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Shaft Design

Reference Texts:

• Budynas and Nisbett: Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, 9th Ed, McGraw-

Hill, 2011.

• Machinery’s Handbook 25th Ed. Industrial Press, New York, 1996.

• Australian Standard 1403-2004 Design of Rotating Steel Shafts.

• Juvinall and Marshek: Fundamentals of Machine Component Design, 3rd Ed. 2000.

• Golka, Bolliger and Vasili, Belt Conveyors - Principles for Calculation and Design,

2007.

Craig Wheeler

Associate Professor, School of Engineering

The University of Newcastle

• Shafts are usually of circular cross-section and used to

transmit power or motion.

• Shafts may be subjected to bending, torsion, tension or

compression, acting independently, or in any combination.

• Loads are typically induced by transmission components

such as, gears, pulleys, sprockets, etc.

• Topics to be covered include:

• Material selection

• Geometric layout

• Transmission elements

• Design for stress

• Deflection considerations

1

Shaft Materials 3

as represented by the modulus of elasticity, which is

essentially constant for all steels.

• Necessary strength to resist loading stresses affects

material selection and treatments.

• Most shafts are made from low carbon, cold drawn or hot-

rolled steel.

• Significant strengthening from heat treatment and high

alloy content are often not needed.

• Initial designs should be based on low or medium carbon

steel, and if strength requirements dominate over

deflection, then select higher strength materials.

Shaft Materials 4

Ø100mm. Nominal diameters can be left unmachined in

areas where components are not fitted.

• Hot rolled steel should be machined all over.

• Material selection is also somewhat dependent on the

quantity to be manufactured. For low production, turning is

typically the most economical method. While high

production runs may warrant hot or cold forming, or

casting, thus requiring minimal material removal.

• Stainless steel is used for certain operating environments.

2

Shaft Layout 5

elements, eg; gears, bearings, pulleys, couplings, etc.

• Shafts are typically stepped.

• Shoulders are often used to axially locate shaft elements

and provide a means to carry thrust loads.

• There are no absolute rules governing shaft layout, but the

next few slides may help.

between bearings to avoid cantilevered loads.

• Pulleys and sprockets often need to be mounted outboard

of bearings for ease of installing and removing the belt or

chain. Length of cantilever should be kept to a minimum.

Design, 9th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2011.

3

Shaft Layout – Gear Types 7

Single helical vs double helical?

long shafts require more, bearing alignment is critical.

• Shafts should be kept to a minimum length to minimise

bending moments and deflections. Some axial space is

necessary for lubricant flow and disassembly with pullers.

• The primary means of axially locating components is

against a shoulder.

• Where axial loads are low; retaining rings in grooves,

sleeves between components or clamp on collars can be

used.

• Where axial loads are very small, press fits, pins or collars

with set screws can be used.

4

Shaft Layout – Axial Layout 9

loads from the shaft through the bearing to ground.

• Generally, it is best to have only one bearing transmit the

load to allow greater tolerances on the length of the shaft.

by one bearing against a collar, while the other bearing is

a press fit onto the shaft.

Design, 9th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2011.

5

Shaft Layout – Torque Transmission 11

sized to support the torsional stress and deflection.

• Common torque-transfer elements include:

• Keys

• Splines

• Setscrews

• Pins

• Press or Shrink Fits

• Tapered Fits

• In addition to transmitting torque many of the above are

designed to fail if the torques exceeds acceptable levels to

protect other components or machinery.

Torque Transmission 12

Marshek, K. Fundamentals of

Machine Component Design, 3rd

Ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New

York, 2000.

6

Torque Transmission - Splines 13

axle shaft

Ref: wikipedia.org

fasteners-supplier.com

b2bscrews.com

7

Torque Transmission – Tapers 15

awtarlab3.engin.umich.edu tracepartsonline.net

8

Torque Transmission – Various 17

sscycle.com

the shaft, with progressively smaller diameters towards the

ends to allow for components to be slid on from the ends.

• Where components are to be press fit, ensure they do not

need to be slid long distances along the shaft. Where

possible provide a taper for initial alignment.

• Provide sufficient axial clearance for pullers, press plates,

wedges, etc, for disassembly.

• Often shaft centres can be machined with threads for eye

bolts for safe and convenient lifting.

9

Design for Static Loads 19

round shaft of diameter, d subjected to a bending moment,

M and torque, T are given by:

32 M 16 T

x (1) xy (2)

d 3 d 3

max is given by:

2

x 16

max xy

2

M2 T2 (3)

2 d 3

the normal yield strength, Sy (ie; Ssy = Sy / 2) from the

maximum-shear-stress theory for static failure, and using a

factor of safety, n.

Sy 16

M2 T2 (4)

2n d 3

Therefore, 1

32n

3

d M2 T2 (5)

S y

Remember use the above only when the stresses do not

vary.

10

Design for Fluctuating Loads 21

necessary to calculate the minimum shaft diameter based

upon the effects of fluctuating loads.

• Maximum-shear-stress theory using Soderburg’s

method.

• Distortion energy theory using Goodman’s approach.

• Australian Standard AS1403-2004 Design of Rotating

Steel Shafts.

Ssm ± KfsSsa

Sm ± KfSa Sm ± KfSa

Ssm ± KfsSsa

Gear 1 Gear 2

M M

T T

Support Bearing

11

Maximum-Shear-Stress, Soderburg’s Method 23

the equivalent static normal strength, S0 as

Kt S y

S 0 S m S a (6)

Se

Se = Endurance limit

sa

Normal sr

sa smax

Stress

sm smin

Time

K ts S y

S s 0 S sm S sa (7)

Se

then gives 2 2

0.5S y Kt S y K ts S y

S sy S m S a S sm S sa (8)

n Se Se

1

3

2 2

16 KS K S

d M m t y M a Tm ts y Ta (9)

S sy S S

e e

12

Maximum-Shear-Stress, Soderburg’s Method 25

concentration factors to the mean stress and mean torsion.

replace Kt and Kts due to lessened sensitivity to notches.

Therefore, for a solid circular shaft the minimum diameter, d is

1

2 1 2

3

2

Ta

32n 2 M m M a

2 Tm

d Kf K fs (10)

S e S

S y y S e

While, in terms of n

12

1 32 2 M m M a T

2 2

T

3 Kf K 2fs m a (11)

n d S y S e S

y S e

Note: For a rotating shaft with constant bending and torsion, the

bending stress is completely reversed and torsion is steady.

Therefore; Mm = 0 and Ta = 0.

criterion, for a solid circular shaft the minimum diameter, d is

1

16n 1

2 1 2

3

2 12 1

d

2 2

(12)

Se S ut

Or in terms of the safety factor, n

1 16

n d 3

1

4K f M a 3K fsTa

2 2 12

1

2 2 1 2

4K f M m 3K fsTm (13)

Se Sut

13

Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity 27

increase the theoretical stress significantly in the immediate

vicinity. However, some materials are not fully sensitive to the

presence of notches, and hence for these, a reduced value

of Kt and Kts can be used.

concentration factors, Kf and Kfs which replace Kt and Kts

respectively.

K f 1 qK t 1 (14)

K fs 1 qs K ts 1 (15)

experimentally. However, the following Figures provide

values for steels and aluminium.

q - Reversed Bending or Reversed Axial Loads

Design, 9th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2011.

14

Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity 29

qs - Reversed Torsion

Design, 9th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2011.

stress at the concentration to the nominal stress. Kt is used for

normal stresses and Kts for shear stresses.

Charts reproduced from: Shigley, J: Mechanical Engineering Design,1st Ed, McGraw-Hill, 1986.

15

Stress Concentration Factors, K 31

Marshek, K. Fundamentals of

Machine Component Design, 3rd

Ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New

York, 2000.

August 8, 2016

critical, select a bearing with a generous fillet radius, or

consider the following options.

Design, 9th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2011.

16

Endurance Limit

Use Equation (8.1) of Juvinall and Marshek (2006):

Where Sn = Se giving:

Se=Se’CLCGCSCTCR

17

18

AS1403 – 2004: Design of rotating steel shafts 37

• http://www.newcastle.edu.au/service/library/database-and-

eresources/databases.html

August 8, 2016

19

AS1403 – 2004: Design of rotating steel shafts 39

during rotation, based on tests of polished steel specimens

of diameter between 8 mm and 10 mm, in [MPa]

= 0.45 FU, where actual value is not known

FS = safety factor (See Table 2 - note 5, AS1403-2004)

FU = tensile strength of shaft material, in [MPa]

FY = yield strength of shaft material, [MPa]

K = stress-raising factor (see Clause 8.2, AS1403-2004)

KS = size factor (see Clause 8.1 and Figure 1, AS1403-2004)

Mq = bending moment at shaft cross-section under

consideration, in [Nm]

Tq = maximum torque at shaft cross-section under

consideration, in [Nm]

Pq = maximum axial tensile force at shaft cross-section under

consideration, in [N]

8.1 Size Factor (Ks)

The value of the size factor (Ks) shall be as follows:

(a) For diameters up to 250 mm read off Fig.1.

(b) For diameters greater than 250 mm use 1.8.

20

AS1403 – 2004: Design of rotating steel shafts 41

8.2 Stress Raising Factor (K)

The value of the stress raising factor (K) shall be as follows:

(a) Where there is only one stress-raising characteristic use the value

read from Figs. 4 to 10.

(b) Where two stress-raising characteristics are separated by an axial

distance greater than 0.25D, use the greater of the two values read

from Figs. 4 to 10.

(c) Where two stress-raising characteristics are separated by an axial

distance between 0.16D and 0.25D, use the sum of the greater

value and 0.1 times the lesser value, both values being read from

Figs. 4 to 10.

(d) Where two stress-raising characteristics are coincident or separated

by an axial distance not greater than 0.16D, use the sum of the

greater value and 0.2 times the lesser value, both values being read

from Figs. 4 to 10.

21

AS1403 – 2004: Design of rotating steel shafts 43

22

AS1403 – 2004: Design of rotating steel shafts 45

23

AS1403 – 2004: Design of rotating steel shafts 47

Introduction

Motors with high locked-rotor torque (starting torque) or high breakdown

torque (pull-out torque) may impose high loads on shafts. Care should

be taken as breakdown torque can be as high as 4 times the rated

torque (full-load torque) for a.c. motors, 3 times for shunt d.c. motors

and 5 times for series d.c. motors.

minimised by electrical means (motor controllers) or mechanical means

(like fluid couplings, etc).

24

Design for Deflection 49

checked at the bearings and transmission elements.

• Allowable deflections will depend on many factors, but the

following table provides typical maximums.

Design, 9th Ed, McGraw-Hill, 2011.

deflections.

• For shafts of constant cross-section this is straightforward.

• For stepped shafts, since both M and I vary, singularity

functions can be applied, however typically numerical

integration or FEA is used.

• Many shafts require force analysis in multiple planes,

requiring 3-dimensional analysis, or use of superposition

in two planes then summing the deflection vectors.

25

Design for Deflection – Pulley Shaft Example 51

conditions exist. For example, consider a conveyor pulley:

Principles for Calculation and Design, 2007.

f1max T12

a

48EI1

4a 2 3 A2 mm

T12 T12 T22 2T1T2 cos180 N

• Angle of deflection at bearing:

32T12 a b 2 b a b Al

o 1 4 rad

E 2 ad 2 a 2 d14

4

d1

• Angle of deflection at distance “b” from bearing:

32T12 a A l

2 rad

E d14

Where: A, a, b, l, d1 and d2 - [mm]

26

Design for Deflection 53

li and torque, Ti, the angular deflection, θ is estimated from:

Ti li

i

Gi J i

Where: G = Modulus of rigidity

4

D

J

32

• For constant torque throughout the shaft

T li

G

Ji

Note: These formulae should only be used as an estimate

as experiments have shown θ can be larger.

27

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