of the


Environment: 3 years from June,2001
http://www.nedo.go.jp/nedo_kansai/jireisyoukai/kobebiogasu.htm
70

In cooperation with hotels in Kobe, kitchen waste is collected and converted into
methane gas through fermentation process in the facility. The gas is used as fuel for
fuel cells to generate electricity.
It is in the 2nd stage construction site, Port Island, City of Kobe.
At the pretreatment facility, 6 tons of kitchen wasted is treated per day.
In the fermenting tank, 1200 m3 of biogas is produced per day.
They adopted 100 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell with capacity of 2400kWh per day.
Demonstration project was commissioned by the Department of Environment
between June 2001 and June 2004.

70
2-4-3. Conversion to secondary fuel
by fermentation etc.
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Kitchen waste bio-gasification fuel cell system (2/2)
• System outline •Raw
•Rawmaterial:
material: Kitchen
Kitchenwaste
wastefrom
fromindustry
industry
(hotels)
(hotels)
•Processing capacity: 6t/day
•Processing capacity: 6t/day
•Fermentation
•Fermentationsystem:
system:Fixed
FixedBed
BedHigh
HighTemperature
Temperature
Methane
MethaneFermentation
Fermentation
•Power
•Powergeneration
generation 100
100kWkWPhosphoric
PhosphoricAcid
Acid
system:
system: Fuel
FuelCell
Cell
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Future
plan

Kitchen waste collected from hotels in Kobe is supplied into the facility.
Methane gas obtained through fermentation is used for fuel cell.
71

In this system, material for methane fermentation is kitchen waste from hotels.
Produced Biogas is used for fuel cell to generate power.

71
2-4-3. Conversion to secondary fuel
by fermentation etc.
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Bio Diesel Fuel (Waste cooking oil biomass application)
The
TheEnvironment
EnvironmentClean
CleanCenter
Center
Project
Projectentity
entity:: city
cityof
ofItami,
Itami,Hyogo
HyogoPrefecture,
Prefecture,Japan
Japan
Start of operation :1999
Start of operation :1999
Raw
Rawmaterials
materials:: used
usedcocking
cockingoil
oilfrom
fromhouseholds,
households,public
publicfacilities
facilitieslike
like
center
centerfor
formeal
meal supply,
supply,local
localgovernment
governmentoffices,
offices,
nursery
nurseryhomes
homes
System
System:: methyl
methylester
esterexchange
exchange
Capacity
Capacity:: BDF(Bio
BDF(BioDiesel
DieselFuel)
Fuel) 100L/day
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

100L/day
BDF application : fuel for cars
BDF application : fuel for cars
(not
(notmixed
mixedwith
withlight
lightoil)
oil)
•Raw material procurement: collecting with
no charge
•Storage tanks: BDF:200L/Used
cocking oil:1000L
•Discharged liquor disposal: 5 garbage trucks,
5 vacuum trucks
•Discharged Glycerin: disposed by plant
manufacturer
Source:Guidebook for biomass energy introduction 72

At the Environment Clean Center in the City of Itami, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, Bio
Diesel Fuel is manufactured through methyl-ester exchange using food biomass.

72
2-4-4. Introduction of Biomass to small islands

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
(Example: Coconuts etc.))
Example of Copra Oil
In the Pacific, opportunities exist to utilize copra oil and other vegetable
oils as a fuel for transport and electricity generation.
Technologies exist to combust crude copra oil
• In modified compression engines (1) , (2)
• Use of Bio-Diesel fuel in unmodified engines (3)
( by means of etherification into Bio-Diesel-Fuel )
•Overview of Biofuel Choices for Compression (Diesel) Engine
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

(1) Modify Engine

Compression Engine
Diesel Oil
Dual Fuel System

(diesel Engine)
(2) Modify Engine:
Copra Oil Adapt Fuel pump,
filters, injectors

(3) Bio Diesel


Waste Oil
Source:SOPAC Copra Oil as a biofuel Charanges and Opportunity Jan Cloin 73

In the Pacific, opportunities exist to utilize copra oil and other vegetable oils as a
fuel for transport and electricity generation.
Technologies exist to combust crude copra oil in adapted compression engines or
by means of esterification into biodiesel, using standard compression engines.

This figure shows Overview of Bio Fuel Choices for Compression (Diesel) Engine

73
2-4-4. Introduction of Biomass to small islands
(Example: Coconuts etc.))

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example of Copra Oil
(1) Dual Fuel system (Pure Copra Oil in Modified Engines )
• Installed at Welagi , Taveuni in Fiji Island.

Copra oil

( Power )
Diesel oil
Diesel oil
Normal operating temp.
( time )
Start up Shut down
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

• To avoid carbon deposit


1. Start up by mineral diesel oil.
2. Normal running by vegetable copra oil.
3. Shut down by mineral diesel oil.
• Diesel oil is ready for a cold start and to avoid residues in the
fuel system.
• A fuel heater is required in ambient temperatures below
25 degree-C.
Source:SOPAC Copra Oil as a biofuel Charanges and Opportunity Jan Cloin 74

Dual Fuel systems


These systems start and stop on mineral diesel. As soon as the engine is at normal
operating temperature, the fuel supply is switched to vegetable oil and just before
shutting down, the supply is switched back to diesel to ensure that the fuel system
has diesel ready for a cold start and to avoid residues in the fuel system. Often a
fuel system heater is incorporated so that the vegetable oil remains liquid, even in
ambient temperatures below 25 degree-C.

A good example of such a system is the village electrification system in Welagi,


Taveuni, Fiji Islands, that uses a dual-fuel system for both diesel and copra oil fed
into a diesel generator. As part of the French funded project, the village obtained a
small copra oil press enabling the local small-scale oil production by means of dried
copra from the Mataqali’s pastures. Technically this system has proven to operate
with no problems.

74
2-4-4. Introduction of Biomass to small islands
(Example: Coconuts etc.))

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example of Copra Oil
(2) Adapted Fuel system (Pure Copra Oil in Modified Engines )
• Installed at Ouvea in New Caledonia, Espirito Santo in Vanuatu.

Modified Injector

Fuel Heater
(if needed)
Filter
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Pure Copra Oil

• To run without fossil fuels


1. Modify fuel injector
2. Use extra fuel filter (enough stages of filtering )
• Especially if the crude copra oil is manufactured on a small
local facility, the quality is not always stable.
Quality control and enough stages of filtering are necessary.
• Fuel heating system is necessary for ambient temperatures
below 25 degree-C.
Source:SOPAC Copra Oil as a biofuel Charanges and Opportunity Jan Cloin 75

Adapted Fuel System


These systems run on pure copra oil and use no fossil fuels. Mostly, these systems
feature adapted fuel injectors and extra filters. Especially if the crude copra oil is
manufactured on a small scale locally, the quality is not always stable. Therefore
regular quality control and a number of filtering stages are essential to a long
service of this type of system. Often an electrical operated fuel heating system is
again incorporated for ambient temperatures below 25oC.

A good example of this is the pilot plant in Ouvea implemented by SPC and CIRAD
in the 1990’s. Further feasibility studies have shown a favorable
opportunity for the Lory Co-operation on Espirito Santo in Vanuatu. This study also
describes the incorporation of the use of raw copra oil in a small number of modified
taxi engines.

75
2-4-4. Introduction of Biomass to small islands
(Example: Coconuts etc.))

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example of Copra Oil
(3) Use of Bio-Diesel fuel in unmodified engines
• Already applied in USA and EU.
•Bio-Diesel fuel is a kind of “Vegetable oil Methyl Ester”.
•Standards are already established and produced.
USA : ASTM-D 6751 , EU : EN 14214
•Already selling. Hawaii : 1.2 Million litter / Year
B1(1%) , B20(20%) , B100(100%)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

•Need chemical process.


Not suitable for small island. ( cost decreases with volume)
Additional cost for chemical process is about 0.2 USD.
Chemical Process
BDF
Copra Oil, Methyl Ester
Filter

Copra Oil Waste Oil, ( Bio Diesel


#1 etc. Fuel )
Waste Oil
etc. Catalyst
Methanol Glycerin
(NaOH etc.)
#1: Waste Cooking oil
etc. Esterification process Soap
Source:SOPAC Copra Oil as a biofuel Charanges and Opportunity Jan Cloin 76

The use of Biodiesel in unmodified engines.


Biodiesel is a standardized fuel that consists of vegetable oil Methyl Ester. It is a
product of crude vegetable oil that reacts with alcohol and a catalyst, such as
sodium hydroxide. This process generates two products: glycerin, which can be
used for soap production, and methyl ester, or bio-diesel-fuel.

There are two fully developed standards of biodiesel, ASTM-D 6751 in the United
States and EN14214 in the European Union. If these standards are followed, the
validity of the manufacturer’s guarantee remains. Positive impacts on engines
include increased lubricity; some older machines need replacement of rubber hoses
and O-rings, as the biodiesel is slightly reactive.

The use of biodiesel is becoming more mainstream practice in the U.S. and the E.U.
In 2002 in France only, 310,000 tones of biodiesel has been produced as a
transport fuel. In Germany, there are already 800 biodiesel refueling stations. In
Hawaii, 1,2 Ml of biodiesel is produced annually from used vegetable oil and sold as
B1 (1%) B20 (20%) or B100, 100 % biodiesel.

76
2-4-4. Introduction of Biomass to small islands
(Example: Coconuts etc.))

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example of Copra Oil
• Advantages and disadvantages
advantages disadvantages
Crude Copra Oil •Low cost of fuel •Works only in certain cases
in Normal Engine •No modification costs •Need high Quality Copra Oil

•Continued diesel imports


•Lowest cost fuel can be
Modified Engine
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Dual Fuel
chosen: •Extra components risk, extra
Copra Oil in

system
failure

Adapted •100% Renewable •Dependence on quality of


Fuel local oil production
system •Low cost of fuel
•Non-standard components
•Standardized, Guarantee •Chemical Facility required
BDF remains
(Bio Diesel Fuel) •Some rubber parts need
•Opportunity to co-source
used oil replacement
Source:SOPAC Copra Oil as a biofuel Charanges and Opportunity Jan Cloin
77

This Table below gives an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the
options discussed above.

77
2-4-4. Introduction of Biomass to small islands
(Example: Coconuts etc.))

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Examples of Biomass Project in Fiji
Source: NEDO
(1)
(1)Coconuts
Coconutsoil
oil(Copra
(Copraoil)
oil)project
project
Coconut is a very important resource for the people in the South Pacific.
It is food, construction material, source of energy and even source of
income in many areas. Also, coconut is a long-lived and durable
resource in lagoon islands. Recently coconuts oil attracts high attention
for substitutive fuel. It could be used for diesel oil in power generation.

(2)
(2)Biogas
Biogaspilot
pilotproject
project
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

*Biogas is produced through anaerobic digestion, for example, human


or animal waste, agricultural waste, sewage in cities and kitchen waste.
In 1996,DOE(Fiji) in association with MAFF started the biogas pilot
project. Wastes from dairy and pig farms are used.

(3)
(3)Bagasse
Bagasseutilization
utilization
Fiji is rich in biomass resources., for example, forest, coconut waste,
bagasse, lumber waste, and rice waste. They are used as fuels for s
cogeneration plant or in industrial process.
78

I am going to introduce some biomass projects in Fiji.

(1)Firstly, the coconut oil project, aiming at using coconut oil as substitute for diesel
oil to generate power. Coconuts themselves are long-lived and durable resource.

(2)In 1996, Department of Energy, Fiji, started the biogas pilot project in association
with MAFF. In this project, animal waste (of cows and pigs) are used.

(3)Finally, bagasse, or scum of sugar cane, is used as fuel in a co-generation steam


power plant or industrial process.

78
2-4-4. Introduction of Biomass to small islands
(Example: Coconuts etc.))

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Assumed amount of biomass used as energy source in Fiji
Volume of supply
(tons /year)
800000
754959
700000

600000

500000
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

406577
400000

300000
238773
186975
200000

100000
39919

Bagasse Wood Coconut Fuel Saw


Chips Residue wood Dust
79

(1)Example of biomass supply

This figure shows the supply of the five types of biomass surveyed in cooperation with FDOE. The
largest supply is bagasse (sugar cane waste) produced when sugar cane is squeezed to obtain sugar,
which is the main product of Fiji. The amount of biomass, which is the sum of production at four
refinery plants (run by Fiji Sugar Corporation), reaches 755,000 tons/year (average amount per plant:
500 tons/day).

The next largest are coconut shells (407,000 tons/year). According to FDOE, local families are
already using them as a heat source for cooking. As this source is family based, it is necessary to
establish a collection route in order to gather it in large amounts. This and other problems must be
cleared for the use of coconut shells.
Wood chip supplies are relatively large, totaling 239,000 tons a year. As the data obtained from
lumber mills within Fiji shows, wood chips, like bagasse, are a lucrative energy source, since they are
generated in a concentrated manner.

Fuel wood, like coconut shells, representing a supply of 187,000 tons/year (distribution data) is
already being used by families for cooking. It is therefore difficult to use as an energy source.
Mangrove forests, from which fuel wood is obtained, are attracting much attention these days, and
are being protected from reckless gathering. It is therefore politically wise to avoid its use as an
energy source.

Sawdust supplies are small (40,000 tons/year). As some of it is used to produce briquette, it is
difficult to secure stable supplies.

(2)Biomass selection

As a stable supply of energy, promising resources are bagasse (sugar cane waste) and wood chips
(waste wood). The reason is that they are produced in large amount’s and in a concentrated manner,
so that stable supply and easy collection are possible.

79
2-4-4. Introduction of Biomass to small islands
(Example: Coconuts etc.))

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Examples of Biomass in Fiji

Shell of coconuts
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Bagasse

Sawdust

Fuel wood (Mangrove) Wood chip


80

I think that you are very familiar with these. They are some of biomass resources in
Fiji.

In the upper left is bagasse. Upper right is shells of coconuts. Lower left is fuel
wood from Mangrove. In the middle is sawdust. and, finally, Lower right is wood chip
made from South Seas Pine Tree.

80
2-4-4. Introduction of Biomass to small islands

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
(Example: Coconuts etc.))
Sites for Biomass Power Generation in Fiji

Biomass Sites in Fiji


Coconut Taveuni island

Biogas Hari Ram Rakan dairy farm in Tairebu, Waidarisu


(livestock plant in Waira (Nausori) and Natabua (Lautoka)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

biomass)
Bagasse factories in Lautoka,. Rakiraki, Ba and Labasa

source: “Renewable Energy on Small Islands,” Research Institute for Subtropics


source: NEDO

81

In 1997, DOE Fuji, in association with the pacific community, started the coconut
energy project in Taveuni island. In April 1999, feasibility study was done by
CIRAD(Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche), South Pacific
Committee(SPC), Fiji Coconuts Conference and DOE Fuji. In September 1997, a
project started

In 1996, DOE Fiji, in the cooperation with MAFF, started the Biogas experiment
project at Hari Ram Rakan dairy farm in Tairebu, Waidaris. They succeeded in
construction of 15.8㎥ biogas plant from the end of 1996 to 1997. In the plant bio
digester treats cow waste. In 1996, two additional plants in Waira (Namusori) and
Natabua (Lautoka) were completed. Fuels are waste from pig farms. The similar
project to be completed in 1999 is planned, but details are unknown.

Fiji Sugar Company has been generating power in co-generation steam power plant
in their Lautoka,. Rakiraki, Ba and Labasa factories. The fuel is bagasse. Most of
the generated power is consumed on site, and the rest is for sale. Bagasse is
produced from sugar cane treatment process. At four factories of FSC, 3.64 million
tons of sugar cane in average are squeezed per year.

81
2-4-5. Summary and Characteristics

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Existing amounts and energy potentials in the world

48 EJ Agricultural
(Residue)
about 20 EJ
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

43 EJ Livestock
(Dung:
Animal waste)
about 20 EJ

37 EJ Wood

Existing Amount (EJ/year) Energy Potential (EJ/year)


Source: Biomass Handbook, NEDO
82

The existing amount of waste biomass are estimated in the charts. For livestock
biomass, it is approximately 43 EJ per year. For agricultural biomass, it is
approximately 48 EJ per year. For forestry biomass, it is approximately 37 EJ per
year. In total, the amount of waste biomass is approximately 128 EJ per year.

Cow waste and log residues account for the largest with approximately 20 EJ
respectively.

82
2-4-5. Summary and Characteristics

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Rate of availability of each biomass
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Source: Biomass Handbook, NEDO

83

This chart shows rate of availability of each biomass

83
2-4-5. Summary and Characteristics
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Features of biomass

(Advantages)
Renewable
Organic resources
Carbon neutrality, etc
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

(Disadvantages)
Low energy density
Large seasonal volatility in supply
Uneven distribution of producing areas
Large variety in properties
High cost in collecting and transporting, etc

84

Before I close this section, I would like to touch on the advantages and disadvantages of biomass.

Advantages, are:

It is renewable energy.
It is an organic resource.
It is carbon-neutral.

On the other hand, disadvantages are:

Its energy density is low, which means it is low in calorific content.


The amount of supply varies greatly by seasons.
Areas producing the biomass are distributed unevenly.
Property varies greatly.
Cost of collection and transportation is high.

84
2. Renewable energy - introduction
13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-5. City-Waste Power Generation


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

85

85
2-5-1. Properties and objective of waste
power generation
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Features and Objectives of City-Waste power generation

1. Clean disposal of waste (Sanitary Clean)


2. Reduce volume for landfill (volume:1/15,weight:15%)
3. Improve cost-effectiveness
4. Contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel usage
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

(For in-house power generation )


5. Distributed power source in cities
6. Stable power generation
(regardless of season, day and night)
7. Co-generation

86

Properties and objectives of waste power generation are as follows:.

1. Enable sanitary disposal of waste.


2. It can reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. Volume of the wastes is
reduced to one-fifteenth; weight to 15%.
3. It improves cost-effectiveness.
4. Waste power generation is one of renewable energy sources which can replace
and reduce the use of fossil fuels.
5. It is a power source distributed in cities.
6. It can generate electricity regardless of season, day and night.

and

7. It is easy to cogenerate heat at the same time.

86
2-5-1. Properties and objective of waste
power generation

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Characteristic of municipal solid waste
item Uni
Municipal Waste Coal
t (Pacific Coal) Water content rate
Chemical Analysis Industrial Analysis Water % 42.27 6.0 is high.
Volatile Matter 〃
Inflammables 51.73 Inflammables 79.0
(Volatiles) (26.53) (Volatiles) 41.7 Waste must be
〃 (Fixed Carbon) (25.2) (Fixed Carbon) 37.3
Fixed Carbon dried
Ashes 〃 5.80 15.0
Total Sulfur 〃 - -
TOTAL 〃 100.0 100.0
Carbon 〃 25.196 (48.71) (75.2)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Hydrogen 〃 3.58 (6.92) ( 6.1)


Nitrogen 〃 0.45 (0.87) ( 1.3)
Oxygen 〃 22.02 (42.57) (17.0) Chlorine is contained.
Inflammable Sulfur 〃 0.023 (0.04) This causes corrosion
( 0.4)
Inflammable Chlorine 〃 0.461 (0.89)
TOTAL 〃 51.73 (100) (100)
Low Calorific Value kca
(analyzed) l/kg 2,074 6,200

In municipal solid waste, water content is high (and the amount


of carbon is small). Therefore, calories is smaller than coal.
(Overall efficiency is low)
87

This chart shows a composition of municipal solid wastes.

Municipal solid wastes have higher water content rate than coal. (Because of
smaller amount of carbon contained in waste, calories is lower than coal.) For those
reasons, it needs to be dried by heating before use. At best, self sustained
combustion is possible. However, capacity of power generation using municipal
solid wastes has been small. So, overall efficiency is low.

Furthermore, wastes from food or plastics contain chlorine. This chlorine reacts with
metals and produces Molten Salt in the process of incineration (i.e. burning). Molten
Salt causes corrosion of the heat exchanger.

87
2-5-2. Principle and system configuration

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Classification and feature (For Steam Turbine)

Combustion Popular system using


method stoker furnaces (i.e. fireplace) 2-5-3
•It is suitable to large scale plants
Waste power •It has achieved a great number of introduction
•Ashes are emitted
generation
•Metals are burned(oxides in ash)

System using gasification 2-5-4


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

melting furnace
•Un-oxidized precious metals are retrievable.
Gasification
•Ashes are melted to slugs which is easy to
method dispose.

Waste gasification system


•Un-oxidized precious metals are retrievable.
•Ashes are melted to slugs which is easy to dispose.
•Inflammable gas is obtained by gasification under low
oxygen. It is used for turning gas turbine.
(For Gas Turbine etc.)
88

Let me explain the principle and system configuration of waste power generation.
Firstly, this system is comprised of the Combustion method and Gasification method.

Combustion method is the current standard system using a stoker furnace. It is a


proven technology for a large scale plant and has been commissioned in great
numbers. From this process, ashes are emitted and metals are burned.

The gasification method has two systems: one using the gasification melting
furnace and the other using the waste gasification system.
The features of the gasification melting furnace are:
Un-oxidized precious metals are retrievable.
Ashes are melted to slugs which is easy to dispose.

The features of Waste gasification system are:


Un-oxidized precious metals are retrievable.
Ashes are melted to slugs which is easy to dispose.
Inflammable gas is obtained by gasification in a low-oxygen environment. It is used
for spinning the gas turbine.

88
2-5-3. Stoker furnaces

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Combustion method using a stoker furnaces

Over 850
deg.C
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Ashes

・Suitable for large scale plant


・Ashes are emitted.
89

This figure shows how the standard power generation using a stoker furnaces works.

In this system, heat energy derived from burning wastes makes high temperature
and high pressure steam. This steam turns the turbine and electricity is generated.

Features of this system are:

・It is suitable for large scale plants because it can burn wastes continuously and
collect ash.
・It produces ash.

89
2-5-3. Example

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Large Scale Waste Power Generation System
• Bird’s-eye View (Shinkoto, Tokyo, Japan)
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Temperature: over 800C, Pressure:2.8MPA,


1800t/day (600 t/day X 3units) , Efficiency18% , Established 1998
90

This is an example of a large scale waste power generation system commissioned


in 1998. The facility is in Shin-koto, Tokyo, Japan.
Burning temperature is more than 800 degree C. Steam pressure is 2.8 MPA.
Waste treatment capacity is 1800t/day by operating 3 units with capacity of 600t/day
each. Efficiency of power generation is 18%.

90
2-5-4. Gasification method

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Gasification method: Pyrolysis and combustion ash melting
500-600
deg.C

1000-1200
deg.C
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1400-1500
deg.C

•Un-oxidized precious metals Ashes are melted to slugs


are retrievable. which is easy to dispose.
91

Now, I would like to explain how power generation using gasification melting
furnaces (one of new gasification power generation systems) works.
In this figure we adopted the rotary kiln type reactor and combustion melting furnace.
Melting furnace is a pyrolysis reactor that produces pyrolysis gas by baking, or
partially burning wastes. The temperature of the gas is from 500 degree C to
600 degree C.
The obtained pyrolysis gas is fed into the combustion melting furnace to produce
steam and generate electricity. In the meantime, ash content become slugs.

Features of this method are:

1. Efficient use of resources is possible. Because of the small amount of oxygen, in


the combustion melting furnace,metals such as iron or aluminum can be
retrieved without oxidation.

2. Molten slugs produced in the combustion melting furnace from ashes can be
used as, for example, a raw material for road foundations or cement mixtures.
Molten slugs are also easy to dispose.

3. Temperature in the combustion melting furnace can go up as high as 1400 to


1500 degree C. As such, ashes melt into glassy slugs which also contributes to
the reduction of the volume of dioxins.

91
2-5-5. Characteristics and issues

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Current status and issues in Japan

1 Current main technology is stoker furnace.


2 Technology menu has already been prepared to
meet the customer needs (Gasification etc.)
3 Issues to overcome
(1) increase efficiency, environment (reduction
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

of ash, dioxin, etc), cost-effectiveness, safety


and reliability
(2) development for small scale plant
(3) development for power generation by
industrial waste

92

I am going to give you the current status on the technology of waste power
generation and issues in Japan.

Firstly, proven technology for waste power generation is the system using stoker
furnaces.

Secondly, technology menu has already been prepared to meet customer needs.

However, we still have issues to overcome. These are, for example, (a) increase
efficiency, (b) become more environmentally friendly (reduce ash, dioxin, etc), ( c)
improve cost-efffectiveness, and (d) improve safety and reliability.

We also need to develop efficient waste power generations in small plants with
capacity of 200 tons/day level. As mentioned earlier, efficiency in this class is still
low.
And lastly, we need to develop power generation utilizing industrial wastes.

92
2-5-5. Characteristics and issues

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Green-house Effect Gas reduction effect

Methane (powerful greenhouse gas)


Relative Rate of Emission 18.0 17.4 will be emitted from food waste, paper
16.0 waste, textile waste, and wood waste.
14.0
12.0 Waste Power Generation can
10.0 reduce generation and Co2 from
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

other thermal power plants .


8.0
6.0
4.0 2.0 1.0 (Reference)
2.0
0.0 A B C
Landfill Combustion Waste Power
Generation
Source: Manual for introducing waste power generation, NEDO
93

Finally, how much does waste power generation actually contribute to the ease of
global warming? This figure is based on a trial calculation. The volume of wastes
to be treated is the same across three treatment methods.

In Landfill (A), methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, is emitted from food waste,
paper waste, textile waste, and wood waste.

In combustion (B), CO2 is emitted from plastic wastes. And, incineration requires
heat from fossil fuel plants which will also emit CO2.

In waste power generation (C), particularly the system using the gasification melting
furnace, the same amount of CO2 in the combustion is emitted from plastic wastes.
However, when heat derived from plastic wastes is used for power generation, fossil
fuels necessary to obtain the same amount of heat is reduced. Consequently, when
incorporating the CO2 emitted from operating a fossil fuel plant, total CO2 is
reduced.

In the graph, CO2 emission from waste power generation is indicated as 1.


Landfill contributes the global warming by 17.4 times waste power generation.
Combustion emits two times more CO2 than waste power generation.

Therefore, from the viewpoint of restraining greenhouse gas emission, we must


promote waste power generation.
93
2. Renewable energy - introduction
13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-6. Other renewable technologies

• 2-6-1 Solar thermal power


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• 2-6-2 Geothermal power


• 2-6-3 Ocean energy
(Tidal, Tide-flow, Wave, OTEC)

94

94
2. Renewable energy - introduction
13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-6-1. Solar thermal power


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95

95
2-6-1. Solar thermal power

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Global Distribution of Economical Solar power
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Solar Radiation generation at sunbelt

Sunbelt regions
96

This figure shows global distribution of solar radiation. For solar heat power
generation to become economically feasible, we need approximately 20000kWh/m2
of yearly insolation. Such regions which exceed this amount are referred to as the
“Sunbelt Region.” The Central Pacific falls within this belt.

96
2-6-1. Solar thermal power

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Suitable condition for Solar thermal generation
• Insolation is affected by cloud (water vapor ) strongly.
•Desert area is suitable.
•Oceanic area is not effective.

Minimum condition
Annual Insolation > 2,200 kWh/Year
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

PPA Countries Insolation


kWh/year kWh/year
Cook Is. 1343.5 Samoa 1422.8
Fiji 1392.7 Solomon Is. 1310.3
Kiribath 1494.8 Tonga 1276.3
Niue 1612.6 Tuvalu 1321.7
PNG. 1437.3 Japan 1093.9
97

This figure shows global distribution of solar radiation. For solar heat power
generation to become economically feasible, we need approximately 20000kWh/m2
of yearly insolation. Such regions which exceed this amount are referred to as the
“Sunbelt Region.” The Central Pacific falls within this belt.

97
2-6-1. Solar thermal power

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Three Main Types of Solar Thermal Power Generation
Systems and Their Characteristics
Parabolic Trough Power Tower Dish / Engine

with
Fixed Sun tracer
reflector with
Sun tracer
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Applicatio Grid-connected Grid-connected Stand-alone


ns plants; plants; applications or
Process heat High temp. process small off-grid
heat; power systems

Size 30-320 MW 10-200 MW 5-25 kW


Operating 390 565 750
Temp. (ºC)
Current Commercially Scale-up Prototype
Status Available Demonstration Demonstration
98

The architectures of the three main types of CSP systems are shown in this slide.

The Trough system use linear parabolic concentrators to focus sunlight to a


receiver running along the focal line of the collector. Solar energy is absorbed in a
working fluid (typically a heat-transfer oil), which is then piped to a central location to
power a conventional steam turbine.

In a power tower system, a field of large two-axis tracking mirrors reflect the solar
energy onto a receiver that is mounted on top of a centrally located tower. Solar
energy is absorbed by a working fluid (typically molten salt or air) which is then
used to power a conventional steam turbine.

The third type of CSP system, the dish/engine system, uses a parabolic dish
concentrator to focus sunlight to a thermal receiver and a heat engine/generator
(located at the focus of the dish) to generate power.

98
2-6-1. Solar thermal power

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Parabolic Trough type (USA)
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Commercial Solar
Thermal Power Plants in
California
* Nine solar thermal power plants with trough type concentrators in the
Mojave Desert have been in full commercial operation as they completed
the plants between 1984 and 1991.
* These plants generate a combined capacity of 354 MW for Southern
California Edison which serves 4.6 million electric customer accounts.
* Natural gas supplements the solar generated steam on cloudy days and
early evenings. A maximum of 25% of the annual power output was
produced from natural gas. 99

Nine solar thermal power plants with trough type concentrators in the Mojave Desert
have been in full commercial operation as they completed the plants between 1984
and 1991.
These plants generate a combined capacity of 354 MW for Southern California
Edison which serves 4.6 million electric customer accounts.
-Natural gas supplements the solar generated steam on cloudy days and early
evenings. A maximum of 25% of the annual power output was produced from
natural gas.

99
2-6-1. Solar thermal power

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Power Tower type (USA)

•Solar Two Molten-


Salt Power Plant
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* Solar Two plant was a 10 MWe solar power--tower pilot plant, built near
Barstow, CA, with 1930 heliostats, a central receiver, a thermal storage
system and a steam generation system.
* Molten nitrate salt was used as the heat transfer fluid and storage media.
* Solar Two operated from 1996 to 1999.
100

Solar Two plant was a 10 MWe solar power-tower pilot plant, built near Barstow, CA,
with 1930 heliostats, a central receiver, a thermal storage system and a steam
generation system.
Molten nitrate salt was used as the heat transfer fluid and storage media.
Solar Two operated from 1996 to 1999.

100
2-6-1. Solar thermal power

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Power Tower type (SPAIN:SOLAR TRES Project)
A 15-MWe "solar-only" power plant will be built in southern
Spain using proven SOLAR TWO technology.

¾ 15-MW gross power output 12


1012
m1( 0 m
¾ 84 GWh gross annual 39
production 67
ft)
¾ 40 MWt steam generator
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

¾ 120-MWt cylindrical receiver


(8.4m(27.5ft)x10.5 m(34.4ft))
¾ 263,600 m2 heliostat field
¾ 115 m(377ft) tower
)
¾ 16-hour storage (3,700 salt
m3 4ft
tons) 20(039
1m
0
¾ 3.8 solar multiple
1 20
¾ 63% annual capacity factor
¾ 24 hours/day solar-only
power production
Total budget: 84.1 million Euro (5,600 Euro/kW)
101

A 15-MWe "solar-only" power plant will be built in southern Spain using proven
SOLAR TWO technology.

101
2-6-1. Solar thermal power

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Solar Power Generation Projects in Other Countries

* 100MW SEGS Project in Israel

* 140-300 MW ISCCS( Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System)


Project in Algeria

* 140 MW ISCCS Kuraymat Project in Egypt


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

* 100 MW ISCCS Thermal Electric Projects in South Africa

* 140-300 MW ISCCS Projects in Mexico

102

Here is a list of other plans under construction.

- 100MW SEGS Project in Israel


- 140-300 MW ISCCS( Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System) Project in
Algeria
- 140 MW ISCCS Kuraymat Project in Egypt
- 100 MW ISCCS Thermal Electric Projects in South Africa
- 140-300 MW ISCCS Projects in Mexico

102
2-6-1. Solar thermal power

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Cost of Solar Thermal Power Generation

Existing Plants Combined with Natural gas heater

SEGS plants in the USA (with Natural gas supplement)


Æ 26.5 (SEGS I) to 8.9 (SEGS XIII) ¢ /kWh

Future Plants

SEGS plants in the USA with an additional 1,000MW of CSP capacity


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Æ 8¢/kWh (with Natural gas supplement)

PS10 in Southern Spain


Æ 18¢/kWh (solar only, with one-hour thermal storage)

Solar Tres in Southern Spain


Æ 12¢/kWh (solar only, with 24-hour-solar operation)

CLFR for a coal-fired steam turbine cycle preheater in Australia


Æ 3 - 8¢/kWh (with coal-fired energy)
103

Now, I would like to talk about the cost of generating solar thermal power.

SEGS is an operating plant in the US. The cost to generate power for SEGS I was
26.5 cents/kWh. However in SEGS XIII, It went down to 8.9 cents/kWh.

In the near future, the cost is expected to go down further.

SEGS plants in USA with an additional 1,000MW of CSP capacity can generate
electricity at 8¢/kWh.
Power generation of PS10 in Southern Spain is expected to cost 18¢/kWh.
Solar Tres in Southern Spain will cost 12¢/kWh
And, CLFR for a coal-fired steam turbine cycle preheater in Australia will
generate electricity at 3 - 8¢/kWh

103
2-6-1. Solar thermal power

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Future vision
* In August 2002, DOE projects that
1,000 MW of new CSP installation
would reduce the cost of solar power to
8 cents per kilowatt-hour.

* 4 U.S. Southwest states ― Arizona,


California, Nevada, and New Mexico ―
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

are considering to build an


additional 1,000MW of CSP capacity.

* Global Initiative targets 5,000 MW.


15 countries are completing the design
of the CSP Global Market Initiative,
whose objective is to expedite the
building of 5,000 MW of CSP worldwide
during the next 10 years.

104

-In August 2002, DOE projects that 1,000 megawatts of new CSP installation
would reduce the cost of solar power to 8 cents per kilowatt-hour.

-4 U.S. Southwest states ― Arizona, California, Nevada, and New Mexico ― are
considering to build an additional 1,000 megawatts of CSP capacity.

- Global Initiative targets 5,000 MW.15 countries are completing the design of the
CSP Global Market Initiative, whose objective is to expedite the building of 5,000
MW of CSP worldwide during the next 10 years.

104
2. Renewable energy - introduction
13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-6-2. Geothermal power


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

105

105
2-6-2. Geothermal Power Generations

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Principle and system configuration
Energy
EnergySources
Sources
Hot
Hotwater:
water: steam,
steam,hot
hotwater
watergush
gushout
outfrom
fromthe
theunderground
underground
Hot
Hotdry
dryrock:
rock: steam
steam produced when water contactswith
produced when water contacts withhot
hotdry
dryrocks
rocks
Mechanism
Flash Tank
1. Water contacts with
magma in the deep
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

steam
underground. Steam
produced in this contact
Production G Generator
is stored in a geothermal Well
Injection
Well
reservoir.
Geothermal
i.e. Natural Boiler Reservoir Condenser

2. Steam withdrawn from


the reservoir rotates
turbine by which to Injection Well
generates electricity.
106

Geothermal power generation is a way of generating power using steam gushing from an
underground geothermal reservoir. Underground geothermal reservoir is, so to speak, a
natural boiler.

Although hot water (hydrothermal deposits) are also an energy source, only steam is
currently used. Hot water (hydrothermal deposits) are returned to the ground, but are
expected to be exploited in the future.

On the other hand, hot dry rocks is a bed of hot rocks without hot water (hydrothermal
deposits) or steam. To utilize the energy captured in the hot rocks, water is sent into the
bed which is instantly converted to steam and used to generate electricity.

106
2-6-2. Geothermal Power Generations

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example 1 (Single Flash Generation)
Hachijo-jima island geothermal power plant (3,300 kW )
Hot water is returned to
the reservoir, while
steam
steam moves on to spin
Flash Tank
the turbine which
generates electricity.

Tokyo Electric Power


e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Geothermal
steam & Company, Ltd., Japan
hot water

107

107
2-6-2. Geothermal Power Generations

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Example 2 (Binary-cycle generation)
Imperial Valley (USA)
Media with low boiling point are transformed into steam by heating or
vaporizing through heat exchanger.
This enables power generation to use energy sources such as steam or
hot water with low temperature. (i.e. expand development scope)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Heat
Exchanger

Binary Geothermal Power Plant Imperial Valley: U.S.A.


System
108

108
2-6-2. Geothermal Power Generations

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Installed Capacity in the World
Share of
Total Capacity(A) Geothermal Power
Geothermal Power (A)/(B)
(MW) Capacity(B)(MW) (%)
Country 2000 2001 2000 2001 2000 2001
USA 828,432 845,312 2,545 2,228 0.3 0.3
Phillippines 11,755 12,068 1,908 1,931 16.2 16
Italy 72,514 73,851 923 923 1.3 1.2
Mexico 38,114 38,502 890 893 2.3 2.3
Indonesia 19,667 21,363 770 590 3.9 2.8
Japan 253,544 258,837 547 549 0.2 0.2
New Zealand 7,794 8,135 436 431 5.6 5.3
Iceland 1,150 1,240 170 172 14.8 13.9
El Salvador 962 960 161 161 16.7 16.8
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Costa Rica 1,415 1,465 143 143 10.1 9.8


Nicaragua 446 443 70 70 15.7 15.8
Kenya 809 859 45 45 5.6 5.2
Guatemala 1,150 33 2.9
China 277,289 298,768 32 29 0 0
Russia 214,100 214,300 23 23 0 0
Turkey 21,874 23,351 20 20 0.1 0.1
Portugal 9,460 9,790 16 16 0.2 0.2
Ethiopia 486 9 1.9
France 122,377 122,377 4 4 0 0
Taiwan 28,480 28,480 3.3(suspende 3.3(suspende 0 0
Greece 9,570 10,010 2 2 0 0
Thailand 24,471 27,097 0 0 0 0
Alstralia 39,693 39,963 0 0 0 0
Zambia 2,436 0 0
TOTAL 1,986,352 2,038,537 8,709 8,275 0.4 0.4
•Note:Total Share of geothermal power is around 0.3%(8272MW)to the world total(3191462MW)
•(A):Overseas Electiric Power Industry Statistics(2000 and 2001Edition),Handbook of Electric Power Industry(2000 and 2001 Edition)
•(B):Study by Japan Geothermal Energy Association, WGC2000 Country Updates(The status of world geothermal power generation
1995-2000(Huttrer))
•[Source]Trend of geothermal power generation in Japan(2001 and 2002 Edition) 109

Introduction of geothermal power generation is 8725MW in capacity,which accounts


for 0.3% in the world total.

By region, North America takes the lead with 38%, followed by Asia with 37%,
Europe with 14%, Oceania with 5% and Central America with 5%. Most of the plants
are located in the Pacific Rim Volcanic Zone and the Mediterranean Volcanic Zone.

109
2-6-2. Geothermal Power Generations

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Characteristics

Feature
<Advantages>
• CO2 discharge is very little.
• Geothermal energy is clean.
• Geothermal power generation can be a base load.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

<Disadvantages>
• Geothermal energy resource distributes unevenly.
• Development risk is high.
• Lead-times before starting operation is long.
Generation cost
0.19 USD/kWh ( 21 JPY/kWh ) (steam longer: lower)
[Source: NEDO web site]
110

One of the features of geothermal power generation is being clean energy


emitting small amount of CO2 contributes adversely to global warming. With
the stable supply of steam from the underground thermal reservoir,
geothermal power generation can be the base load.

One of disadvantages is, as I showed before, that resource distributes


unevenly. Proof of the resource is needed because it exists several
thousands meters under the ground. This means high development risk.
And the development takes long time starting survey of thermal source.

Due to those obstacles, cost of construction swells large and accordingly the
cost of generation. Nevertheless, if the gushing of steam from underground
thermal reservoir continues for long time, the cost of generation becomes
lower.

110
2. Renewable energy - introduction

13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-6-3. Ocean Energy


(Tidal, Tidal-current, Wave, OTEC)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

111

111
2-6-3. Ocean energy

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Classification of Ocean Energy Power Generation

• Tidal-Range
(Sea level’s daily up/down)

Ocean • Tidal-Current
Energy (Continuous tidal flow)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

• Wave

• Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion


(OTEC)

112

Tidal energy exploits the natural rise and fall of coastal waters (the net difference referred to as the
“tidal range”) created by the gravitational pull of the moon.

Tidal energy is dependent on the tidal range. And retrievable energy is the function of the square of
tidal range. The larger the tidal range, more electricity is generated.

112
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal,
tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Principle and outline (Tidal-Range)
making
makinguse
useof
ofMoon’s
Moon’sgravity
gravity
Tidal energy exploits the natural rise and fall of coastal waters
(the net difference referred to as the “tidal range”) created by
the gravitational pull of the moon.
Tidal energy is dependent on the tidal range. And retrievable
energy is the function of the square of tidal range. The larger the
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

tidal range, more electricity is generated.

Tidal flow tidal range


Tidal flow
Water turbine
Water turbine

at low tide at high tide


113

Tidal energy exploits the natural rise and fall of coastal waters (the net difference referred to as the
“tidal range”) created by the gravitational pull of the moon.

Tidal energy is dependent on the tidal range. And retrievable energy is the function of the square of
tidal range. The larger the tidal range, more electricity is generated.

113
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal,
tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Geographic features where a large tidal range appears

1. Shoaling ( i.e. shallow ) beach


Over 100 kilometers from the shore, with a depth of
less than 100 meters.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

2. A small number of island or peninsula off the


shore

3. Bays that become narrower from the mouth to


the open water.

114

In order for a large tidal range to appear, it area must fulfill one of the following geographical
characteristics.

Shoaling beach - Over 100 kilometers from the shore, with a depth of is less than 100 meters.

A small number of island or peninsula off the shore

Bays that become narrower from the mouth to the depths.

114
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal,
tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Installed and planned plants in the world (Tidal-Range)

Average Length of Max


Start of
Country Place tidal range dam output
operation
(m) (ft) (km) (ft) (MW)

France Rance River 8.5 (27.9) 0.75 (2459) 240.0 1967


Canada Annapolis 6.4 (21.0) 0.225 (738) 17.8 1984
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

China 7.1 (23.3) 0.7 (2295) 3.2 1987


England Severn Bay 8.5 (27.9) 19 (2295) 8.6 planned
England Mersey River 8.4 (27.5) 1.2 (3934) 0.7 planned
Canada Fundy Bay 10.1 (33.1) - 5.3 planned
Korea Garolim Bay 8.2 (26.9) 2.0 (6557) 0.5 planned

115

This is a list of installed and planned tidal energy plants in the world.

The Rance River plant in France is the largest and has now completed 30 years of successful
operation.
There are plants in Canada and China as well that are in operation.
Additional plants in England, Canada and Korea are planned to come online.

115
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal,
tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Rance tidal power plant (largest in the world)
Place: Mouth of Rance river, northwest in France
Output: 240 MW (24 units of 10 MW turbine generator)
Tidal range: 8.5 m (27.9ft)(average) 13.5 m (44.2ft)(maximum)
Bank (dike) is also used as a motor bridge. (750m)
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Generator
& Proper

Cross section of Rance power plant


116

This is the world’s largest tidal power plant on the Rance estuary.
With an average tidal level difference of 8.5 meters, the plant generates a maximum power of
240MW. It has 24 turbine generators, each having the output of 10MW. A cross-section of the turbine
generator is shown in the figure.

The barrage extends for 750 meters, which also serves as a motor bridge.

116
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal,
tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Annapolis tidal power plant, Canada

Tidal range: 6.4 meters (21.0ft)


(average)
Output: 17.8 MW
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Jiang Xia tidal power plant, China

Tidal range: 8.4 meters(27.5ft)


(maximum)
Output: 2.5 MW

117

The top picture is pilot plant with a capacity of 17.8 MW built on the bay of Fundy near the US
boarder, in Eastern Canada.
The average tidal range in this site is 6.4 meters.

The bottom picture is that of the Jianxia tidal power plant. It has a capacity of 2.5 MW.

117
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Principle and outline (Tidal-Current)

using
usingnatural
naturaltidal
tidalcurrent
current

1
P = µ × × ρ × S × v3
2 l
i da rent
T r
Cu
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

P: Power output
µ: Efficiency
ρ: Sea water density
S: Cross section area of current
v: Tidal current speed

118

Tidal current power generation exploits the strong coastal currents.


Retrievable energy is a function of the cube of the velocity of current.
Shown on the slide is a cross flow turbine which used to harness energy from tidal-current. Other
turbines which are similar to wind turbines including propeller or Darrieus types are currently
being studied.

In Japan, experiments for proving available technologies were performed in Setonaikai (inland sea)
and Kyushu island.

In 2002, a commercially operating plant was constructed in Norway.

118
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Installation in Norway
- Site: Kvalsundet, Norway
- Turbine capatciy: 300kW (prototype), 700 kW (commercial)
- Propellar blade lenght: 10 m(32.8ft)
- Nacelle position depth:20 m(65.6ft)
- Mean current speed: 1.8 m(5.9ft)/s
- Feature: Continuous adjusting of Blade position to
follow the tide flow
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

(写真:Kvalsundetの潮力発電公園の予想図)

119

This is the first tidal-current power plant (located in Kvalsundet, Norway) constructed for commercial
operation.
The picture on the left shows the prototype turbine(capacity of 300kW) being installed. Length of the
propeller blade is 10 meters from the center of the hub to the top.

The turbine will be placed 50m meters underwater on top of which a 30 meter tower will be built. The
Nacelle will be positioned at 20 meters.
The velocity of current averages 1.8 m/s, and a maximum of 2.5m/s.

Blade positions are continuously adjusted according to the direction of tide flow in order to maximize
energy output.

There are plans to install 20 turbines each with a capacity of 700kW in the future.

119
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)
wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Principle and Outline of OWC type (Wave)
Oscillating
OscillatingWater
WaterColumn
Column(OWC)
(OWC)
(i.e.
(i.e.vibrating)
vibrating) (i.e.
(i.e.pillar,post)
pillar,post)
‘ ‘Air
Air flow caused from therise
flow caused from the riseand
andfall
fallof
ofsea
seawater’
water’ spins
spinsthe
theturbine
turbine
This is the most popular type among the various wave power
generation technology. On a smaller scale, this technology has been
applied for commertial use as power source for beacon buoy.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Generator Wells turbine

Air Air
flow flow

Air room

Sea water Wells turbine

120

The Oscillating Water Column is the most popular among the various wave power generation
technology.
On a smaller scale, the same technology has been applied for commercial use as a power source for
the beacon buoys.

120
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)
wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Installation in Japan (OWC type)
1. Fixed-type Oscillating Water Column (Sakata Port: 60kW Japan)
Turbine generator embedded in a 20m(65.6ft) x 24.5 m(80.3ft) caisson.
Operated from 1989 to 1997. Connection to commercial grid was also
successful. Air flow moving
to and from
Turbine
GeneratorMachine
Chamber

Caisson
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Curtain Wall

Mighty Whale
2. Floating-type Oscillating Water Column
- Whale-shaped vessel for offshore operation
- Length of 50 m(163.9ft), Width of 30 m(98.4ft)
- Oscillating water column embedded
- 1 x 50kW, 1 x 10kW, 2 x 30kW turbine generators
- Operated in 1997 – 2003
121

The top picture is the demonstration plant in Sakata Port, Japan, which was constructed for the
research of wave power generation in a caisson.
Successfully operated between 1987 and 1997. Connection to commercial grid was also successful.

The second picture shows a whale-shaped vessel, 50 m long and 30 m wide, in which the Oscillating
water column is embedded.
It is equipped with 1 unit of 50kW and 2 units of 30kW turbine generator.

121
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)
wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Principle and Example of Overtopping type
It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall height equal
to the filling level of the reservoir (typical heights 3–7 m(9.84 -
23.0ft)). The waves are amplified in a narrowing collector until the
wave-crests spill over the walls. With the use of the difference in
levels of reservoir and sea, power is generated.
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Wave collector Over flow dam

Spill water
reservoir

Wave Generator house


comes in

TAPCHAN plant at Toftesfallen, Norway (350kW)


122

This is another wave energy conversion technology called ‘Overtopping’.


It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall height equal to the filling level of the reservoir
(typical heights 3–7 m). The waves are amplified in a narrowing collector until the wave-crests spill
over the walls. With the use of the difference in level of reservoir and sea, power is generated.
A demonstration device called TAPCHAN (=tapered channel) was built in 1985 at Toftesfallen,
Norway. The plant has a head of 3 m and a reservoir area of 1800 m2. It was seriously damaged by
a storm in 1991, but there are plans to re-open the plant.

122
2-6-3. Ocean energy (tidal, tidal-
tidal-current and wave)
wave)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
List of installed plants (Wave)
Country Site Type Turbine Output Operation
period
Norway Toftestallen Fixed-type Wells air turbine 500 kW 1984
OWC
Toftestallen Overtopping Kaplan water 350 kW 1985 - present
turbine
UK Islay Island, Fixed-type Wells air turbine 75 kW 1991 – present
Scotland OWC
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

India Madras Bay Fixed-type Wells air turbine 150 kW Suspended


OWC

Japan Sakata port Fixed-type Wells air turbine 60 kW 1989 – 1997


OWC

Haramachi Fixed-type Axial air turbine 130 kW 1996 – 1999


OWC
Gokasho Floating-type Wells air turbine 120 kW 1997 – 2003
bay OWC
OWC : Oscillating Water Column
123

123
2-6-3. Ocean energy (OTEC)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Principle and outline of OTEC :Closed Cycle Method
- Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a power generating
system utilizing temperature difference between warm seawater
(25 - 30 degree C) near the surface and cold seawater (5 - 7 degree C)
from the seabed (depth of 500 to 1000 m).
- In the closed cycle method, working fluid with very low boiling point like
Chlorofluorocarbon and ammonia circulate is used.
Turbin Generat Light
Warm Seawater at Ammonia
e or
Surface
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Evaporat
25 - 30
or Working Fluid Loop
degree C ( Ammonia etc.)
Pump Condenser
Pump

Pump
depth of
500 to 1000 m
Ammonia
Cold Seawater 5 - 7
in Depth degree C
124

I am going to explain principle and outline of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) .

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is a power generating system utilizing temperature
differential between warm seawater (25 to 30 ℃) near the surface and colder (5 to 7 ℃) deep
seawater (approximately 500 to 1000 meters).

This figure shows a closed cycle system. This consists of 6 major component machines and
equipment such as evaporator, condenser, turbine, generator, working fluid pump, warm seawater
pump and cold seawater pump. These devices are connected by pipes in which working fluid such as
ammonia is contained.

The working fluid is sent through the pump where it turns into vapor with comes into contact with
the warm surface water of 25 - 30 degree C temperature. The vapor rotates the turbine to
generate electricity. Then, the it passes through the condenser where cold
seawater of 5 to degree C. will liquefy to its original state. The fluid is recycled into
the system to start the cycle over again.

124
2-6-3. Ocean energy (OTEC)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Characteristic of seawater temperature
•Vertical distribution of temperature in tropical and semitropical regions

Intake depth
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

In the sea, temperature keeps dropping by the depth of 700 meters.


[Source] Saga University web site http://www.otec.saga-u.ac.jp/index_j.html
125

This is a graph showing changes in seawater temperature by depth in tropical and


semitropical regions. Data were collected in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Gulf of Mexico
and Naul.

As you see, temperature of seawater continues to drop until it reaches the depth of
700 meters.

125
2-6-3. Ocean energy (OTEC)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Installed plants
Specifications of demonstration plants in the world
Saga
Plant name Miniotec Naul University HELH
Country USA Japan Japan USA
Year of demonstration 1978-1979 1982-1984 1985- 1993-
Location Hawaii Naul Imari Hawaii
Nominal output [kW] 50 100 75 210
floating on-shore on-shore
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Power plant type on-shore


Power plant Closed Closed Closed Open
warm water temperature
26.1 29.8 28.0 26.0
[degree C]
cold water temperature
5.6 7.8 7.0 6.0
[degree C]
Medium ammonia R-22 ammonia water
Length of cold water
645 950 1829
pipe[m]
Net output [kW] 18 10 40-50

126

This chart lists installed plants around the world.

In 1979, a small size OTEC plant with closed-cycle in the US succeeded in


generating a net output for the first time.
Similarly, in 1993, an open-cycle OTEC with a capacity of 210 kW succeeded in
generating net output of 40 to 50 kW under the system where seawater was
pumped to the plant.

126
2-6-3. Ocean energy (OTEC)

13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Installed plants
India’s 1000kW OTEC plant
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

• A demonstration plant of NIOT(National Institute of Ocean


Technology) is a floating type with closed cycle.
• Operation is scheduled for Spring 2001.
127

This is the picture of India’s1000kW OTEC plant


The Indian government completed the construction of a floating type OTEC power plant.
This demonstration plant of NIOT (National Institute of Ocean Technology) is a floating type with a
closed cycle.
Operation is scheduled for the Spring of 2001.
It will be moored at about 35kM off the coast.

127
2. Renewable energy-introduction
13-Nov-05 (21:19)

2-7. Comparison of characteristics


and cost of renewable energy
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

128

Click and input the note.

128
2-7. Comparison of characteristics and
cost of renewable energy
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Characteristics
Level of Capacity factor, Challenges
Application
progress characteristics
Solar Direct heat use Commercial 10 - 30% Material
Power generation (partially under Intermittent Efficiency
(PV and thermal) development) (i.e. on and off) Cost
Passive system Climate data
Wind Power generation Commercial 15 - 30% Design
Pumping Intermittent Wind data
Hydro Power generation Commercial Base-load Water condition
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

Seasonal Impact on
fluctuations ecosystem Cost
Biomass Combustion Partially Base-load Cost
Fermentation commercial Seasonal Forestry &
Liquefaction fluctuations agricultural
Gasification management
Geo- Direct heat use Commercial Base-load Exploration &
thermal Power generation (partially under Stable extraction
development) Drilling technique
Ocean Tide, Tidal flow Under Base-load Material
energy Wave, development Intermittent Performance
Temp. difference Cost
129

The following summarizes the various renewable energy sources I have discussed so far.

Energy from solar heat and light is in commercial use (although newer technologies are still under development).
The efficiency of power generation is 10-30% and intermittent. Distribution is wide.
Challenges include materials, efficiency improvement, and cost reduction.

Wind power is also in commercial use.


Power generation efficiency is 15-30%, and intermittent. Distribution is limited to coastal areas, peninsula, and
mountains.
Challenges include wind conditions and locations.

Hydro energy is also commercially available.


Power production is subject to seasonal fluctuations.
Challenges includes cost, as well as impact on the ecosystem.

Biomass is partially applied on a commercial level.


Outputs fluctuate from season to season depending on the amount of available biomass.
Challenges includes cost, etc.

Geothermal is commercially applied (partially under development).


It is used as the baseload with stable output.
Challenges include detection and extraction, drilling technology (hot rocks, magma heat), etc.

Ocean power generation is under development.


Output is intermittent.
Challenges include materials, performance, and cost.

129
2-7. Comparison of characteristics and
cost of renewable energy
13-Nov-05 (21:19)
Power generation cost

Cost [US cent/kWh] 80 71.1


70
60
50
40
30
e7 / PPA Workshop on Renewable Energies

20 10.0 13.9 14.7


8.4 8.5 9.7
10
0

LNG

Wind
Coal

Oil

Hydro
Nuc lear

Solar
Source:IAE No.213 report, Yoji Uchiyama, “Challenges and Prospects of Renewable
Energy” 130

This graph compares the cost of power generation across different fuel sources.
Solar power is relatively expensive.
Wind power is becoming less expensive and comparable to others.
The cost of Hydro power is just about the average of costs, although micro hydro
power probably will cost a bit higher than the price on the graph.

130