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B.Sc.

Thesis Report
Design and fabrication of
Unmanned Underwater vehicle
Session-2k13-2k17

Session 2012-2016

Project Supervisor

Engr Hafiz Muhammad Muzzammil

Group Members

Navid Anjum UET-13ME72


Amjad Ali UET-13ME34
Zakria Khan UET-13ME45

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


SWEDISH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,
WAH CANTT
(Affiliated with University of Engineering & Technology Taxila)

June 2017
Unmanned Underwater Vehicle
A thesis submitted for partial fulfillment of the requirement for degree of

Bachelor of Science
in
Mechanical Engineering

______ __________
Project Supervisor Project Coordinator

__________
HoD
Mechanical Engineering Department

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


SWEDISH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,
WAH CANTT
(Affiliated with University of Engineering & Technology,
Taxila)

June 2017

1
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to understand the working of underwater vehicle and to
build a working model of underwater vehicle. This work may be useful for design and
optimization of underwater vehicle for the inspection purpose in deep sea and for the
detection of a dead body or research purpose. The study may help in future to build
an economical model of unmanned underwater vehicle.

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Declaration
I declare that the work contained in this thesis is my own, except where the
explicitly stated otherwise. In addition, this work has not been submitted to obtain
another degree or professional qualification.

Navid Anjum

__________________

Amjad Ali

__________________

Zakria Khan

__________________

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Acknowledgement
First and foremost, we are very thankful to our project supervisor Eng. Hafiz
Muhammad Muzzammil. Without his assistance and dedicated involvement in every
step throughout the process, this project would never have been accomplished. We
would like to thank you very much for your kind support and understanding over
these past few months. Also, we would like to thank Mr. Waseem for his guidance.
He also guided us in some way at themed of this project. Thanks to our friends and
families for being supportive to us throughout these four years of engineering and
encouraging us to perform better in our academic carrier.

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DEDICATION

Dedicated to our parents, brothers, sisters and university. And my friends who

helped me in the project and support me as well.

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Table of contents
1 Contents
Table of contents .............................................................................................................. 6
List of Figures ................................................................................................................... 8
List of Tables ........................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
List of Graphs .......................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................ 9
1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 9
1.2 History ........................................................................................................................... 10
1.3 Types of underwater vehicles: ...................................................................................... 11
1.3.1 Pleasure Submarine:.............................................................................................. 11
1.3.2 Scientific submarines: ............................................................................................ 11
1.4 Different types of submarine: ....................................................................................... 13
1.5 The Navy has three types of submarine, each with a different purpose ...................... 14
1.1. Types of submarine according to size ........................................................................... 14
1.6 Summery: ...................................................................................................................... 15
2 Chapter 2 .................................................................................................................. 16
2.1 Viscosity: ........................................................................................................................ 16
2.2 Types of Viscosity .......................................................................................................... 16
2.3 Newton Theory .............................................................................................................. 17
2.4 Reynold Number............................................................................................................ 18
2.5 Pressure ......................................................................................................................... 19
2.6 Specific Gravity: ............................................................................................................. 24
2.7 Drag: .............................................................................................................................. 24
2.8 2.7. Types of Drag .......................................................................................................... 25
2.9 Skin Friction Drag........................................................................................................... 26
2.10 Stability of Unconstrained Submerged Bodies in Fluid ................................................. 28
3 Chapter 3 .................................................................................................................. 30
3.1 Design under Consideration: ......................................................................................... 30
3.2 Proposed Design: ........................................................................................................... 32
3.3 MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS: ................................................................................. 33
3.4 7.2 Thrust....................................................................................................................... 34

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3.5 Theoretical to Empirical: Making the Equations Work For Real Life ............................. 36
4 CHAPTER 4 ............................................................................................................... 37
4.1 Fabrication: .................................................................................................................... 38
4.2 Cutting blade: ................................................................................................................ 38
4.3 Acrylic sheet: ................................................................................................................. 39
4.4 Plastic tube: ................................................................................................................... 40
4.5 Glue gun ........................................................................................................................ 41
4.6 Silicon: ........................................................................................................................... 41
4.7 Vernier caliper ............................................................................................................... 42
4.8 Measuring tape.............................................................................................................. 42
4.9 : Components: ............................................................................................................... 43
4.10 Propeller (3 blade propeller) ......................................................................................... 43
4.11 12 v Battery ................................................................................................................... 44
4.12 12 v DC motors (3 motors) ............................................................................................ 44
4.13 Underwater glider ......................................................................................................... 45
4.14 Wireless camera ............................................................................................................ 45
4.15 H- bridge L298 ............................................................................................................... 46
4.16 Nuts and bots ................................................................................................................ 46
4.17 Dimensions: ................................................................................................................... 47
4.18 Assembly: ...................................................................................................................... 48
5 Chapter 5 .................................................................................................................. 50
5.1 Experimental procedures: ............................................................................................. 51
5.2 Formulas used in calculations: ...................................................................................... 51
5.3 Floating on water: ......................................................................................................... 51
5.4 Stability Calculations: .................................................................................................... 52
5.5 Drag calculations: .......................................................................................................... 52
5.6 Testing results: .............................................................................................................. 52
5.7 Materia used: ................................................................................................................ 52
5.8 Depth measurement: .................................................................................................... 53
5.9 Conclusions: ....................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
6 Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 54
7 Abbreviations ...............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
8 Appendix .......................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

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List of Figures
Figure 1: Special Purpose Underwater Research Vehicle .........................................................................10
Figure 2:scientific submarine ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3: Military submarine .......................................................................................................................12
Figure 4: micro underwater vehicle ...............................................................................................................14
Figure 5: mini water vehicle ..........................................................................................................................15
Figure 6: newton theory.................................................................................................................................18
Figure 7: pressure on body ............................................................................................................................20
Figure 8: Archimedes Principle ...................................................................................................................22
Figure 9: drag forces .....................................................................................................................................25
Figure 10:skin friction drag ...........................................................................................................................26
Figure 11: Induced drag.................................................................................................................................27
Figure 12: UUV design under consideration .................................................................................................30
Figure 13: forces on submarine .....................................................................................................................33
Figure 14: Cutting blade ................................................................................................................................38
Figure 15: Acrylic sheet ................................................................................................................................39
Figure 16: plastic tube ...................................................................................................................................40
Figure 17: glue gun ........................................................................................................................................41
Figure 18: silicon pipe ...................................................................................................................................41
Figure 19: Vernier calliper ............................................................................................................................42
Figure 20: measuring tape .............................................................................................................................42
Figure 21: Propeller (3 blade propeller) ........................................................................................................43
Figure 22:12 V DC Battery ...........................................................................................................................44
Figure 23:12 V DC motor ..............................................................................................................................44
Figure 24: Underwater glider ........................................................................................................................45
Figure 25:camera ...........................................................................................................................................45
Figure 26: H- bridge L298 .............................................................................................................................46
Figure 27: UUVs model ................................................................................................................................49

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CHAPTER 1

Introduction and Project background

1.1 Introduction

Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV), sometimes known as underwater drones, are


any vehicles that are able to operate underwater without a human. Unmanned
underwater vehicles (UUV), which are controlled by a remote human operator

Unmanned Underwater vehicle is a robot which is operated automatically. It is a


watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a
submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. The term most
commonly refers to a large, crewed, autonomous vessel.
Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical (or conical)
ends and a vertical structure.

An underwater vehicle is a mobile robot designed for aquatic work environments. It


is operated via a remote. A human operator sits in a shore-based station, boat or
submarine bubble while watching a display that shows what the robot "sees."

An (UUV) is an underwater vehicle which is linked to a battery that carry electrical


power, video and data signals back and forth between the operator and the vehicle
through transceiver. Additional equipment is commonly added to expand the
vehicle’s capabilities. These may include sonar's, magnetometers, a still camera, a
manipulator or cutting arm, water samplers, and instruments that measure water
clarity, light penetration and temperature.

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1.2 History
The first AUV was developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory at the University of
Washington as early as 1957 by Stan Murphy, Bob Francois and later on, Terry
Ewart. The "Special Purpose Underwater Research Vehicle", or SPURV, was used to
study diffusion, acoustic transmission, and submarine wakes.

Figure 1: Special Purpose Underwater Research Vehicle

Other early AUVs were developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in


the 1970s. One of these is on display in the Hart Nautical Gallery in MIT. At the same
time, AUVs were also developed in the Soviet Union (although this was not
commonly known until much later). [1]

In 1980s UUVs became essential when new offshore development exceeded the reach
of human divers. A serious stagnation in technological development has faced by
UUVs industry in mid 1850s due to global economic recession. Since then there is was
increase in research and development of underwater remotely operated vehicle and
now a day’s modern UUVs can perform variety of tasks and projects. Modern UUVs
can perform inspection of subsea structures, pipelines and platforms to connecting
pipelines and placing underwater manifolds. It is used in initial construction of subsea
development repair and maintenance. UUVs is also used to locate historic wreck and
to recover material from sea floor as well as in oil and gas industry for exploration
purposes.

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1.3 Types of underwater vehicles:

There are different types of UUV classified on the basis of size, weight and power.
Some of them are as following.

There are 3 main types of submarines. They are:

Pleasure Submarine:
Pleasure submarines are generally very small and expensive, used by the rich
people to admire marine life.

Scientific submarines:
Scientific submarines are used to investigate the bottom of oceans or lakes and bring
back biological samples or relic. One of the most popular scientific submarines is “DSV
Alvin”, a 16-ton deep ocean research submersible that was the first and foremost

Figure 2:scientific submarine

maneuverable deep sea research vessel. The DSV Alvin is one of the few craft in
subsistence that can travel

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more than about half a mile under the surface of the ocean. Most other craft,
including military submarines, would be entirely crushed at a depth of no more
than half a mile. The vessel was made possible by the development of syntactic foam,
a composite material that consists of minute hollow micro-spheres implanted in a
larger structure. The microspheres decrease its density while maintaining strength,
facilitating for deeper dives. [2]

Military submarines:
Military submarines are used for naval wars, recon, and to hold nuclear weaponry,
making up an essential node of the nuclear chord along with ballistic missiles and
heavy bombers. The largest and top most expensive submarines are all used by the
militaries of the world, especially the US, UK, and Russian military. One example
would be the “American Seawolf” class submarine, which has a displacement of
8,000 tons, length of 353 ft (107 m), width of 40 ft (12 m), and, due to its nuclear
power plant, a range limited only by the food supplies and sanity of the crew.

Figure 3: Military submarine

These submarines can go anywhere on Earth where the World Ocean stretches,
including the water underneath the floating ice of the North Pole.

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1.4 Different types of submarine:
Diesel-electric: In 1928 the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering proposed
a diesel-electric transmission; instead of driving the propeller directly while
running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would drive a generator which could
either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor. Either way, the
submarine would have to surface daily to get oxygen for fuel combustion
underwater or to charge the batteries before diving back
Nuclear Power: Nuclear-powered submarines have a relatively small battery and
diesel engine/generator power plant for emergency use if the reactors must be shut
down. Nuclear power is now used in all large submarines. The single biggest
advantage with nuclear-powered submarines is that they continue to function
submerged for months without ever having to surface
Alternative propulsion: Oil-fired steam turbines powered the British submarines,
built during the First World War and later, to give them the surface speed to keep
up with the battle fleet. By the end of the 20th century, some submarines, such as
the British Vanguard class, began to be fitted with pump-jet propulsions instead of
propellers. Pump-jet is a marine system that creates a jet of water for propulsion.
[3]

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1.5 The Navy has three types of submarine, each with a
different purpose

The guided-missile submarines: These carry up to 154 cruise missiles for land
attacks and they also support other naval operations.
Ballistic missile submarines: These carry nuclear missiles for intercontinental
attacks.
The attack submarine class: These targets enemy ships and submarine, lay
mines and collect intelligence data. [4]

1.6 Types of submarine according to size:

Micro underwater vehicle:


This class of underwater remotely operated vehicle is in smaller size and weight. It
weight is up to 3 kg and it is used in those places where the diver is not able to
approach that place physically example sewer, pipeline or small cavity. It is shown
in following fig.

Figure 4: micro underwater vehicle

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Mini underwater vehicle
This vehicle is used as an alternative and it weight is around 15 kg. One person is able
to control and guide it from the small ship via a joy stick. Both Micro and Mini classes
are referred to as "eyeball" class to differentiate them from ROVs that may be able to
perform intervention tasks. A typical mini UROV is shown in fig 5. [5]

Figure 5: mini water vehicle

1.7 Summery:
At this stage, different types of UUVs classed on the operational characteristic, basis
of size, weight and power discussed in this section. Micro and mini UUVs models
advantages and disadvantages also discussed. At this stage, considered to design an
unmanned underwater vehicle because it is unmanned vehicle to save the human life
(diver). The characteristic of this vehicle is less weight and design for 5m depth. To
choose a best design performance, functionality, neutral buoyancy, stability, 3d
mobility and Camera system are much important factors. A detail review of
Components of UUVs also added in this section. Its application in Sonar technology,
Military purpose, underwater construction with the help of Robotic Arm and many
more. The effecting parameter in underwater discussed in next Chapter 2.

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2 CHAPTER 2

Theory and LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Viscosity:
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress.
It is commonly perceived as "thickness", or resistance to pouring. Viscosity describes
a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be thought of as a measure of fluid
friction. Thus, water is "thin" having a low viscosity, while vegetable oil is "thick"
having a high viscosity.

2.2 Types of Viscosity

Viscosity (Dynamic)

The SI physical unit of dynamic viscosity is the Pascal-second (Pa·s), which is identical
to 1N·s/m2 or 1 kg/ (m·s). In France there have been some attempts to establish the
Poiseuille (Pl) as a name for the Pa·s but without international success. Care must be
taken in not confusing the poiseuille with the poise named after the same person. The
cgs physical unit for dynamic viscosity is the poise (P) named after Jean Louis Marie
Poiseuille. It is more commonly expressed, particularly in ASTM standards, as
centipoise (cP). The centipoise is commonly used because water has a viscosity of 1.0
cP (at 20 °C). 1 poise = 100 centipoise = 1 g/ (cm·s) = 0.1 Pa·s (Pascal second). [6]

Viscosity (Static)

The SI physical unit of kinematic viscosity is the (m2/s). The cgs physical unit for
kinematic viscosity is stokes (abbreviated S or St), named after George Gabriel Stokes.
It is sometimes expressed in terms of centistokes (cS or cSt). In U.S. usage, stoke is
sometimes used as the singular form.1 stokes = 100 centistoke = 1 cm2/s = 0.0001

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m2/s. Viscosity of some common materials given in table 1 below. Table 1. Viscosity
of Gases Some dynamic viscosities of Newtonian fluids are listed below in table 2.

Liquids (at 20 °C) Viscosity (Pa·s)


Water 1.025 × 10-3

Table 1

Gases (at 0 °C) Viscosity (Pa·s)


Hydrogen 8.4 × 10-6
Air 17.4 × 10-6
Xenon 21.2 x 10 – 6
Table 2

Ethyl alcohol 0.248 × 10-3


Acetone 0.326 × 10-3
Table 3
Viscosity of Dynamic Newtonian Fluids.

2.3 Newton Theory

when a shear stress is applied to a solid body, the body deforms until the deformation
results in an opposing force to balance that applied, equilibrium. However, when a
shear stress is applied to a fluid, such as a wind blowing over the surface of the ocean,
the fluid flows, and continues to flow while the stress is applied. When the stress is
removed, in general, the flow decays due to internal dissipation of energy. The
"thicker" the fluid, the greater is resistance to shear stress and the more rapid the
decay of its flow.
In general, in any flow, layers move at different velocities and the fluid's "thickness"
arises from the shear stress between the layers that ultimately oppose any applied
force. Velocity
and shear stress relation shown in fig. 6 below.

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Figure 6: newton theory

Relationship between velocity and shear stress

Isaac Newton postulated that, for straight, parallel and uniform flow, the shear stress,
τ, between layers is proportional to the velocity gradient, ∂u/∂y, in the direction
perpendicular to the layers, in other words, the relative motion of the layers. Here,
the constant μ is known as the coefficient of viscosity, viscosity, or dynamic viscosity.
Many fluids, such as water and most gases satisfy Newton's criterion and are known
as Newtonian fluids. Non-Newtonian fluids exhibit a more complicated relationship
between shear stress and velocity gradient than simple linearity. [7]

2.4 Reynold Number

In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless number that gives a
measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and consequently quantifies
the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions
.
Reynolds numbers frequently arise when performing dimensional analysis of fluid
dynamics problems, and as such can be used to determine dynamic similitude
between different experimental cases.

They are also used to characterize different flow regimes, such as laminar or
turbulent flow: laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where viscous forces

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are dominant, and is characterized by smooth, constant fluid motion turbulent flow
occurs at high Reynolds numbers and is dominated by inertial forces, which tend to
produce chaotic eddies, vortices and other flow instabilities.

Reynolds number can be defined for a number of different situations where a fluid is
in relative motion to a surface. These definitions generally include the fluid properties
of density and viscosity, plus a velocity and a characteristic length or characteristic
dimension. This dimension is a matter of convention – for example a radius or
diameter is equally valid for spheres or circles, but one is chosen by convention. For
aircraft or ships, the length or width can be used. For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving
in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes such as
rectangular pipes or non-spherical objects have an equivalent diameter defined. For
fluids of variable density such as compressible gases or fluids of variable viscosity
such non-Newtonian fluids, special rules apply. The velocity may also be a matter of
convention in some circumstances, notably stirred vessels. The inertial forces, which
characterize how much a particular fluid resists any change in motion, are not to be
confused with inertial forces defined in the classical way.

Where: V is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid (SI units: m/s)
L is a characteristic linear dimension, (travelled length of the fluid; hydraulic
diameter when dealing with river systems) (m)

μ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pa·s or N·s/m² or kg/(m·s))

ν is the kinematic viscosity (m²/s) ρ is the density of the fluid (kg/m³).


2.5 Pressure

Pressure is defined as force per unit area. It is usually more convenient to use
pressure rather than force to describe the influences upon fluid behavior. The
standard unit for pressure is the Pascal, which is a Newton per square meter. For an

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object sitting on a surface, the force pressing on the surface is the weight of the object,
but in different orientations it might have a different area in contact with the surface
and therefore exert a different pressure. Pressure distribution shown in fig. 2.0 below.

Figure 7: pressure on body

Fluid Pressure
Fluid pressure is the pressure at some point within a fluid such as water or air.
Fluid pressure occurs in one of two situations:
1. An open condition, called "open channel flow"
2.  The ocean
3.  Swimming pool
4.  The atmosphere
2. A closed condition, called closed conduits
 Water line 24
 Gas line

Pressure in open conditions usually can be approximated as the pressure in "static"


or nonmoving conditions, because the motions create only negligible changes in the
pressure. Such conditions conform to principle of fluid static. The pressure at any
given point of a non-moving (static) fluid is called the hydrostatic pressure.

Closed bodies of fluid are either "static" when the fluid is not moving, or "dynamic"
when the fluid can move as in either a pipe or by compressing an air gap in a closed

20
container. The pressure in closed conditions conforms to the principles of fluid
dynamics.

The concepts of fluid pressure are predominantly attributed to the discoveries of


Blaisi Pascal and Daniel Bernoulli. Bernoulli Equation can be used in almost any
situation to determine the pressure at any point in a fluid. The equation makes some
assumptions about the fluid, such as the fluid being ideal and incompressible. An ideal
fluid is a fluid in which there is no friction, it is in viscid, zero viscosity. The equation
is written between any two points in a system that contain the same fluid. [8]

Hydrostatic Pressure
Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium due to the force
of gravity. A fluid in this condition is known as hydrostatic fluid. The hydrostatic
pressure can be determined from a control volume analysis of an infinitesimally small
cube of fluid. Since pressure is defined as the force exerted on a test area (p = F/A,
with
p: pressure, F: force normal to area A, a: area), and the only force acting on any such
small cube of fluid is the weight of the fluid column above it, hydrostatic pressure can
be calculated according to the following formula:

Where:
 p is the hydrostatic pressure (Pa),

 ρ is the fluid density (kg/m3),

 g is gravitational acceleration (m/s2),

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 A is the test area (m2),

 z is the height (parallel to the direction of gravity) of the test area (m),

 z0 is the height of the zero reference point of the pressure(m).

For water and other liquids, this integral can be simplified significantly for many
practical
applications, based on the following two assumptions: Since many liquids can be
considered incompressible, a reasonably good estimation can be made from
assuming a constant density throughout the liquid. (The same assumption cannot be
made within a gaseous environment.) Also, since the height h of the fluid column
between z and z0 is often reasonably small compared to the radius of the Earth, one
can neglect the variation of g. Under these circumstances, the integral boils down

to the simple formula.

Where H is the total height of the liquid column above the test area the surface, and
patm is the atmospheric pressure, i.e., the pressure calculated from the remaining
integral over the air column from the liquid surface to infinity. Hydrostatic pressure
has been used in the preservation of foods in a process called Pascalization.
Hydrostatic pressure in water tank is shown in fig. below. [8]

Archimedes Principle:
The magnitude of the upward force (buoyant force) of an object immersed in a fluid
is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the object. Archimedes
principle shown in fig

Figure 8: Archimedes Principle

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Stability of Unconstrained Submerged Bodies in Fluid

 The equilibrium of a body submerged in a liquid requires that the weight of the
body
acting through its center of gravity should be collinear with equal hydrostatic lift
acting
through the center of buoyancy.

 In general, if the body is not homogeneous in its distribution of mass over the entire

volume, the location of center of gravity G does not coincide with the center of volume,
i.e., the center of buoyancy B.

 Depending upon the relative locations of G and B, a floating or submerged body


attains
three different states of equilibrium Let us suppose that a body is given a small
angular displacement and then released. Then it will be said to be in

 Stable Equilibrium: If the body returns to its original position by retaining the
originally vertical axis as vertical.

 Unstable Equilibrium: If the body does not return to its original position but
moves further from it.

 Neutral Equilibrium: If the body neither returns to its original position nor
increases its displacement further, it will simply adopt its new position. [9]

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2.6 Specific Gravity:

Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of
water. Water has a specific gravity of 1.0: any object with a specific gravity less than
1.0 will float in water and anything with a density greater than 1.0 will sink. The
human body has a density slightly less than that of water and averages a specific
gravity of 0.974, therefore we float. Also, known as relative density, the ratio of the
density of a substance to that of a reference material at a specified temperature,
usually water at 4°C. If the specific gravity (sg) of an inert substance is less than unity,
it will float in water at 4°C. The sg of liquids is measurement with a hydrometer. [10]

2.7 Drag:

Resistance to motion through a fluid as applied to aircraft and spacecraft passing


through the atmosphere, it is the component of the resultant force due to relative
airflow measured parallel to 29 the direction of motion. It is directly opposed to thrust.
Lift is one of the four forces of flight acting on an airplane, the others being weight,
thrust, and lift.

Drag is generated by nine conditions associated with the motion of air particles over
an aircraft. There are several types of drag – form, pressure, skin friction, parasite,
induced, and wave which are described below.
The term "separation" refers to change from the smooth flow of air as it closely hugs
the surface of a wing to where it suddenly breaks free of the surface, creating a chaotic
flow. The picture to the right shows examples of air flowing past a variety of objects.
The bottom shows well behaved, laminar flow (flow in layers) where the flow stays
attached (close to the surface) of the object. The object just above has a laminar flow
for the first half of the object and then the flow begins to separate from the surface
and form many chaotic tiny vortex flows called vortices. The two objects just above
them have a large region of separated flow. The greater the region of separated flow,

24
the greater is the drag. This is why airplane designers go to such effort to streamline
wings and tails and fuselages – to minimize drag. Form and pressure drag shown. [11]

Figure 9: drag forces

2.8 2.7. Types of Drag

2.7.1. Form and Pressure Drag

Form drag and pressure drag are virtually the same type of drag. Form or pressure
drag is caused by the air that is flowing over the aircraft or airfoil. The separation of
air creates turbulence and results in pockets of low and high pressure that leave a
wake behind the airplane or airfoil (thus the name pressure drag). This opposes
forward motion and is a component of the total drag. Since this drag is due to the
shape, or form of the aircraft, it is also called form drag. Streamlining the aircraft will
reduce form drag, and parts of an aircraft that do not lend 30 themselves to
streamlining are enclosed in covers called fairings, or a cowling for an engine, that
have a streamlined shape. Airplane components that produce form drag include

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(1) The wing and wing flaps

(2) The fuselage

(3) Tail surfaces (4) Nacelles (5) Landing gear

(6) Wing tanks and external stores (7) Engines

2.9 Skin Friction Drag

Skin friction drag is caused by the actual contact of the air particles against the surface
of the aircraft. This is the same as the friction between any two objects or substances.
Because skin friction drag is an interaction between a solid (the airplane surface) and
a gas (the air), the magnitude of skin friction drag depends on the properties of both
the solid and the gas. For the solid airplane, skin fiction drag can be reduced, and
airspeed can be increased somewhat, by keeping an aircraft's surface highly polished
and clean. For the gas, the magnitude of the drag depends on the viscosity of the air.
Along the solid surface of the airplane, a boundary layer of low energy flow is
generated. The magnitude of the skin friction depends on the state of this flow.
Friction on leading edge of wing is shown in fig. 2.4 below. Fig. 2.4 Friction on leading
edge of wing [13]

Figure 10:skin friction drag

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2.10 Parasitic Drag

Parasite drag is simply the mathematical sum of form drag and skin friction drag.

Parasite drag = form drag + skin friction drag

2.11 Induced Drag

Induced drag is the drag created by the vortices at the tip of an aircraft's wing.
Induced drag is the drag due to lift. The high pressure underneath the wing causes the
airflow at the tips of the wings to curl around from bottom to top in a circular motion.
This results in a trailing vortex. Induced drag increases in direct proportion to
increases in the angle of attack. The circular motion creates a change in the angle of
attack near the wing tip which causes an increase in drag. The greater the angle of
attack up to the critical angle (where a stall takes place), the greater the induced drag.
Induced drag shown

Figure 11: Induced drag

Thrust:

27
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's second and third laws.
When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the accelerated mass will
cause a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on that system. UUVs
generates thrust (or reverse thrust) when the propellers are turned to accelerate
water backwards (or forwards). The resulting thrust pushes the boat in the opposite
direction to the sum of the momentum change in the water flowing through the
propeller.

Where,
 T is the thrust generated (force)

 dm/dt is the rate of change of mass with respect to time (mass flow rate of exhaust);

 v is the speed of the exhaust gases measured relative to the rocket. [12]
2.12 Stability of Unconstrained Submerged Bodies in Fluid

 The equilibrium of a body submerged in a liquid requires that the weight of


the body acting through its center of gravity should be collinear with equal
hydrostatic lift acting through the center of buoyancy.
 In general, if the body is not homogeneous in its distribution of mass over the
entire volume, the location of center of gravity G does not coincide with the
center of volume, i.e., the center of buoyancy B.
 Depending upon the relative locations of G and B, a floating or submerged body
attains three different states of equilibrium-

Let us suppose that a body is given a small angular displacement and then released.
Then it will be said to be in

28
 Stable Equilibrium: If the body returns to its original position by retaining
the originally vertical axis as vertical.
 Unstable Equilibrium: If the body does not return to its original position but
moves further from it.
 Neutral Equilibrium: If the body neither returns to its original position nor
increases its displacement further, it will simply adopt its new position.

29
3 CHAPTER 3

Design and calculations

3.1 Design under Consideration:

Figure 12: UUV design under consideration

This is also an aesthetic and eye catching design model, the main difference in this
design than the previous two designs is the placement of only one depth controlling
thruster instead of two depth controlling thrusters. There is only one thruster in the
upper cylinder to control UUVs submersion and bring it upward in the water. Motion
in one direction of depth controlling thruster causes increase in UUV depth while
motion in other direction cause decrease in UUVs depth. Driving control concept is
same as previous designs. Thrusters on both left and right are used for drive control
i.e. forward, backward, left and right i.e. their motion in clockwise direction work for

30
moving backward and anti-clockwise motion causes motion in forward direction,
while one of them working at a time and other one switched off or change in speed of
these drive control thrusters cause change in ROV’s direction. In this design also the
circuitry was to be put inside cylinder and we had to use waterproof camera or to
make it waterproof and then we had to mount our camera on the upper cylinder.
But the main issue was using thrusters for submersion and decrease in depth,
because faculty members forbade us to use thrusters for depth controlling, they
suggested us to implement the concept like a naval submarine as it changes its depth
by allowing water to fulfill inside its water storage tank hence its density and weight
increases which causes a submarine to submerge and go into the depth; And when
submarine comes at the surface of the water it outlets the stored water from its
storage tank into the ocean hence its volume increases while its density and weight
decreases which causes it to decrease its depth and to come at the surface of the water
[9]

31
3.2 Proposed Design:

As we discussed the above devices we can see that this is a commercial design and
this design cannot be made in student level.
This is the actual design made by the students. 3 thruster are used to move the UUV
forward and backward. One wing is used for upward and downward and another
wing is used for left and right.
We have used PVC pipe for low weight and for fast speed. PVC is low cost material
and can be easily available in the market. The pipe is used as a turbine. The water
easily flow inside the pipe while not resisting on the speed of prototype.
The head shape is made like cone on which the drag force of water is very less so
that the prototype can easily move in the water and have good speed underwater.

32
3.3 MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS:

Basic Forces on a Submarine:

Figure 13: forces on submarine

The forces shown in the above figure are the four basic forces on a submarine,
where Buoyancy force is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes
the weight of an immersed object. And it is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
by the object.
Where;
Fb = Buoyancy force
V= Volume of immersed part
 = water and immersed object density difference
g = Gravitational acceleration
A = Area of immersed part
And Water Resistance or Drag force is force acting opposite to the relative
motion of any object moving in water.

(1)

33
1 2
Fd  v CD A
Where; 2
Fd = Drag force

= water density
v = speed of moving object
CD = Drag force co efficient (0.82 for cylindrical shapes)
A = Cross sectional Area

3.4 7.2 Thrust


(Nomenclature used in thrust calculation)
F = Thrust (N)

m = mass flow rate (kg/sec)

Ve = exit velocity of water through propeller (m/sec)


Vi = inlet velocity of water through propeller (m/sec)

V pitch= propeller pitch speed (m/sec)


= water density ( kg / m3 )
A = area through propeller , normal to water flow (m 2 )
P = Pressure (Pa , N / m 2 , kg / m. sec 2)
Newton’s 2nd law when mass held constant
d (mv) mdv (2)
F   ma
dt dt
Source: Research Article ‘Propellers Static and dynamic thrust calculation’ written by
Gabriel Staples [April 12, 2014]

34
Newton’s 2nd law when velocity held constant
(3)
d (mv) dm 
F  ( )v  m v
dt dt
Theoretical static thrust
 (4)
F  m Ve
Theoretical dynamic thrust
 
(5)
F  m V  m(Ve  Vi)

 AVe (Ve  Vi )  (m  AVe )
F  A(Ve  VeVi )
2 (6)
Where ‘A’ is cross sectional area covered by spinning propeller
2
d (7)
Where;
A   r  2

4
r = radius of propeller
r =diameter of propeller
d 2
F (Ve  VeVi )
Putting eq (7) in eq(6); 2

4 (8)
Inlet speed of water is zero in static fluid. So above equation becomes;
d 2
F 
2
(Ve )
4
Ve is assumed to be approximately equal to the pitch speed of the propeller, as
RPM of propeller is in (rev/min) and its pitch is in inches
RPM prop
V pitch (m / sec)  ( )( Pitchprop  0.0254)
(10) 60
Putting this in eq (8);

 (0.0254  d ) 2 RPM prop


F (  Pitchprop  0.0254) (11)
4 60

35
3.5 Theoretical to Empirical: Making the Equations Work For Real
Life
Gabriel Staples graphical analyzed and concluded that higher diameter and
lower pitch propellers must be more efficient,
 (0.0254  d ) 2 RPM prop d (12)
F  (  Pitchprop  0.0254)  k ( )
4 60 Pitch
Pretty soon Gabriel Staples realized that relationship of (d/pitch) to static thrust
was non-linear, so he added in a second constant to raise the diameter-to-pitch ratio
to some power.
 (0.0254  d ) 2 RPM prop d k2
F (  Pitchprop  0.0254)  (k1 ) (13)
4 60 Pitch
Where ‘k1’ is ‘co-efficient constant’ and ‘k2’ is the ‘power constant’. Putting values of
‘k1’ and ‘k2’ after calibration, it was the final static thrust equation with Correction
factor
 (0.0254  d ) 2 RPM prop d
. F (  Pitch prop  0.0254)  ( )1.5
4 60 3.29546  Pitch (14)
It is calculated for a propeller having 2 blades, Birger Jacobsan gave the below
calculation of RPM of propellers having more than 2 blades.
Powermotor (15)
RPM prop  C  3
Where; (d ) 5

Source: Research Article ‘Propellers Static and dynamic thrust calculation’ written by
Gabriel Staples [April 12, 2014]

36
4 CHAPTER 4

FABRICATION OF UNMANNED UNDERWATER


VEHICLE

37
4.1 Fabrication:
Fabrication is the building of structures by cutting, bending, drilling, coupling and
assembling processes. It is a value added process that involves the construction of
machines and structures from various raw materials.
Different machine used in manufacturing of our design.
1. Cutting blade
2. Acrylic sheet
3. Plastic tube
4. Heat gun
5. Glue gun
6. Silicon
7. Vernier caliper
8. Measuring tape

4.2 Cutting blade:


Cutting blade is the steel material having sharp teeth which is used for cutting the
PVC material in the manufacturing of wind turbine blades
Used for cutting of turbine blades.

Figure 14: Cutting blade

38
4.3 Acrylic sheet:
Acrylic which has been used for commercial and personal purposes for years is
still the one plastic that is most widely used. It is a manmade material that
versatile and one that is commonly used almost all over the world. There are
other reasons why acrylic sheets are the most widely and popularly used
materials.

Figure 15: Acrylic sheet

39
4.4 Plastic tube:
PVC known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, is a thermoplastic material, which
means that it can be reprocessed using heat. Because vinyl can be processed
using heat

Figure 16: plastic tube

40
4.5 Glue gun
A usually gun-shaped electric tool used for melting and applying sticks
of adhesive.

Figure 17: glue gun

4.6 Silicon:
The chemical element of atomic number 14, a non-metal with semiconducting
properties. It is used in electronic circuits and also used as adhesive elements
which assemble parts.

Figure 18: silicon pipe

41
4.7 Vernier caliper
A vernier caliper outputs measurement readings in centimeters (cm) and it is
precise up to 2 decimal places

Figure 19: Vernier calliper

4.8 Measuring tape


A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler. It consists of a ribbon of
cloth, plastic, fiber glass, or metal strip with linear-measurement markings.

Figure 20: measuring tape

42
4.9 : Components:

 Propeller ( 3 blade propeller)


 12 v Battery
 12 v DC motors ( 3 motors )
 Wings ( 4 wings)
 Wireless camera
 Stand
 H- bridge L298
 Nuts and bots

4.10 Propeller (3 blade propeller)


A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion
into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces
of the airfoil-shaped blade,

Figure 21: Propeller (3 blade propeller)

43
4.11 12 v Battery
The DC motor is an electrical device which converts from dc electrical
energy into mechanical
energy

Figure 22:12 V DC Battery

4.12 12 v DC motors (3 motors)


12 V DC motor
2400 RPM
12 V DC motors are used to convert electrical energy to mechanical
energy.

Figure 23:12 V DC motor

44
4.13 Underwater glider
An underwater glider is a type of wings which control left and right
motion and up and down motion of vehicle, which is also control the
balance of the vehicle.

Figure 24: Underwater glider

4.14 Wireless camera


Camera that transmit a video and audio signal to a wireless receiver
through a radio band

Figure 25:camera

45
4.15 H- bridge L298
The L298N H-bridge can be used with motors that have a voltage of
between 5 and 35V DC. With the module used in this tutorial, there is also
an onboard 5V regulator, so if your supply voltage is up to 12V you can also
source 5V from the board.

Figure 26: H- bridge L298

4.16 Nuts and bots


A nut is a type of fastener with a threaded hole. Nuts are almost always
used in conjunction with a mating bolt to fasten two or more parts
together.

46
4.17 Dimensions:

Full vehicle length: 18.5 inch


Full vehicle dia: 4 inch
Wings:
Length: 3.5 inch
Width: 2 inch
Propeller blade:
Length: 1.7 inch
Thrust: 0.7
Stand:
Length: 4 inch

Weight:
Total weight: 1 KG

47
4.18 Assembly:
We joined all the parts to assemble the prototype.

48
Figure 27: UUVs model

49
5 CHAPTER 5

Experimentations and results

Figure 28: experimentation

50
5.1 Experimental procedures:

The experiment was conducted in two stages floating on water and underwater. We
have conducted these two types of results. experiment was conducted on Sunday
March 16, 2017. The vehicle was run many times on the surface of water and
underwater. The weight of the body was also calculated.

We have conducted these results both when vehicle was both underwater and
floating on the surface of the water.

5.2 Formulas used in calculations:

1
For drag force we have use this formula 𝐹𝑑 = 𝐶𝜌𝐴𝑉 2
2

C = drag coefficient
𝝆 = density
A = area
V = velocity
For bouncy force, we use formula 𝐹𝑏 = 𝜌𝑉𝐺
𝝆 = density
V = displaced body volume of liquid
G = gravity

5.3 Floating on water:

experiment was conducted on Sunday March 16, 2017. The vehicle was run many
times on the surface of water. The weight of the body was also calculated.

We have conducted these results both when vehicle was both underwater and
floating on the surface of the water.

51
5.4 Stability Calculations:

Extra mass for balancing 0.5


Motors mass 0.3
Circuit 0.2
Battery 0.4
Side cylinders 0.2
Main cylinder 0.5
Total mass 2.1 Kg
Table 4

5.5 Drag calculations:

Run no Recorded speed (m/s) Drag force (N)


1 0.25 m/s 0.0577 N
2 0.5 m/s 1.01 N
Table 5

5.6 Testing results:

Run Velocity bouncy Force


No. (m/s) (N)
1 0.25 0.02878
2 0.506 0.11793
Table 6

52
5.7 Material used:

Components Final design

Hollow main cylinder PVC sheet

Side cylinders PVC sheet

Left right wing Acrylic sheet

Up down wing Acrylic sheet

Turbines PVC sheet

Water proofing Silicon

Balancing Iron plates

Supporting materials Aluminum plate

Table 7

5.8 Depth measurement:

Under water (f) On surface (f)


2 feet Half drown

53
6 CHAPTER 6

Circuit diagram

54
6.1 Circuit diagram of proposed project

The above fig is the diagram of circuit of proposed project. It is a simple diagram in

which microcontroller gets information from transceiver and send it to another

transceiver which is attached to microcontroller. Microcontroller gives commands to

the different parts of the project and project works on those commands.

Two H bridges are also used which are attached to the microcontroller which gives

12 v of power to the motors.

55
Two transceivers DRF 7020 are used which receive commands from laptop and give

it to the microcontroller. Microcontroller send commands to the project different

parts which start to work.

One H bridge is attached with Arduino microcontroller D6, D7, D8 and D9 pins and

another is attached with D10, D11, D12 and D13 pins. H bridge basically convert 5 v

to 12 v.

DRF transceiver is connected to Arduino Do and D1 pins. Which receive signal from

another transceiver and give to Arduino.

56
CONCLUSIONS:

This investigation has involved the design, construction and testing of a submersible

vessel and has allowed a more thorough understanding of key fluid mechanic

principles be developed through application. For the purpose of this project, a

relationship between buoyancy, materials, propulsion, and size was determined.

Water propeller’s thrust calculation was derived. It is the fact that neutrally buoyant

UUV can be moved in all directions by the proper placement of thrusters. The shape

of UROV will also resist its performance because drag force and buoyancy force can

vary with change in shape. Most of the previous projects used thrusters to change

UUV’s depth but we implemented the concept of a naval submarine by controlling its

depth by using buoyancy force by varying its weight by fulfilling and draining water

from its water storage tanks. And we concluded that thrust produced by propellers

and UUV’s speed in water are very much dependent upon diameter, pitch and blades

of propellers. Thrust produced by propellers can be varied by changing propeller’s

pitch, diameter of propeller’s blades and by changing the angle of propeller’s blade.

Thrust can also be varied by changing the speed of the motor. The UUV proved to be

capable of completing all objectives and measure its depth in water.

57
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[3] Ridao, P., et al. "NEPTUNE: A HIL simulator for multiple UUVs." OCEANS'04.
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58
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