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CHAPTER 9

DIGITAL MODULATION

Items Definitions Terms

1 Is the transmission, reception, and processing of information Electronic


with the use of electronic circuits. Communication

2 Is defined as knowledge or intelligence that is communicated Information


between two or more points.

3 Is the transmittal of digitally modulated analog signals Digital Modulation


(carriers) between two or more points in a communication system.
Digital
4 System involving the transmission of digital pulses. Transmission

5 The information signal is digital and the amplitude (V) of the Amplitude Shift
carrier is varied proportional to the information signal. Keying ( ASK )

6 The information signal is digital and the frequency (f) of the Frequency Shift
carrier is varied proportional to the information signal. Keying ( FSK )

7 The information signal is digital and the phase (θ) of Phase Shift Keying
the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal. ( PSK )

8 A modulation where both the amplitude and the phase are varied Quadrature
proportional to the information signal. Amplitude
Modulation
( QAM )

9 Performs level conversion and then codes the incoming data Pre-coder
into groups of bits that modulate an analog carrier.

10 Is a highly theoretical study of the efficient use of bandwidth Information


to propagate information through electronic communications systems. Theory

11 Is a measure of how much information can be propagated through Information


a communications system and is a function of bandwidth and transmission time. Capacity

12 The most basic digital symbol used to represent information. Binary Digit / Bit

13 In 1928, _________ of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a R. Hartley


useful relationship among bandwidth, transmission time, and information
capacity.

14 In 1948, mathematician _________ (also of Bell Telephone Claude E. Shannon


Laboratories) published a paper in the Bell System Technical Journal relating
the information capacity of a communications channel to bandwidth and
signal-to-noise ratio.

15 Simply represents a digit that corresponds to the number of M


conditions, levels, or combinations possible for a given number of binary
variables.

16 Refers to the rate of change of a digital information signal, Bit Rate


which is usually binary.

17 Refers to the rate of change of a signal on a transmission Baud


medium after encoding and modulation have occurred.

18 Sometimes called a symbol and could be encoded as a change in Signaling Element


the amplitude, frequency, or phase.

19 The minimum theoretical bandwidth necessary to propagate a Nyquist Bandwidth


signal.

20 According to ________, binary digital signals can be H. Nyquist


propagated through an ideal noiseless transmission medium at a rate equal to
two time the bandwidth of the medium.
21 The carrier is either “on” or “off” which is why amplitude- On-Off Keying
shift keying is sometimes referred to as ________.

22 A logic 1 frequency (fm) for FSK. Mark

23 A logic 0 frequency (fs) for FSK. Space

24 The mark and space frequencies are separated from the mark and Peak Frequency
space frequencies are separated from the carrier frequency by the _________ Deviation (Δf)
and from each of by 2 Δf.

25 _______ is the peak frequency deviation of the carrier and is Δf


equal to the difference between the carrier rest frequency and either the
mark or space frequency.

26 A type of FSK detection wherein there is no frequency involved Noncoherent


in the demodulation process that is synchronized either in phase, frequency, Detection
or both with the incoming FSK signal.

27 A type of FSK detection wherein the incoming FSK signal is Coherent


multiplied by a recovered carrier signal that has exact same frequency and Detection
phase as the transmitter reference.

28 Is binary FSK except the mark and space frequencies are Continuous-Phase
synchronized with the input binary bit rate. FSK ( CP-FSK )

29 A signal state-space diagram, is similar to a phasor diagram Constellation


except that the entire phasor is not drawn. Only the relative positions of Diagram
the peaks of the phasors are shown.

30 Is a product modulator; the output signal is the product of Balanced


the two input signals. Modulator

31 Detect and regenerates a carrier signal that is both frequency Coherent Carrier
and phase coherent with the original transmit carrier. Recovery Circuit

32 Also known as quadrature PSK that is another form of Quaternary PSK


angle-modulated, constant-amplitude digital modulation. ( QPSK )
34 It modulates the carrier that is in phase with the reference I Bit
oscillator.

35 It modulates the carrier that is 90 out of phase or in Q Bit


quadrature with reference carrier.

36 Is two BPSK modulators combined in parallel. QPSK Modulator

37 The highest fundamental frequency present at the data input to 1/4


the I or the Q balanced modulator is equal to _______ of the input data rate.

38 The fastest output rate of change (baud) is also equal to 1/2


________ of the input bit rate.

39 The outputs of the product detectors are fed to the ________, Bit Combining
here they are converted from parallel I and Q data channels to a single Circuit
binary output data stream.

40 Is a modified for of QPSK where the bit waveforms on the I and Offset QPSK
Q channels are offset or shifted in phase from each other by one-half of a ( OQPSK )
bit time.

41 The advantage of OQPSK is the _________ that must be imparted Limited Phase
during modulation. Shift

42 With ________, three bits are encoded, forming tribits and 8 PSK
producing eight different output phases.

43 Group of 3 bits. Tribit

44 Also known as maximum distance code used to reduce the number Gray Code
of transmission errors.
45 Converts the I/C and Q/C bit pairs to serial, Q, and C output Parallel-to-Serial
data streams. Logic Circuit

46 Group of 4 bits. Quadbits

47 16-PSK can undergo only a _______ phase shift during 11.25°


transmission and still retain its integrity.

48 Is an M-ary encoding technique where M = 8. The output signal 8 – QAM


from this modulator is not a constant-amplitude signal.

49 The process of introducing transitions (pulses) into the Scrambling


binary signal using a prescribed algorithm.

50 It uses the same algorithm for scrambling to remove the Descrambler


transitions.

51 Is an alternative form of digital modulation where the binary Differential


input is contained in the difference between two successive signalling Phase-Shift Keying
elements rather than the absolute phase. ( DPSK )

52 Data transmission rates in excess of 56 kbps can be achieved, Trellis Code


over standard telephone circuits using an encoding technique called ________. Modulation ( TCM )

53 __________ at IBM Zuerich Research Laboratory developed TCM, Dr. Ungerboeck


which involves using convolutional (tree codes, which combines encoding and
modulation to reduce the probability of error, thus improving the bit error
performance.

54 Defines the manner in which signal-state transitions are Trellis Coding


allowed to occur, and transitions that do not follow this pattern are
interpreted in the receiver as transmission errors.

55 The distance between symbols on the constellation of the TCM Euclidean Distance
coding scheme on standard QAM.

56 Is the ratio of the average carrier power (the combined power Carrier-To-Noise
of the carrier and its associated sidebands) to the thermal noise power. Power Ratio

57 Is simply the energy of a single bit of information. Energy Per Bit

58 The phase relationship between signalling elements for BPSK Antipodal


(i.e., 180° out of phase) is the optimum signalling format, referred to as Signaling
________.

59 Two types of FSK systems. Noncoherent


( Asynchronous )
And Coherant (
Synchonous )

60 The transmitter and receiver are not frequency or phase Noncoherent FSK
synchronized.

61 Local receiver reference signals are in frequency and phase Coherent FSK
lock with the transmitted signals.

CHAPTER 10
DIGITAL TRANSMISSION

Items Definitions Terms

1 Is the transmittal of digital signals between two or more Digital


points in a communications system. Transmission

2 _________ developed the first digital transmission system for AT&T


the purpose of carrying digitally encoded analog signals, such as human
voice, over metallic wire cables between telephone offices.

3 The primary advantage of digital transmission over analog Noise Immunity


transmission.
4 Digital signals are also better suited than analog signals for Multiplexing
processing and combining using a technique called _____.

5 Is the processing of analog signals using digital methods and Digital Signal
includes bandlimiting the signal with filters, amplitude equalization, and Processing
phase shifting. ( DSP )

6 Digital transmission systems are more resistant to analog Signal


systems to additive noise because they use ________ rather than signal Regeneration
amplification.

7 Consist essentially of sampling analog information signals and Pulse


then converting those samples into discrete pulses and transporting the Modulation
pulses from a source to a destination over a physical transmission medium.

8 The four predominant methods of pulse modulation. PWM, PPM, PAM


and PCM

9 Sometimes called pulse duration modulation (PDM) or pulse Pulse Width


length modulation (PLM), as the width (active portion of the duty cycle) of a Modulation
constant amplitude pulse is varied proportional to the amplitude of the ( PWM )
analog signal at the time the signal is sampled.

10 The position of a constant-width pulse within a prescribed Pulse Position


time slot is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog Modulation
signal. ( PPM )

11 The amplitude of a constant-width, constant-position pulse is Pulse Amplitude


varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. Modulation

12 The analog signal is sampled and then converted to a serial Pulse Code
n-bit binary code for transmission. Modulation
( PCM )

13 __________ is credited with inventing PCM in 1937 while Alex H. Reeves


working for AT&T at its Paris laboratories.

14 A circuit that periodically samples the analog input signal Sample-and-Hol


and converts those samples to a multilevel PAM signal. d Circuit

15 The transmission line ________ are placed at prescribed Repeaters


distances to regenerate the digital pulses.

16 An integrated circuit that performs the PCM encoding and Codec ( Coder /
decoding functions. Decoder )

17 The function of a _________ in a PCM transmitter is to Sampling Circuit


periodically sample the continually changing analog input voltage and convert
those samples to a series of constant-amplitude pulses that can more easily
be converted to binary PCM code.

18 The sampling process alters the frequency spectrum and Aperture Error
introduces an error called _________.

19 The ________ of the capacitor is called the A/D conversion Storage Time
time because it is during this time that the ADC converts the sample voltage
to a PCM code.

20 If the input to the ADC is changing while it is performing the Aperture


conversion, _______ results. Distortion

21 _________ theorem establishes the minimum sampling rate (fs) Nyquist


that can be used for a given PCM system. Sampling

22 The binary codes used for PCM are _________, where n may be N-Bit Codes
any positive integer greater than 1.

23 The sign bit in a sign-magnitude code. Most Significant


Bit ( MSB )
24 Is the process of converting an infinite number of Quantization
possibilities to a finite number of conditions. Is the process of rounding
off the amplitudes of flat-top samples to a manageable number of levels.

25 A type of code where the codes on the bottom half of the table Folded Binary
are a mirror image of the codes on the top half, except for the sign bit. Code

26 The magnitude difference between adjacent steps. Quantization


Interval or
Quantum

27 If the magnitude of the sample exceeds the highest Overload


quantization interval, ________ (also called peak limiting) occurs. Distortion

28 Any round-off errors in the transmitted signal are reproduced Quantization


when the code is converted back to analog in the receiver. Error (Qe )
Quantization
Noise (Qn)

29 Is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the smallest Dynamic Ratio
possible magnitude (other than 0V) that can be decoded by the
digital-to-analog converter in the receiver.

30 During times when there is no analog input signal, the only Idle Channel
input to the PAM sampler is random, thermal noise also called as __________, Noise
that is converted to a PAM sample just as if it were a signal.

31 A way to reduce idle channel noise wherein the first Midtread


quantization interval is made larger in amplitude than the rest of the steps. Quantization

32 Is the process of compressing and then expanding. Companding

33 Two methods of companding: μ-Law and A-law


Companding

34 Involves compression in the transmitter after the input sample Digital


has been converted to a linear PCM code and then expansion in the receiver Companding
prior to PCM decoding.

35 When digitizing speech signals only, special voice Vacoders


encoders/decoders called _______ are often used

36 A _________ coder extracts the most significant portions of Linear


speech information directly from the time waveform rather than from the Predictive
frequency spectrum as with the channel and formant vocoders.

37 _________ modulation uses a single-bit PCM code to achieve Delta


digital transmission of analog signals.

38 Two problems associated with delta modulation that do not Slope Overload
occur with conventional PCM. and Granular
Subdivision

39 With ________, the difference in the amplitude of two Differential PCM


successive samples is transmitted rather than the actual sample. ( DPCM )

40 The secondary lobes are called __________. Ringing test

41 _________ causes crosstalk between channels that occupy Inter symbol


adjacent time slots in a time-division-multiplexed carrier system. interference
( ISI )

42 Special filters called _________ are inserted in the Equalizers


transmission path to “equalize” the distortion for all frequencies, creating
uniform transmission medium reducing transmission impairments.

43 A ________ is simply the superposition of a series of Pulse


harmonically related sine waves with specific amplitude and phase Modulation
relationships.

44 The decision levels for the regenerator are represented by Crosshairs


45 The _______ has an effect on the symbol timing (clock) Jitter
recovery circuit and, if excessive, may significantly degrade the performance
of cascaded regenerative sections.

CHAPTER 11
DIGITAL T-CARRIERS AND
MULTIPLEXING

Items Definitions Terms

1 Transmission of information from one or more source To one or Multiplexing


more destination over the same transmission medium (facility).

2 Unsophisticated form of multiplexing that simply constitutes Space-Division


propagating signals from different sources of different cables that are Multiplexing
contained within the same trench.

3 Considered as transmission medium. Trench

4 Form of phase-division multiplexing (PDM) where to date QPSK


channels (the I and Q) modulate the same carrier frequency that has been
shifted 90◦ in phase.

5 Modulates a sine wave carrier. I – Channel Bits

6 Modulates a cosine wave carrier. Q – Channel Bits

7 Three most predominant methods of multiplexing signals. Time-Division


Multiplexing;
Frequency-Division
Multiplexing;
Wavelength-Division
Multiplexing

8 Transmissions from multiple sources occur on the same but not Time-Division
on the same time. Multiplexing

9 Most prevalent encoding technique used for TDM digital PCM


signals.

10 Use an 8-kHz sample rate and an eight-bit PCM code, which DS-O Channel
produces a 64 kbps PCM line speed.

11 Simply an electronically controlled digital switch with two Multiplexer


inputs and one outputs.

12 One eight-bit PCM code from each channel (16 total bits). TDM Frame

13 Time it takes to transmit one TDM frame. Frame Time

14 A communications system that uses digital pulses rather than Digital Carrier System
analog signals to encode information.

15 Specifies a digital carrier system using PCM encoded analog TI or Transmission One
signals.

16 Voice band channel bandwidth. 300 Hz to 3000 Hz

17 Special conditioned cables. TI Lines

18 Used to maintain frame and sample synchronization between TDM Framing Bit
transmitter & receiver.

19 PCM encoders & decoders with a seven-bit magnitude. Digital Channel Banks

20 Supervision between telephone offices, such as on hook, off Signaling


hook, dial pulsing, and so forth.

21 Only seven-bit resolution. Signaling Frame


22 Consist of 24 193 bit frames, totaling 4632 bits, of which 24 Extended Super Frame
are framing bits. Format

23 Used for an error detection code. CRC-6 ( Cyclic


Redundancy Checking )

24 Signaling bit in frame 6. A Bit

25 Signaling bit in frame 12. B Bit

26 Signaling bit in frame 18. C Bit

27 Signaling bit in frame 24. D Bit

28 Digital interface that provides the physical connection to a Data Service Unit /
digital carrier network. Channel Service Unit

29 Upgrade from one level in the hierarchy to the next higher Multiplexers /
level. Demultiplexers

30 Provides a convenient place to make patchable inter connects Digital Cross Connect
and perform routine maintenance & trouble shooting.

31 Provides frequency shifting for the master group signals. Signal Processor

32 Low quality video transmission for use between non-dedicated Picturephone


subscribers.

33 Identify when transitions occur in the data and whether that Three-Bit Code
transition is from a 1 to a 0 or vice versa.

34 First bit of the code. Address Bit

35 Converting standard logic levels. Digital Line Encoding

36 Involves the transmission of only a single nonzero voltage Unipolar


level.

37 Two nonzero voltages are involved ( a positive voltage for a Bipolar


logic 1 and an equal-magnitude negative voltage for a logic 0 or vice versa).

38 Categorize the type of transmission. Duty Cycle

39 Maintained the entire bit time. Non-return to Zero

40 Less than 100% of the bit time. Return to Zero

41 Produces a condition in which a receive may lose its amplitude DC Wandering


reference for optimum discrimination between received 1’s & 0’s.

42 Popular type of line encoding that produces a strong timing component Digital Biphase
for clock recovery and does not cause dc wandering.

43 Uses one cycle of a square wave at 0◦ phase to represent Biphase


a logic 1 and one cycle of a square wave at 180◦ phase to represent a
logic 0.

44 Used for encoding SMPTE(Society of Motion Picture and Tele Biphase M


vision Engineers) time-code data for recording on videotapes.

45 Commonly called the Manchester Code and specified in IEEE Biphase L


standard 802.3 for Ethernet local area networks.

46 Forms of delay-modulated codes where a logic 1 condition Miller Codes


produces a transition in the middle of the clock pulse, and a logic 0
produces no transition at the end of the clock intervals unless followed by
another logic 0.

47 Used for the transmission of PCM-encoded time-division T Carriers


multiplexed digital signals.

48 Filters and shapes the incoming digital signal and raise its Amplifier /
power level so that the regenerator circuit can make a pulse-no pulse Equalizer
decision.

49 Recovery circuit reproduces the cocking information from the Timing Clock
received data and provides the proper timing information to the regenerator
so that samples can be made at the optimum time, minimizing the chance of an
error occurring.

50 A threshold detector that compares the sampled voltage Regenerative Repeater


received to a reference level and determines whether the bit is a logic 1 or
a logic 0.

51 Different version of T carriers used in Europe. E-Lines

52 Used for frame alignment pattern and for an alarm channel. Time Slot 0

53 Digital carrier frame synchronization. Added-Digit Framing


Robbed-digit framing
Added-channel framing
Statistical framing
Unique-line code
framing

54 Methods of Interleaving PCM transmissions: Bit Interleaving


Word Interleaving

55 Used more often for the transmission of data when they are Statistical
called asynchronous TDM, intelligent TDM, or simply stat muxs. Time-Division
Multiplexing

56 Large-scale integration (LSI) chip designed for use in the CODEC


telecommunications industry for private branch exchanges.

57 Three functions of codec. Analog Sampling;


Encoding / Decoding;
Digital Companding

58 Used to gate the PCM word onto the PCM highway when an Time Slot Strobe Buffer
external buffer is used to drive the line.

59 Data are input and output for a single channel in a short Burst Mode
burst.

60 Allows for a flexible data input and output clock frequency. Variable-Data-Rate
Mode

61 Data from the PCM highway are clock into the codec on the next Shift Register Mode
eight consecutive negative transitions of DCLKR.

62 Multiple sources that originally occupied the same frequency Frequency Division
spectrum are each converted to a different frequency. Multiplexing

63 Process is accomplished without synchronization between Stacking


stations.

64 AT&T’s communications network is subdivided into 2: Short Haul;


Long Haul

65 Basic building block of the FDM Hierarchy. Message Channel

66 Separate signals with different wavelengths in a manner Demultiplexers /


similar to the way filters separate electrical signals of different Splitters
frequencies.

67 Similar to regular multiplexers and demultiplexers except they Add / Drop Multiplexers
are located at intermediate points in the system. / Demultiplexers

68 Direct signals of a particular wavelength to a specific WDM Routers


destination while not separating all the wavelengths present on the cable.

69 Enable more efficient utilization of the transmission WDM Couplers


capabilities of optical fibers by permitting different wavelengths to be
combined and separated.

70 Three basic types of WDM couplers: Diffraction Grating ;


Prism ; Dichroic
Filter

71 Multiplexing system similar to conventional time division Synchronous Optical


multiplexing. Network

72 Has a 51.84-Mbps synchronous frame structure. STS-1

73 Second level of SONET multiplexing. OC-48