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NRG 101 OUTLINE V.

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE
o May 12, 1820 – August 13, 1910
o Born: May 12, 1820
 Florence, Italy
 From England
 Older sister named Parthenope
o 1837
 Wrote about her Calling
o 1851
 Completed her nursing training at Kaiserwerth, Germany
o 1853
 Became the superintendent
 of the Hospital for Invalid Gentlewomen
 in London
o 1854
 Crimean War. Traveled to Scutari, Turkey with 34 new nurse recruits
 young, middle-class women with a basic general education

o Founder of modern nursing


o Addressed the environmental problems that existed, including the lack of sanitation and the
presence of filth
o The Lady of the Lamp, as immortalized in the poem “Santa Filomena” (Longfellow, 1857)
o After the Crimean War, funds awarded to Nightingale were used to establish schools for
nursing training at St. Thomas’s Hospital and King’s College Hospital in London.
 By establishing the two schools………..
 She was able to provide framework for the establishment of nursing training
schools thru a universal template that contains principles of nursing training
 These principles included instructions in scientific and practical experience
for the mastery skills
 She also advocated the separation of nursing training from the hospital to a
more appropriate learning environment in the school or university setting
 She believed that nursing student role is learning the art & science of
nursing before being employed in the nursing service
 She believed that good nursing can only come from good education
HER WRITINGS:
1. Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency, and Hospital Administration of the British
Army Founded Chiefly on the Experience of the Late War (Nightingale, 1858a)
2. Notes on Hospitals (Nightingale, 1858b),
3. Report on Measures Adopted for Sanitary Improvements in India, from June 1869 to June
1870 (Nightingale, 1871)

HER THEORY:
 focused on environment
 Its components
o described the concepts of ventilation, warmth, light, diet, cleanliness, and noise
 Believed that healthy surroundings were necessary for proper nursing care and restoration
/maintenance of health.
 Five essential components of environmental health:
1. pure air,

DOMINGO T. SO, JR., RN, MAN 1


NRG 101 OUTLINE V.2

2. pure water,
3. Efficient drainage,
4. cleanliness, and
5. light

ALSO EMPHASIZED:
 Proper ventilation & Room temperature
 Proper positioning
 Lighting (sunlight)
 Cleanliness – contamination, source of infection

ALSO EMPHASIZED:
 Daily Bathing
 Hand washing
 Quiet & diet

ANALYSIS & EVALUATION


DEGREE OF USEFULNESS
1. NURSING RESEARCH:
 Mother of Nursing Research
o Scientific method of inquiry & statistics
o Concepts of her theory still serves as bases for current research & adds to
understanding to modern practice

2. NURSING EDUCATION:
 Able to provide framework for the establishment of nursing training schools
 Advocate for the separation of nursing training from hospital to school setting

3. NURSING PRACTICE:
 Principle of nursing practice is still being employed today
 Advent of modernization and technology becomes a threat to the environment
 Global warming, noise and air pollutions, diet and vanity continue to pose challenges to
the nurse practitioner of today

NURSING METAPARADIGM CONCEPTS


1. PERSON :
 Patient
 Passive person- a patient that depends wholly on the nurse for task and control of his
environment
 Needs nursing care regardless of social worth

2. NURSING :
 comparable to that of motherly instinct
 a vocation that needs formal learning and application of scientific principles
 be more skilled in observing and reporting patients’ health status while providing care

DOMINGO T. SO, JR., RN, MAN 2


NRG 101 OUTLINE V.2

3. HEALTH :
 Health as being WELL
 Living to ones potential to the full extent
 Disease & illness are viewed as reparative process that are instituted by MOTHER
NATURE when a person did not attend to his personal health concerns
 Emphasize promotion and prevention of diseases thru:
 Prudent control of environment
 Social responsibility

4. ENVIRONMENT:
 External element which affects the health of sick and healthy individuals
 CENTRAL to the theory
 Therapeutic Environment
 Enhance comfort & recovery of the patient

CRITIQUE
1. CLARITY
 clear and easily understood. It
 contains the following three major relationships:
1. Environment to patient
2. Nurse to environment
3. Nurse to patient

2. SIMPLICITY
 Provides a descriptive, explanatory theory
 objective of setting forth general rules for the practice
 and development of nursing was met

3. GENERALITY
 have been used to provide general guidelines for all nurses
 universality and timelessness of her concepts remain pertinent
 the role of observation and measurement of outcomes as an essential component of
nursing practice

4. EMPIRICAL PRECISION
 Concepts and relationships are presented as truths rather than as tentative, testable
statements
 Practice should be based on their observations and experiences..

5. DERIVABLE CONSEQUENCES
 basic principles of environmental manipulation and care of the patient can be applied in
contemporary nursing settings
 relevant to the professional identity and practice of nursing

DOMINGO T. SO, JR., RN, MAN 3


NRG 101 OUTLINE V.2

CASE STUDY
(TYPE-WRITTEN, SHORT BOND PAPER, ARIAL 11, 1.15 SPACING, 1 INCH
MARGINS, WITH COVER PAGE SECURED IN SHORT CARDBOARD FOLDER) – DATE
OF SUBMISSION: SEPTEMBER 3, 2018.

You are caring for an 82-year-old woman who has been hospitalized for several weeks
for burns that she sustained on her lower legs during a cooking accident. Before the
time of her admission, she lived alone in a small apartment. The patient reported on
admission that she has no surviving family. Her support system appears to be other
elders who live in her neighborhood. Because of transportation difficulties, most of
them are unable to visit frequently. One of her neighbors has reported that she is
caring for the patient’s dog, a Yorkshire terrier. As you care for this woman, she begs
you to let her friend bring her dog to the hospital. She says that none of the other
nurses have listened to her about such a visit. As she asks you about this, she begins
to cry and tells you that they have never been separated. You recall that the staff
discussed their concern about this woman’s well-being during report that morning.
They said that she has been eating very little and seems to be depressed. Based on
Nightingale’s work, identify specific interventions that you would provide in caring for
this patient.

1. Describe what action, if any, you would take regarding the patient’s request to
see her dog. Discuss the theoretical basis of your decision and action based
on your understanding of Nightingale’s work.
2. Describe and discuss what nursing diagnoses you would make and what
interventions you would initiate to address the patient’s nutritional status and
emotional well-being.
3. As the patient’s primary nurse, identify and discuss the planning you would
undertake regarding her discharge from the hospital. Identify members of the
discharge team and their roles in this process. Describe how you would
advocate for the patient based on Nightingale’s observations and descriptions
of the role of the nurse.

DOMINGO T. SO, JR., RN, MAN 4