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Mid-Term Exam Review

1) Civilization For thousands of years, human had two concerns:

finding food & protecting themselves.
2) They used fire, built shelters, made clothes, & developed spoken
Chapter 1 - Peopling the Earth 3) In the early Old Stone Age, humans were nomads.
4) They found food by hunting & gathering nuts, berries, & roots, &
Section 1 – Human Origins in Africa used tools— made out off stone, bone, & wood.
Walking With Caveman 5) They made knives, hooks, & bone needles.
Human Evolution 6) Thousands of years ago, Stone Age artists mixed charcoal, mud, &
Human Foot Print animal blood to make paint, to draw pictures of animals on cave
Lucy’s Bones walls.
7) They lived in small groups of 25 to 70 people. Early humans were
1) Written records only covered the last 5,000 years, so Archaeologists use seasonal hunters.
special skills & tools to look beyond. We know that during the Stone Age Catal Huyuk
humans made stone tools, used fire & learned to speak. The Stone Age Catal Huyuk
is divided in two: Stone Age Village
a) Paleolithic Age, or Old Stone Age, (2.5 million years ago - 8000 B.C.) 1) The agricultural revolution that occurred during the
b) Neolithic Age, or New Stone Age, (8000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.) Neolithic period, (slash-and-burn farming)
2) The Old Stone Age overlapped the Ice Age, glaciers covered much of 2) They also began to raise animals (horses, dogs, goats, &
the Earth. pigs). Archaeologists believe that people in northeastern
3) But, 10,000 years ago, the Ice Age was over & glaciers grew smaller. Iraq, or Jarmo, began farming & raising animals about 9,000
Archeologists Look for Artifacts years ago. Simultaneously farming took hold in other spots
4) In East Africa, archaeologists found the fossils of a Homo-Habilis or around the world.
“man of skill” that live 2.5 million years ago. 3) The village of Catal Huyuk (in Turkey) near a river, they grew
5) Some 1.6 million years ago Homo-erectus used tools for special wheat, barley, & peas, & raised sheep & cattle, & made clay
purposes marking the 1st use of technology. pottery, & worked as weavers & artists
6) With technology allowed them to dig, cut, scrape, used fire. 4) This village had a religion, too. Early farming villagers had
7) Scientists believe that Homo-erectus developed into humans, or Homo problems: drought, floods & fires & diseases spreading.
sapiens. 5) Villages grew into cities, people used irrigation to bring
8) Neanderthals appeared 200,000 years ago, lived in caves or built water, invented the wheel for carts & the sail for boats.
shelters, & held religious beliefs. But 30,000 years ago, they
9) The Cro-Magnons appeared, similar to modern man. He hunted large Section 3 - Civilization
animals, had better speaking skills than Neanderthals.
Early Human Mesopotamia
Modern Man 1) Life became more complex as the villages began to grow. People were
divided into social classes:
Section 2 - Human Try to Control Nature a) Some people had more wealth & power than others.
b) They began to worship gods & goddesses for protection their crops
& increase their harvests.
c) One of the first civilizations arose in Sumer. It was in Mesopotamia, 5) Slowly, some people rose to power & became rulers, as did their
between the Tigris & Euphrates rivers in Iraq. children after them, creating dynasty.
d) A civilization has advanced cities that contain many people & serve 6) As population & trade grew, Sumerians traded ideas other groups. They
as centers for trade. believed in polytheism, or many gods.
e) They have specialized workers or skilled workers who make goods 7) Each god had power over different forces of nature or their lives, b/c
by hand or artisans. people are servants of the gods.
f) Civilizations have complex institutions (Government, organized
religion, & an economy) Society was divided into social classes.
Cuneiform 1) Sumerians invented the sail, the wheel, & the plow. They were the first
1) Sumer had all the features of a civilization. It kept records: laws, debts, to use bronze, developed the first writing system— on clay tablets,
& payments-- these created the need for writing for Scribes or people invented arithmetic & geometry.
who write & keep records. 2) In 2350 B.C., Sargon conquered Sumer & captured other cities, & built
2) Cuneiform, which means “wedge shaped,” was a form of writing the world’s first empire.
invented in Sumer. 3) A few hundred years later, another group conquered the Sumerians &
3) Sumerians improved technology, they made a metal called bronze, built a capital at Babylon, establishing the Babylonian Empire.
which started Bronze Age or time when people began using bronze 4) They were led by a king named Hammurabi. He is famous for his code of
tools & weapons. laws.
4) One of the early cities of Sumer was named Ur. A walled city built of 5) It was a harsh code that punished people for wrongdoing. It made it
mud dried into bricks, Ur held about 30,000 people. They carried water clear that the government had some responsibility for taking care of its
to the fields. people.
5) Its social classes included rulers & priests, traders, craft workers, &
6) Ur’s temple or ziggurat, was a pyramid shaped structure where Priests Section 2 - Pyramids on the Nile
there led the city’s religious life.
Ancient Egypt
1) Another civilization arose along the banks of the Nile River of East
Chapter 2 -Early River Valley Civilizations Africa.
2) The ancient Egyptians worshipped the Nile as god. Egyptians lived in 2
Section 1 – City-States in Mesopotamia kingdoms:
Mesopotamia a) Upper Egypt
Agriculture Revolution b) Lower Egypt
1) The Tigris & the Euphrates flooding let rich mud, which helped the 3) By 3000 B.C., the king, Narmer, united the 2 Kingdoms.
settlers of Mesopotamia, grew wheat & barley. 4) Between 2660 - 2180 B.C., their culture arose.
2) It was here that the first civilization began in 3300 B.C. 5) Ruling over the land was the Pharaoh, king & god or a theocracy.
3) The Sumerians dug irrigation channels to bring water to their crops. 6) Pharaohs believed they would rule after their death. So they built huge
They built walls around their villages for defense & traded their crops tombs, or pyramids made out of massive limestone blocks.
extra with other groups. 7) Egyptians believed in many gods and in an afterlife.
4) Several large city-states had controlled over the area, BUT acted 8) One god, they thought, weighed the hearts of each dead person,
independently, like a country. judging sin.
9) Good people, with featherweight hearts, would live forever in a 13) Satellite images suggest a shift in the earth’s crust that caused
beautiful Other World. To prepare after life, they mummified the dead earthquakes, the Indus River may have changed its course stopping the
person’s body. yearly floods.
10) The pharaoh & his family were at the top of Egyptian society. 14) The people may have overworked the land, leaving the soil too poor to
11) Their writing system was the hieroglyphics, pictures that stood for produce crops.
sounds & ideas, written on a paper made of the papyrus plant. Harappan Language & Writing
12) They invented a system of written numbers & the calendar, which had Section 4 - River Dynasties in China
12 months, each of which had 30 days. 1) The last of the great early civilizations arose is China, which continues
13) They were famous for their ideas in medicine. to this day.
14) After 2180 B.C., the pharaohs lost power & Egypt went through a time 2) Invaders to the north & west tried to conquer China many times
of troubles. They fell to invaders in 1640 B.C. throughout its history.
Mummification Process 3) The two rivers that flood over China—the Huang He & the Yangtze -
Ramses II Temple in Abo Simbel made the land good for farming.
4) By 2000 B.C., the 1st dynasty brought government to China.
5) Around 1500 B.C., a new dynasty, the Shang, began to rule, leaving the
Section 3 - Planned Cities on the Indus first written records in China.
Harappan Civilization 6) Chinese people built their buildings of wood and surrounded them by
The First Indian Civilization huge walls for protection.
1) South Asia is a subcontinent, separated from the rest of Asia by tall 7) The king & the nobles were at the top of Shang society.
mountains. 8) Peasants were at the bottom, they lived in huts outside the city walls.
2) Ganges & Indus rivers flowed over the 2 large plains while the high Where they farmed with wooden tools.
mountains protected them from invaders, and the sea proximity helped 9) Shang society was held together by a strong belief in the importance of
them to trade over water. the group & not any single person.
3) The Indus faced flood, each spring, the winds brought heavy rains on 10) The Family was an important part of their society & religion.
the area, or monsoons. 11) The spirits of their ancestors, were consulted by the Shang using an
4) Historians cannot understand the writings of the people who settled in oracle.
the Indus Valley. 12) The Chinese Writing System stood for ideas, not sounds.
5) They do know that they were farming along the river by about 3200 B.C. 13) The written language had thousands of symbols making it difficult to
6) The culture is called Harappan civilization their culture covered an area learn. Very few learned to read & write.
larger than either Mesopotamia or Egypt. 14) By 1027 B.C., the Zhou, took control of China. They adopted Shang
7) The Geography of the Indian Subcontinent culture.
8) By 2500 B.C., Indus began building their first cities, & planned their 15) The idea of royalty began with the Zhou, they got authority to rule from
cities with streets, citadels & sewage. heaven, or Mandate of Heaven.
9) Scholars think the Indus didn’t have big differences between their social 16) The Chinese believed in the divine rule.
classes. 17) Until the early 1900s, the Chinese had one dynasty after another or
10) Historians think that the Indus traded with other region & dynastic cycle.
Mesopotamia. 18) The Zhou established feudalism - a political system in which the nobles
11) By 1750 B.C., the cities began to show signs of decline. owe loyalty to the king & fight for him & to protect the peasants who
12) The Indus Valley civilization collapsed around 1500 B.C. live on their land.
19) Eventually the Zhou rulers lost all power & the nobles fought each other 5) Explain how a person can achieve liberation from the mundane,
for control of China. achieving moksha a state of perfect understanding.
6) And believe in the state of Brahman or the unification of the atmans
(souls) into the world soul. Buddhism
Chapter 3 – People & Ideas On the Move 7) When the person achieves understanding of the atman & Brahman, that
person achieves perfect understanding and release from life in this
Section 1 - The Indo-Europeans world.
1) The Indo-Europeans were a group of nomads that came from the 8) But understanding doesn’t come in one life.
grassland north of the Caucasus Mountains. 9) By the process of reincarnation, the individual soul is born and born
a) Spanish, English, German, Hindi & Persian are rooted of these again and again until perfection is achieved.
groups’ language. 10) The Karma - good or bad deeds - follows one reincarnation to another
2) No one knows why these people left their homeland, scientists believe one.
that their population grew too large to sustain. 11) At time the Hindu Religion has preside the Brahman as three gods.
3) Two groups developed empires: the Hittites & the Aryans. The Hittites a) The three gods are:
established in Asia Minor or today’s modern Turkey. i) Vishnu - the protector.
4) They dominated Southwest Asia for 450 years and occupied Babylonia, ii) Shiva - the destroyer.
and fought Egypt for control of North Syria. iii) Brahman- the creator.
5) They borrowed ideas, laws, arts & literature from Mesopotamia. The 12) The idea Karma & reincarnation strengthened the caste system.
Hittites used iron & chariots to make war against their enemies.
6) Their Empire ended around 1190 B.C. Little Buddha
7) The Aryans crossed the Caspian Sea into Indus River Valley near 1500
B.C. Section 3 - Seafaring Traders: The Minoans & the Phoenicians
8) The Aryans were taller, had light skin color and spoke a different 1) The Minoans dominated the Eastern Mediterranean between
language. 2000 to 1400 BC
9) They created a society of classes (caste), people were divided into three 2) Established in Crete & other islands of the Aegean Sea.
castes. 3) Archeologists name the civilization after King Minus
10) Castes determined how people will work, get marry & what they could 4) Their main city is Knossos was excavated in the late 19 century.
eat. 5) They found a rich civilization:
11) As they moved into India struggles arrived between them and the a) The Minoans were graceful, athletic people that loved nature &
Krishna described as dark face people. beautiful objects.
b) By 1100 B.C. after Crete decline, the most powerful traders in the
Section 2 - Hinduism & Buddhism Develop Mediterranean Sea were the Phoenicians.
1) Hinduism is a collection of religious beliefs that develops slowly over a Carthage
long period of time. Minoan Civilization
2) It could not be traced back to one founder with a single set of ideas. Minoan Civilization
3) Between 750 & 550 B.C. Hindus teachers began to write the 6) The Phoenicians established in the middle east, in Lebanon today.
Upanishshads. Phoenicians did not have a unified country, but a number of cities-
4) Written dialogues between teachers and students states, which where trade center.
7) They were excellent ship builders, they were the first Mediterranean 13) The Hebrews were organized into 12 tribes.
group the venture out through the Strait of Gibraltar. 14) The Hebrews prophets were messengers sent by God to tell them their
8) Their most important cities were Sidon & Tyre, & were known for the two duties:
production of the red-purple dye. a) To worship God &
9) Phoenicians was known for the trading of papyrus & traded goods from b) To deal in just & fair ways with one another.
other land: c) Religion was a matter of each person living a moral life.
a) Wine, weapons, precious metals, ivory & slaves. d) Ancient Jerusalem
b) Their greatest legacy was the alphabet, which used symbols that 15) The Hebrews came to be known as the Jews. Their religion was called
represent sounds. Judaism.
c) They introduced their alphabet to the Greeks. 16) Between 1020 to 922 B.C., the Jews were united in one kingdom, Israel.
3 kings helped unite them.
Ancient Phoenicians a) Saul, kicked out Israel enemies
Phoenicia b) David, made Jerusalem the capital.
Phoenicians & Its Colonies c) Solomon, built the temple of Jerusalem
17) After Solomon’s death the kingdom split:Israel , in the north, & Judah,
Section 3 – Origin of Judaism in the south.
Noah’s Ark 18) Israel & Judah began to pay tribute to Assyria, or pay a stronger power so it does not attack.
77 19) Israel fell to the Assyrians & Judah to the Babylonians. 20) Jews were forced into exile in Babylon where they lived for many years
77 or Captivity years.
1) The Hebrews claimed a piece of land, the area now called Palestine. 21) Then the Babylonians themselves were conquered by the Persian king
2) They believed it was God’s promised land – know as Canaan. Cyrus the Great.
3) We know about them through a collection of books known as the Torah 22) The new ruler let 40,000 Jews return home.
(Old Testament). a) The Ten Commandments:
4) Their story began in Mesopotamia, when God chose a man named 1st I am the Lord your God . . . You shall have no other
Abraham to lead the Hebrews to Palestine. gods before me.
5) They believed in one god, or monotheism, & that God & Abraham made 2 nd
You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of
a covenants or a promise. anything . .
6) By 1650 B.C. the Hebrews moved to Egypt, where they were forced into 3rd You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God.
slavery. 4 th
Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.
7) But after many years, they fled Egypt or “the Exodus.” 5th Honor your father and mother . . .
Moses’ Story 6 th
You shall not murder.
The Burning Bush 7th You shall not commit adultery.
8) The Torah says that Moses led them out of Egypt between 1300 & 1200 8th You shall not steal.
B.C. & wandered 40 years. th
9 You shall not give false testimony against your
9) It is then that God gives Moses the Ten Commandments or their Laws. neighbor
10) God promised to protect them in return for their obedience. 10th You shall not covet your neighbor’s house . . . , or
11) After Moses died, the Hebrews finally reached Palestine & settled. anything that belongs to your neighbor.
12) They were at constant war for land with their neighbors.
Chapter 4 - The First Empires Valley of the Kings

Section 1 - The Egyptian & Nubian Empires The Assyrian Empire

Hatshepsut 1) The Hittite Empire
1) At the end of its second period of glory, power struggles weakened a) Their civilization was base on military power, & their success was in
Egypt. part of their ability to make iron weapons.
2) The Hyksos conquered Egypt, & ruled it until 1600 B.C., when Pharaohs b) Soldiers fought with bronze weapons for about 1500 years, but iron
was harder.
restored their power & kicked them out.
c) So they kept their secret well guarded.
3) These Pharaohs began some conquests of their own, in the New
Kingdom, Egypt was richer & more powerful than ever. d) This brought a new age to history the Iron Age.
4) Hatshepsut, a female Pharaoh, encouraged trade, but her stepson , e) The Assyrians
Thutmose III, removed her from power, he & other pharaohs ruled over f) The Assyrian King
Syria, Palestine & Nubia .
5) The pharaohs of the New Kingdom did not build pyramids, instead, they 2) They also developed the use of horses to fight wars, the horses were
built tombs (in Valley of the Kings). use to pull wooden wagons.
6) Ramses II (1290 to 1244 B.C ) stood out among the great builders of the 3) They learned how to breed large horses so they mounted part of their
New Kingdom. army on the horseback (Calvary).
7) Around 1200 B.C., Mediterranean invaders attacked Egypt. 4) The Hittite built a large empire with their military strength, they ruled
between 1400 B.C. and 1200 B.C. in the land that we called Turkey.
5) These people lived in wall cities made of huge blocks of stone.
Ramses II 6) Their Empire fell by 1200 B.C. after a series of invasions from other
Ramses II neighbors.
Ramses II Assyrian Calvary
8) The “Sea Peoples”, attacked the Hittites & Egypt, the Libyans took Assyria City
control of the land, but followed the Egyptian way of life.. Section 3 – The Persian Empire
9) As Egypt grew weaker, the Nubian kingdom of Kush became more
The City of Persepolis
1) Persia, a new power, arose east of Mesopotamia, in modern Iran.
10) The people of Kush followed Egyptian traditions & customs, & protected
2) Mesopotamia had good farmland & was rich in minerals -- copper, lead,
Egyptian values.
gold, & silver.
11) King Piankhi forced the Libyans out & united Egypt again.
3) The Persians defeated the Assyrians around 550 B.C., & began their own
12) He brought back Egypt’s glory & ruled it for a few decades until the
Assyrians invasion.
4) King Cyrus led his army to conquer a huge empire which it stretched
13) The Kushite kings settled in the city of Meroë, south of Egypt when their
from India to Anatolia (Turkey) 2,000 miles, in just over 10 years.
kingdom entered a golden age.
5) Cyrus won all this land in part because of the wise way he treated the
14) The city played an important role in trade, & making iron weapons &
people there.
tools, & they traded with Arabia & India.
6) He did not destroy towns & cities, like the Assyrians, & his army avoid to
15) They also trade jewelry, cloth, silver lamps, & glass bottles.
harm the people he conquered.
16) The city thrived from 250 B.C. to 150 A.D. & fell by 350 to rival Aksum,
7) He let the people to practice their old religions, ex. The Hebrews were
a seaport farther south.
allowed return to Jerusalem & rebuild their temple
a) Cyrus , a great warrior, but was killed in battle. 10) Other people turned to the idea of yin & yang. Or harmony between the
b) Cyrus, Darius & Xerxes two powers or opposite forces in the universe.
8) Cyrus son, Cambyses, conquered Egypt, but unlike his father, he did not 11) A 13-year-old ruler became ruler of the Qin Dynasty, named Shi Huangdi
respect the Egyptians way of life. or “First Emperor.”
9) The next king, Darius, extended the empire, only Greece escaped his 12) He ended the turmoil in China by using the ideas of Legalism to unite
control. China.
10) Darius divided the land into 20 provinces, & allowed each of them 13) He doubled the size of China by establishing an autocracy or a ruler has
practice its own religion, speak its own language, & obey their own unlimited power.
laws. 14) He forced wealthy nobles to give up their land in the country
11) He built a 1,677 miles Royal Road to unite the empire, messengers on 15) He destroyed his enemies, control ideas by burning books, built a
horses made communication better. network of roads, set standards for writing, law, money, & weights &
12) He had metal standard value coins made that could be used for business measures to be followed throughout the empire.
anywhere in the empire to increase trade. 16) In the past, some Chinese rulers had built sections of wall to try to block
13) During the Persian Empire, a new religion arose with the concept of attacks from northern nomads.
good (light) & evil (darkness) --these two spirits were in a constant 17) Shi Huangdi had hundreds of thousands of poor people connect these
struggle. sections of wall and make a huge barrier.
14) These ideas influenced later religions. 18) When finished, the Great Wall of China stretched for thousands of
miles. These steps won the emperor little support. When he died, his
son took the throne. Just three years into his reign, peasants revolted
Section 4 - The Unification of China and managed to overthrow the emperor.
1) After the fall of the Zhou dynasty, China became a land of troubles. 19) By 202 B.C., the Qin dynasty had given way to the Han dynasty.
2) Ancient Chinese values were forgotten, but thinkers such as Confucius
tried to find ways to restore them.
3) Confucius (born in 551 B.C) believed:
a) People would have to work at five basic relationships. ruler & Chapter 5 - The Greeks
subject, father & son, husband & wife, older & younger brothers, &
friend & friend. Section 1 – Cultures of the Mountains & the Seas
4) The family relationships were the most important & children should Jason and the Argonauts
practice filial piety or respect for parents & elders. Ancient Greece
5) Confucius tried to improve government by creating the basis of a 1) Greece has rocky high mountains & deep valleys, they are all barriers
bureaucracy or a system of departments & agencies for running the for them.
government. Educated people were needed in these jobs. 2) The lack farmlands made the Greeks to become sailors that traded with
6) Confucianism: focuses on developing the ideal relationship between others b/c they had few natural resources.
individuals and society 3) B/c the mild climate the Greeks were outdoors almost all the time.
7) Laozi, another thinker, said nature follows a universal force called 4) They conducted government outside & worshiped at home, temples &
the Dao, or “the Way.” or Daoism. in public places.
8) Other thinkers formed a set of beliefs called Legalism or the use laws to The Greek World
restore order. Minoan Civilization
9) Chinese people used the I Ching book, which give practical advice for 5) People from Europe, India, & Southwest Asia settled in Greece around
solving problems. 2000 B.C.
6) The Mycenaeans were ruled by warrior-kings.
7) They developed a strong culture by borrowing from the Minoan culture Athens City-State
of Crete. Ancient for of Government
8) Adapting the Minoan writing & artistic design & trading. 9) Athenians tried to build a democracy, or government by the people.
9) It was the Mycenaeans who fought a war against Troy, a city in Turkey, 10) In 594 B.C., Solon came to power & introduced reforms to their
or Trojan War. government.
10) The war started b/c a Trojan youth (Paris) kidnapped a Greek woman, or 11) He allowed any Athenian to join the assembly, or law making body.
Helen (of Troy). 12) In 504 B.C., Cleisthenes allowed their citizens participation in a limited
11) She was the beautiful wife of a Greek king. democracy.
12) The Greek army later destroyed Troy. 13) However, only free adult men were citizens. Women & slaves had no
Greek Mythology rights.
Troy Athens Leadership
Mythology The Battle of Marathon
13) Sea raiders destroyed the Mycenaeans by 1200 B.C. Battle of Marathon
14) A less advanced Dorians occupied the land, & for the next 400 years, The Spartan Soldier
Greece was in declined. 14) Sparta was a very strong city-state in the south of Greece, it
15) Little is known about this era, no written records exist, but the spoken conquered its neighbor Messenia
word lived on, thanks to Homer made up epics: long poems, based on 15) The Messenians people became helots, or Sparta’s slaves forces.
tales he heard. 16) Two kings ruled over Sparta’s military.
16) Epics are about heroes & their deeds. 17) Spartans prized military skills.
17) Homer’s great epics were the Iliad & Odyssey, the story of Trojan War. 18) At age 7, Spartan boys joined their army.
18) The Greeks also created the myths or stories explain the actions of gods 19) Spartan women stay @ home, & freeing their men to serve the army.
& events in nature. 20) Each city-state had its own army. In this army, soldiers stood side by
19) In Greek myths, gods often act like humans, showing feelings, such as side with a spear & shield in hand forming a phalanx.
love, hate, and jealousy. 21) The Persian Wars, or a war between Greece & Persian (490 B.C.),
20) Unlike humans the Greek gods lived forever. 22) Persian ships landed 25,000 soldiers @ Marathon, where the Greeks
The Olympus won a huge battle, saving Athens.
Warring City-States 23) The Persians returned 10 years later, & defeated the Spartans @
Thermopolis (300), & burned Athens.
Section 2 – Greece City States 24) The Greek navy won at sea, & followed by a victory on land which
1) The center of Greek life was the polis, or city-state. forced the Persian Army to retread & never come back.
2) A polis was the city & the countryside villages surrounding it. Acropolis 25) Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age
is a fortified hilltop in the polis.
3) The city-states had different kinds of government: Section 3 – The Greeks Sparta vs. Athens
4) Monarchy, ruled by a king or queen. 1) Pericles led Athens (461 to 429 B.C.) during its golden age.
5) Aristocracy, ruled by a small group of noble families. 2) Pericles set three goals. a more democratic Athens so people could
6) Oligarchy, ruled by a few powerful people. served in government.
7) When the common people clashed with the rulers, a tyrant appealed to 3) Brought a direct democracy or citizens ruled directly.
their support. 4) Increased Athens wealth & power by building a navy.
8) They were looked upon as leaders who did things for the people.
5) Another goal was to make Athens beautiful. He used money from the Section 4 - Alexander’s Empire
empire to create great works of art. Battle of Gaugamela
6) The Parthenon, an architectural masterpiece, built to honor of Athena. Alexander’s Family
The Acropolis Alexander the Great Empire
Hellenistic Culture 1) In 359 B.C., king Philip II of Macedonia, a kingdom to the north of
7) Greek’s sculptures are example of classical art reflecting order, Greece, prepared his army to invade Greece.
balance, & proportion. 2) He trained his troops to be tough fighters.
8) Athens playwrights wrote: 3) The Athenian orator Demosthenes warned the Greeks about Philip’s
a) Tragedies or plays about the pain, suffering, love, hate, & wars plans, but it too late the Greek independence was now over.
where heroes had flaws. 4) Philip had plans to invade Persia next but he was killed.
b) Comedies or plays that made audiences laugh about customs, 5) His son Alexander became king at age 20 & known by history as
politics, & people. Alexander the Great.
c) Herodotus & Thucydides’ developed the subject of history. 6) Alexander was a brilliant general that carried out his father’s dream of
d) After years of rivalries Sparta & Athens went to war, or the world conquest.
Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.) 7) In 334 B.C., Alexander invaded Persia.
9) The conflict ended badly for Athens, a plague (430 B.C.) killed many 8) After Alexander’s first victory, the king of Persia, Darius III, faced him.
Athenians, including Pericles. With a surprise attack Alexander forced Darius III to retreat.
10) After several battles, truce was signed, which it didn’t last. They were
soon back fighting until Athens gave up in 404 B.C. Alexander the Great
11) Athens was ruled by Sparta for the next 10 years. 9) Alexander moved his army to Egypt & was crowned pharaoh, where
12) Greek Philosophy he founded Alexandria.
a) The greatest philosophers were: 10) He then turned back to Persia & won another great battle, ending all
i) Socrates: urged that nothing be accepted without questioning. Persian resistance the empire was his now.
Knowledge for Socrates was the way to the truth & the good 11) He pushed east, taking his army as far as India but after many years of
life. fighting his soldiers wanted to return home.
ii) Plato taught that the goal of human beings was to strive for 12) Alexander agreed to go back & on the way home, he planned for how to
perfection & the highest good. govern his empire but he fell ill & died at age 33.
iii) Aristotle wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, 13) Three of his generals divided his empire.
politics, mathematics, & biology. a) Cassander ruled Macedonia & Greece.
b) Ptolemy in Egypt.
Socrates’ Death c) Seleucus became ruler of what it was Persian Empire.
13) A strong & healthy body was important to the Greeks. 14) Alexander’s empire had important effects the people of Greece &
14) Participation in athletics became a civic duty of Greek citizens. Persia & all the lands between mixed together & shared ideas & culture.
15) Athletic contests were part of many religious festivals.
16) The most famous were the Olympian Games which were held every four Section 5 - The Spread of Hellenistic Culture
years at Olympia, a town in western Greece. 1) Hellenistic culture is blended Greek with Egyptian, Persian, & Indian
17) These games were held in honor of the god Zeus. influences
Olympic Games 2) The center of this culture was Alexandria, in Egypt near mouth of the
Olympia Nile River on the Mediterranean Sea.
3) Alexandria ships trade with many different countries.
4) Alexandria was a beautiful city, it had a huge lighthouse, art museums, Chapter 6 - The Roman Empire
a zoo, & gardens.
5) Alexandria had the first true research library with half-million papyrus Section 1 – The Roman Republic
scrolls, which contained everything known in the Hellenistic world.
6) Scholars kept what was known about science alive, others Roman Empire
learned new ideas. Romulus & Remus
7) Observatory were use to look at the stars & planets. One of these The Italian Peninsula
astronomers developed the idea that the sun was actually larger than The Etruscan Art
Earth. 1) Rome was founded by Latin people in the center of the Italian peninsula
8) Euclid wrote a book with the basic ideas of geometry. 2) Its location gave them controlled Italy & the Mediterranean.
9) Archimedes invented many clever machines. 3) Two other groups lived in Italy then: the Greeks & the Etruscans. And
10) Two new schools of philosophy arose in these times. the Romans borrowed ideas from both.
11) The Stoics argued that people should live a good life to stay in harmony 4) In 509 B.C., Romans overthrew their Etruscan ruler created a republic,
with natural laws. Desire, power, & wealth led people to a wrong path. or government by the people with power to vote & choose their
12) The Epicureans said that people could rely only on what they learned leaders.
from their five senses. They urged everyone to live moral lives. 5) Two groups dominated roman society:
13) Sculptures aimed to show perfect forms they were more realistic & a) The patricians, or the aristocratic landowners had the power.
emotional. The largest known Hellenistic statue is the Colossus of b) The plebeians, or the common farmers, artisans, & merchants who
Rhodes , 100 feet high. made up most of the population.
Word Bank c) At first, the patricians were in charged but over time, the plebeians
1) Oligarchy got the right to form their own assembly & to elect representatives,
2) Democracy or tribunes.
3) Alexander Rome Social Classes
4) Alexandria Wealthy Roman Patrician Home
5) Athens The Roman World
6) Peloponnesus 6) Twelve Tables were the Roman law, a set of rules that protected
7) Pericles all free citizens .
8) Macedonia 7) The government had three parts:
9) Homer a) Two Consuls, or officials that led the government & army.
10) Euclid b) The Senate had 300 members from the upper classes & passed
11) Pella (Pellas) laws.
12) Peninsula c) The Assemblies, included citizen-soldiers or plebeians, & could also
13) Sparta make laws.
14) Socrates d) In case of crisis a Dictator could be appointed for 6 months, or a
15) Epic leader with absolute power.
16) Marathon Roman Republic
Roman Forum
Roman Senate
The Roman Army
8) All Roman property owner needed to serve in the army. 15) Roman goods were trade throughout the empire by ship & their
9) Roman soldiers were organized into legions, or 5,000 heavily armed roads protected their armies.
foot soldiers. 16) Many Roman soldiers came from conquered territories & citizenship
10) In the 4th century B.C., Rome conquered Italy & gave citizenship was given to them for their service.
conquered peoples. 17) Augustus was Rome’s Greatest Emperor; he brought peace, built public
11) Rome’s growth brought it into conflict with Carthage, a trading city in buildings & created a lasting government.
North Africa. 18) Then after, the Five Good Emperors ruled Rome (96- 180 A.D.) & with
12) Between 264 to 146 B.C., they fought three (3) Punic Wars. the death of Marcus Aurelius the Pax Romana declined.
13) In the 1st War, Rome won control over Sicily, 19) Romans valued discipline, strength, & loyalty, & family (the center of
14) In the 2nd, Hannibal, a brilliant Carthaginian general invaded Italy, but their society).
was unable to take Rome, the Roman general, Scipio, defeat him. 20) Roman men controlled all properties; including women & slaves.
15) On the last war, Carthage was destroyed , its people enslaved & turned 21) 1/3 population were slaves, from conquered lands. They worked in the
into province. city, on farms, & in the arena as gladiators.
22) Slaves did revolt at times but unsuccessfully.
Section 2 - The Roman Empire 23) Quality of life in Rome depended on social position.
Caesar Timeline
1) Rome’s victory in Carthage brought conflicts between the rich & poor in
Rome. Section 3 - The Rise of Christianity
2) A Civil War, or fighting between groups in the same country, broke out. Roman Gods
Leading generals fought for power. Mercury - Messenger of the Gods
3) Julius Caesar joined with two generals —Crassus & Pompey to form a Minerva - Goddess of Wisdom
triumvirate, or three leaders. For ten (10) years they ruled Rome. Ceres - The Earth Goddess
4) Caesar gained fame after his army conquered Gaul (France) but Pompey Proserpine - Goddess of the Underworld
feared him as a result. Vulcan - The Smith God
5) Their armies fought another civil war, & Caesar won. Bacchus - God of Wine
6) He then governed as an absolute ruler, or a leader who holds all Saturn - God of Time
powers. Vesta - Goddess of the Home
7) Caesar’s reforms increased his popularity. But some senators mistrusted Janus - God of Doors
him & killed him, they feared he wanted to become king. Uranus - Father of Saturn
8) Rome suffered another civil war. Maia - Goddess of Growth
9) Caesar’s nephew, Octaviun, was the winner. He took the title Augustus, Jupiter - King of the Gods
“exalted one,” the empire was now ruled by one man. Juno - Queen of the Gods
10) For about 200 years, the Roman empire was a great power. Neptune - God of the Sea
11) With population of 80 million enjoyed peace and prosperity. Pluto - God of Death
12) This period is known as the Pax Romana—Roman peace. Apollo - God of the Sun
13) The empire stretched through out the European Continent, Africa & the Diana - Goddess of the Moon
Middle East. Mars - God of War
14) It relied on farming, which employed 90 % of all workers. All Roads Led Venus - Goddess of Love
to Rome Cupid - God of Love
Jesus of Nazareth 2) Rome suffered economic problems from slowed trading, from inflation,
1) Rome conquered the Jews by 44 BC, but the Jews want them to leave a drastic drop in the value of money & a rise in prices, & a short in the
their land. Many Jews hoped for a Messiah, a savior that could restore food supplies.
their kingdom back. 3) The empire also had military problems:
2) Jesus was born in Judea, at 30 he began his teaching. a) German tribes caused trouble on the frontiers.
3) His message included the Ten Commandments & the belief in one God. b) Persians defeated them in260 A.D. & captured the emperor.
4) According to the Apostles , his followers, as He performed miracles his c) Mercenaries were hired instead of the unreliable Roman soldiers.
fame grew & some believed him to be the Messiah. 4) Roman generals fought one another for control of the empire.
5) But many Jewish leaders didn’t believe that. & Roman leaders feared an 5) Diocletian became emperor in 284, he passed laws to fix the economy &
insurrection, arrested & put him to death. divided the empire into eastern & western halves to make it easier to
6) After his death, his followers said that Jesus appeared to them. They govern.
called him the Christ, or savior. 6) Constantine became emperor of both empires in 324, & moved the
7) His followers, the Christians, led by Peter spread Jesus’ teachings. capital of the empire to Turkey, to Constantinople.
8) At first all Jesus’ followers were all Jewish, but, under the apostle Paul , 7) The Fall Roman Empire
Christianity expanded to all people. Michelangelo's “Paul’s Conversion” 8) Reforms delayed the end of the Roman Empire but could not prevent its
9) An unsuccessful Jews revolt against Rome, forced Rome drive them out fall.
of their homeland into exile, or the Diaspora. 9) The eastern part of the empire remained strong & unified. But troubles
10) Roman leaders put many Christians to death in the arena. continued in the west.
11) But, Christianity continued spreading & after 200 years, millions 10) Germanic tribes moved into the empire, trying to escape the Huns,
converted. fierce nomadic people from central Asia, moving into their land.
12) Christianity spread b/c it accepted all believers, gave hope to the 11) The Roman armies in the west collapsed. German armies twice entered
powerless, offered a personal relationship with God & promised of life Rome itself.
after death. 12) In 408 Visigoths led by their king, Alaric, put Rome under siege.
13) The church was organized in Diocese or Regions: 13) In 444, the Huns united under Attila, his armies terrorized both empires.
a) Priests - the churches. 14) By 476 German peoples controlled many areas of Europe. That year a
b) Bishops - area. German general removed the last western Roman emperor from the
c) The Pope - head of the Church. throne.
14) In 313 A.D., emperor Constantine declared that Christians would no
longer be persecuted & gave his official approval.
15) A few decades later, Christianity became the empire’s official religion. Section 5 - Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization
Christians Persecution in Rome 1) Rome took aspects of Greek and Hellenistic culture and added ideas
Constantine’s Dream of its own.
16) Constantine formed the Counsel of Nicea, he ordered the bishops to 2) The mixing of Greek, Hellenistic, & Roman culture produced a new
make a Bible. culture called Greco-Roman culture, or classical civilization.
17) He also made a new capital for the empire, he called it, Constantinople 3) Roman artists, philosophers, & writers created a style of their own for
their own purposes.
Section 4 - The Fall of the Roman Empire 4) Roman art had practical purposes, it was aimed at educating the public.
1) Rome entered a period of decline after the reign of Marcus Aurelius 5) Romans their sculptures more realistic.
ended in 180 A.D. 6) Romans created pictures made from tiny tiles, or mosaic.
7) Their paintings are found in the Roman town of Pompeii. (covered with
ash after a volcanic eruption).
8) In both literature & philosophy, Romans were inspired by the Greeks.
9) The poet Virgil wrote the Aeneid.
10) Tacitus, Roman historian, described the good & bad parts of imperial
Rome in his Annals and Histories.
11) The Roman language, Latin, was important in European history.
12) It was the official language of the Roman Catholic Church into the 20th
13) Many European languages developed from Latin, including French,
Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian. And many Latin words are
used in other languages, including English.
14) Romans also became famous for their skill at engineering. Arches &
domes to build large.
15) A system of roads & aqueducts.
16) The Roman government set standards of law that still influence people
today. Some of the most important principles of Roman law were:
17) All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law.
18) A person was considered innocent until proven guilty.The burden of
proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused.
19) A person should be punished only for actions, not for thoughts.
20) Any law that seemed unreasonable or unfair could be set aside.