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In the pioneer book Effective Public Relations, Professors, Broom,

Cutlip, and Center (2012) list the 7 Cs of Effective Communication. This list
is widely used today, especially in public relations and advertising.

1. Completeness
Complete in communication is essential to the quality of the
communication process in general. Hence, communication should include
everything that the receiver needs to hear from him/her to respond, react,
or evaluate properly.

2. Conciseness
Conciseness does not mean keeping the message short, but making it
direct or straight to the point. Insignificant or redundant information
should be eliminated from the communication that will be sent to the

3. Consideration
To be effective, the speaker should always consider relevant information
about his/her receiver such as mood, background, race, preference,
education, status, and needs, among other. By doing so, he/she can easily
build rapport with the audience.

4. Concreteness
Effective communication happens when the message is concrete and
supported by facts, figures, and real-life examples and situations. In this
case, the receiver is more connected to the message conveyed.

5. Courtesy
The speaker shows courtesy in communication by respecting the
culture, values, and beliefs of his/her receivers. Being courteous at all
times creates a positive impact on the audience.

6. Clearness
Clearness in communication implies the use of simple and specific words
to express ideas. It is also achieved when the speaker focuses only on a
single objective in his/her speech so as not to confuse the audience.

7. Correctness
Correctness in grammar eliminates negative impact on the audience
and increases the credibility and effectiveness of the message.

“Treat Me Like a Beauty Queen”
Here are some barriers that may cause breakdown in communication:
1. Practice the strategies to avoid communication breakdown in simulating
1. Process barriers– shows that one of the elements in the a question and answer portion of a beauty pageant.
communication process blocks the flow of messages
(verbally/nonverbally). 2. Each group will pick one representative to represent their group for the
question and answer.
2. Physical barriers – include distracting sounds and noise. These make
it hard for the listeners to catch what was said. A speaker and a listener 3. Each representative will pick one question to answer.
are affected by their surroundings. A very cold or hot room temperature is
also a physical barrier, making the speaker and the listener uncomfortable. 4. Each representative will apply the strategies to avoid communication
When one is uncomfortable, he or she may not listen or respond well. breakdown.

3. Semantic barriers – refer to problems arising from the expression or 5. The teacher will select five representatives from each class who will act
transmission of meaning. Meanings for words are filtered through one’s as panel of judges.
frame of reference or the total of his/her beliefs, knowledge, education,
culture, and experience. Thus, misunderstanding or difference in 6. The chosen judges will base their judgement on the following criteria:
interpretation may occur since no two people can have exactly the same
frame of reference. Criteria 5 4 3 2 1
1. Presentation of ideas.
4. Psychosocial barriers – can be one’s status and perception. Clear
Consciousness of one’s status affects the two-way flow of communication.
It gives rise to personal barriers caused by the superior-subordinate
relationship. Likewise, human perceptions – the mental images of the 2. Manifestations of self-confidence
external world – are stored in their brains and form their viewpoints, 3. Rapport with the audience
experiences, knowledge, feelings, and emotions. TOTAL

Individual Activity:

STEPS TO AVOID COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWN Here are some examples of communication barriers. Classify them by
naming the specific barrier on each blank.
1. Apply positive self-talk and perception.
2. Use appropriate language 1. Barking dogs ________________________
3. Be open 2. Limited vocabulary ________________________
4. Give and accept feedback 3. No job experience ________________________
4. Paranoia ________________________
5. Sickness ________________________
6. No boyfriend since birth ________________________
7. No audience ________________________
8. Negative comments on Facebook ________________________
9. Static microphone ________________________
10. Corrupt political image ________________________