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PAPER

METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

USING GENRE BASED INSTRUCTION IN TEACHING WRITING

GROUP 3

IVANA MANJULA SWEETLY (1630104029)


REFKI RAHMAD (1630104053)
NOVITA WULANDARI (1630104045)
RESI KHOTHORI (1630104056)
NOFI YANTI
ILMA LANA (15340046)

LECTURER
ZULHERMINDRA M.Pd

ENGLISH TEACHING DEPARTMENT


TARBIYAH AND TEACHER TRAINING FACULTY
ISLAMIC STATE INSTITUTE BATUSANGKAR
2018
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Problem
Writing is one of the important skill in learning English among listening,
speaking, and reading. By writing the students can communicate, give opinions, and
transfer their ideas in written form. Besides that, in writing activity the students must
make the reader understand and comprehend about what the students write and
explain. Therefore, in writing activity need high concentration for students to do it.
According to Brown (1999:1) writing is produced and the stage a piece of writing
passes through before it is completed.
In addition, the students should have ability in writing. The students must
capable to write and also how to use appropriate language. Writer focuses on
descriptive text. In descriptive text, the students describe about topic clearly. Then,
the students must develop a topic become a good paragraph. In this case, the students
should make a good sentences related with the topic. This is useful to avoid jumping
idea between paragraph and the other paragraph.
School-level based Curriculum in teaching English put genres as the main tool
in language learning. The classroom activities used in teaching genre is Genre-based
Approach. Genre-based Approach is “a framework for language instruction based on
examples of particular genre” (Byram, 2004:234). Genre based teaching is concerned
with what learners do when they write. Bryam argues if Genre-based Approach used
in classroom activities, it makes the students write easily because they just write about
something that they see, and hear at the same time. So they wouldn’t remember in a
long time. Genres have the function to help the students understand the step involved
in writing and it recognizes the student bring the writing classroom contributes to the
development of the writing skill (Badger and White, 2000:153). There are twelve
kinds of genre, namely: anecdote, description, discussion, explanation, exposition,
hortatory, narrative, news item, procedure, recount, report and review.
In this study the writer is interested in researching descriptive text as one of
types of genre implemented in teaching writing. Descriptive text is purposed to
imagine somebody, something, a place, and an animal (Djuharie, 2001:24). By
applying this genre, the writer is sure that students will be interested and be motivated
in taking part in classroom activities, because the student wants to tell something to
their friends.
CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

TEACHING WRITING

A. Definition Of Teaching Writing


According to Fauziati in (PRATIWI, 2016) stated “writing as process is oriented
towards work in progress and the development of new skills, rather than merely
evaluative tasks, the classroom practices vary from each other; these often depend much
upon the students’ experiences and skills when planning and adjusting their writing
program. Robert (2009) stated that writing is an efficient learning process which is
utilized to communicate information, clarify thinking, and learn new concept and
information.1
According to (Rusmawan, 2018)Teaching writing is actually not easy, because
teacher must be able to organize learning teaching activities. The teacher has to master
the material, methods and technique or strategy to make the students understand and
apply writing. Besides that the also students should master the genres of text. The
curriculum asks the student to perform a written text, but they tend to be asked to answer
question in their text book or worksheet than organize a text.
As we knew that by writing, the students can explore whatever they have in their
mind. The students can share their experiences and their feeling with others. Writing is a
complex process that allows a writer to explore thought and ideas and make it clear and
visible.2

B. Principles Of Teaching Writing


According to (Hochman & Wexler, 2017)there are principles of teaching writing:
1. Explicit instruction starting young

Pratiwi, M. D. (2016). Classroom Techniques To Develop Students’ English Writing Skill:


1

A Naturalistic Study At Smp Muhammadiyah 1 Surakarta. Research Paper. School Of


Teacher Training And Education. Muhammadiyah University Of Surakarta, 5-10.
2
Rusmawan, P. N. (2018). Teaching Writing Descriptive Text Activities In Islamic Boarding
School. Jurnal Al-Makrifat, 3, 66.
Being a good reader is not enough to become a good writer; writing requires
far more decisions. And students who can speak fluently don’t necessarily transfer
that to coherent writing. Students need to be taught how the conventions of written
language differ from those of spoken language, communicating with much more
precision and clarity, anticipating what the reader needs to know and understand, and
using punctuation and key words (despite, although, for example, specifically) to
indicate nuances in meaning, connections, and breaks in the narrative. It’s also
important that they avoid errors in spelling and grammar that will distract readers. All
this needs to begin in the early elementary grades, and although it’s important that
students enjoy writing and get to use it as a means of self-expression, there should be
plenty of explicit instruction, practice, and feedback to hone skills.
2. Sentences as the building blocks
“In many schools, the quantity of writing has long been valued over its
quality,” say Hochman and Wexler. “The Common Core and other standards have
only increased the pressure on teachers to assign essay-length writing. But if students
haven’t learned how to write an effective sentence, that is where instruction needs to
begin.” Students need to do plenty of sentence-level writing in which they explain,
paraphrase, or summarize sophisticated content, use correct spelling and grammar,
and get feedback on form and content. Then they can move on to paragraphs and
essays.
3. Writing embedded in curriculum content
To maximize the benefits of writing instruction, say Hochman and Wexler,
teachers need to go beyond personal narrative assignments like arguing the pros and
cons of school uniforms and speculating on what it’s like to be famous. “Having
students write about topics unrelated to content represents a huge wasted opportunity
to boost their learning,” they say. “Writing isn’t merely a skill; it’s also a powerful
teaching tool.” Students should be asked to write about ancient Egypt, tornadoes and
hurricanes, Jane Eyre, and other subjects they’re studying. And all teachers should see
themselves as teachers of writing, even if it’s only a 5-15-minute do-now activity,
check for understanding, or exit ticket.
4. Curriculum content as a driver of writing rigor
Hochman and Wexler suggest writing activities that build writing skills and
get students thinking deeply about subject matter. One sentence-level exercise is for
students to complete a sentence stem adding because, but, and so. Here are examples
from three subject areas at different grade levels:
 Rocket learned to read because/but/so________________________________.

“No matter what content you use with these kinds of activities,” say the
authors, “the specificity of the prompts makes them far more powerful than an open-
ended question such as, ‘Why did Rocket learn to read?’” In a science class, students
at New Dorp High School were asked to write three sentences about hydrogen and
oxygen, starting with Although, Unless, and If. Here’s what one student came up with:
 Although hydrogen is explosive and oxygen supports combustion, a compound of
them puts out fires.
5. Grammar taught in the context of writing
“Research has consistently found that teaching grammar rules in isolation
doesn’t work,” say Hochman and Wexler. For many students, learning parts of speech
and diagramming sentences just adds to the confusion, takes up valuable cognitive
real estate, and doesn’t carry over to their own writing. “But that doesn’t mean
teachers can’t, or shouldn’t, teach grammar,” continue the authors. “What does work
is to teach writing conventions and grammar in the context of students’ own writing.”
One particularly helpful exercise is sentence combining, which students find engaging
and gets at many of the same skills as dry grammar instruction.
6. Planning and revising
“Although experienced writers may be able to turn out a well-developed
paragraph or essay on the fly,” say Hochman and Wexler, “most of the students we
work with find it overwhelming to organize their thoughts at the same time they’re
choosing words and figuring out the best way to structure their sentences.” A planning
template helps students think through the main idea or theme, the points they will
make, and the order in which they will make them. This helps them think through
what additional information they need, connect ideas or claims with relevant details or
evidence, and avoid irrelevant information and repetition. Having jotted this outline,
writing a first draft is quite straightforward. Then comes revising, which is where
students apply what they’ve learned in sentence-level exercises to insert transition
words, vary sentence structure, and use subordinating conjunctions, appositives, and
other techniques so the writing flows and makes sense.3

3
Hochman, J., & Wexler, N. (2017). The Writing Revolution.
C. Method Or Technique Of Teaching Writing
According to(PRATIWI, 2016)There are several techniques used by the English
teacher to develop writing skill, such as: writing based on picture, writing based on
template, writing a card, dictation, writing based on topic, join writing in a group, fill in
the blank, writing based on jumble word or sentence.
1. Writing Based on Picture
Writing based on picture is technique of teaching writing using images which
is paired and sorted into a logical sequence. Students observe the picture which given
by teacher in order to they can write the desription about the picture.
Writing based on picture used to encourage the students in writing. Each
student gets a picture then they have to describe the picture based on their opinion
about it.
2. Writing Based on Template
Writing based on template techniques is the technique which students
observing the examples of text which given by teacher with another word the action
of using someone or something as a model. It is used in order to make students easy to
understand the form of the text. Students can imitate the example which is used by
teacher, so students just change the content of the text according to teacher’s
instruction.
3. Writing a Card
Writing a card is technique which teacher ask the students discuss the material
using card. This technique used in order to the students not feel bored in teaching
learning process in the classroom. So the students can more interested in learning. .
4. Dictation
Dictation is technique when one person speaks while another person
transcribes what is spoken. Dictation can be defined as technique which the teacher
gives the material orally, so in this technique students should write down what the
teacher said.
5. Writing Based on Topic
Before students are going to write something, the teacher give an issue. Issue
is the act of officially making something available or giving something to people to be
used. The issues have to encourage the students to write. Students have to give an
opinion about the issue which given by the teacher. By using this technique students
can improve their knowledge in writing.
6. Join Writing in a Group
Join writing in a group is technique which teacher divided the students into
several group or in pair. So the teacher give the material with the students, then
students have to discuss with their group.
7. Fill in the Blank
Fill in the blank is technique which teacher gives a type of question or phrase
with one or more words replaced with a blank line, giving the reader the change to
add the missing word. For example in a text which has blank word, so the students
have to write the appropriate word in order to suitable with the text.
8. Writing Based on Jumble Word or Sentence
Jumble word or sentntence is the technique which students should rearrange
the jumbled word into the apropriate sentence. Or the sentence in appropriate
paragraph. This technique can improve students’ grammar also the vocabulary.
Teacher can understand the students’ structure ability in writing a text. 4

DESCRIPTIVE TEXT

A. Definition of descriptive text

Descriptive text is one of kinds the text that students learn in the school. The
students also should be mastered how to make descriptive text well. Here, there are some
definition of descriptive text by experts. According to Tompkins (1994) descriptive text
as painting pictures with word. The meaning is the students describe about something,
such as picture, person, thing, animal, and place. In descriptive text, the students must
describe what is look like the object details. As the result, the readers get information
about object or picture clearly.5

4
Pratiwi, M. D. (2016). Classroom Techniques To Develop Students’ English Writing Skill:
A Naturalistic Study At Smp Muhammadiyah 1 Surakarta. Research Paper. School Of
Teacher Training And Education. Muhammadiyah University Of Surakarta, 5-10.
5
RiniAsrial. 2015. Teaching Writing Descriptive Text By Combining Brainstorming And Y Chart Strategies At
Junior High School.
Description in writing is the process of create communication image through
words. According to Oshima and Hogue states that “description is writing about how
something or someone looks and uses space order.”Moreover, Knapp and Watkins states
that describing is also a central feature of narrative text providing the means for
developing characterization, sense of place, and key themes. In addition, Dorothy E
Zemach also states that descriptive paragraph explains how someone or something looks
or feels.

Descriptive text is a text that describes the features of someone, something, or a


certain place.”So, from explaining about description above, we can concluded that when
writing the descriptive text, the writer must be able to explore their idea into the text, in
order to make good description and the reader can feel the object in the descriptive text.

B. Kinds of Descriptive Text

Description reproduces the way things look, smell, taste, feel, or sound. It may
also evoke moods, such as happiness, loneliness, or fear. It is used to create a visual
image of people, places, even of units of time.6

1. Describing people

It is usually people who are interesting to readers. Their appearance is


interesting, especially as it reflects personality. When description is mentioned, one
tends to think mainly about adjectives and perhaps adverbs. It is sometimes
surprising to find that a particularly vivid description has resulted chiefly from the
accurate use of verbs. To say that a person shambles or stumbles when he or she
walks, for example may give a better picture of that a person than a large number of
adjective could.

2. Describing place

How place look, smell, and sound is important. There are some ways to judge
description of place; are impressions other then sight included? Is the picture caught
at a single moment in time? Are the details arranged in logical order? Is the same

6
17George E. Wishon and James M. Burk.op.cit., 379.
point of view kept throughout? Are the adjective vivid, and are the noun and verb
specific and descriptive.

3. Describing unit of time


Descriptions of units of time are often used to establish mood. Literature is full
of descriptions of seasons, days, and times of day. Notice how the description of a
unit of time sets a certain mood, or emotional tone, in each of the following
selections.
C. Generic Structure

Wardiman, et. al. specify the generic structure of descriptive text into two parts, 1)
Introduction is the part of the paragraph that introduces the character; and 2) Description
is the part of the paragraph that describes the character. This indicates that a descriptive
text has two elements, an element to identify phenomenon (identification) and another
one (description) to portray parts, qualities, or characteristics7

D. Language Features of Descriptive Text

The language features of descriptive text uses are: Firstly, has certain noun/clear
noun, for example: my House, my cat, etc. Secondly, using simple present, for example: I
live in a simple house, the house is very beautiful, it has a wonderful park. And then using
some kind of adjectives that have describing, numbering, and classifying something, for
example: two strong legs. Using action verbs, for example: my cat eats a meat; etc. and
the last is figurative language; like simile or metaphor. For example: Her hair is black as
ebony. In addition, the descriptive text has dominant language features as follows;8

1. Using Simple Present Tense


2. Using action verbs
3. Using adverbs
4. Using special technical terms

7
Lilies SetiasihDadi, How to Write A Short Essay in English Academic Writing, (Bandung: Alfabeta,2015)171.
8
Emily F.Callhoun, Teaching Beginning Reading and Writing with Picture Word Inductive Model ( Alexandria,
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1999), 21.
CHAPTER III

LESSON PLAN

School : Junior High School

Grade/ Semester : VIII

Time : 2 x 45 minutes

Language skill : Writing (Descriptive text)

A. Standard Competence
Express the meaning in a monologue / essay text that uses a variety of written
languages accurately, fluently and acceptable in descriptive texts.
B. Purpose
 Students understand about the generic structure of descriptive text
 Students understand about the language feature of descriptive text
 Students be able to write a descriptive text
 Student can answer the questions in the text
C. Indicators
1. Using simple past tense accurately
2. Creating descriptive text
D. Objective :
1. Students are able using language feature in descriptive text
2. Students are able to create and answer the questions in descriptive text
E. Media
1. Example of descriptive text
2. Worksheet
3. Picture
F. Method
Method : Genre Based Approach
Techniques : Discussion and Individual task
G. Activities :
1. Pre activity
a. Teacher give a greeting
Teacher : Good morning, students....
How are you today?
Have you breakfast before?

b. Teacher checks students attendance


Who’s absent today?
c. Teacher gives a brainstorming and leading (question - answer) to the student
about the topic.
Teacher : Well students, have you ever heard about one of the legends
or folklore in your area?
2. While activity
a. Building the knowledge
1) Distribute a picture of “SAFARI PARK” to the student.
Well students, what is the picture about?
2) Ask the students to guess the story going to read
3) Ask the students to read a Descriptive text entitle “SAFARI PARK”
b. Modelling
1) Students observing the generic structure of text
2) Students observing the language feature of descriptive text
c. Joint construction
1) Students do a task that the teacher has given in their group and do a
discussion
2) In the group, the teacher asks the students to do a discussion about the task
3) Every groups do a presentation based on the discussion.
d. Independent construction
1) The students write descriptive text about their teacher (MR. Supriyadi)
2) Students write text draft first
3) Students do a revision based on the draft
4) Students develop text draft that their created to make a complete
descriptive text.
3. Closing
a. Do evaluating with students task
b. Teacher tells the next meeting what the students will learn
c. Pray
Safari Park or Taman Safari is a quite unique zoo. It lies about 90 kilometers from Jakarta. It
lies in Cisarua, Bogor, about two kilometers from Puncak. This zoo reminds us of the similar
park in Kenya, Africa. Although it is not as large as the one in Kenya, we can still enjoy the
park which is about one hundred hectares. In conventional zoos, the animals are in cages, but
not in the Safari Park; they wander freely. Visitors are in buses or cars. They are not allowed
to get off the cars or buses. Visitors who don't have cars can use the touring buses available at
the park.

TASK

I. Complete with suitable words.

Mr. Supriyadi is a … (1) teacher at our school. He is about 45 years …. (2)


Most of his hair has turned white. By seven o'clock in the morning he is always in the
school … (3) and ready to teach. A cap on his … (4) accompanies him when teaching.
He is also known as a good … (5) because he is really good at cooking.

II. Rearrange the jumbled words to make a good sentence.

carefully - car - Mr. Supriyadi - his - drives - very - always.

III. Rearrange the jumbled sentence to make a good paragraph.


1. One is for teachers and the other one is for students.
2. It lies on JalanPagumenganmasKarangdadapPekalongan.
3. SMP 1 Karangdadap is the school where I study.
4. It has two parking lots.

KEY ANSWER

I.

1. sport
2. old
3. yard
4. head
5. cook

II. Mr. Supriyadi always drives his car carefully.

III. 3241
APPENDIX
PROCESS DISSCUSSION

Pictures Explanation:

Day/date : Monday/December 31st 2018

Discussion : Discuss all material and editing, because we are already discuss the
material in the group whatsapp before.

Place : E building

Name of member : 1. Ivana manjula sweetly (Hadir, ikut berdiskusi dan mencari
bahan)
2. Refki Rahmat (Hadir, ikut berdiskusi dan mencari bahan)

3. Novita wulandari (Hadir, ikut berdiskusi dan mencari bahan)

4. Resi khothori (Hadir, ikut berdiskusi dan mencari bahan)

5. Ilma Lana (Hadir, dan ikut berdiskusi)

6. Nofi Yanti (Sekedar Hadir, tidak ada partisipasi)


REFERENCES

1. Hochman, J., & Wexler, N. (2017). The Writing Revolution.

2. Pratiwi, M. D. (2016). Classroom Techniques To Develop Students’ English Writing


Skill: ANaturalistic Study At Smp Muhammadiyah 1 Surakarta. Research Paper.
School Of Teacher Training And Education. Muhammadiyah University Of
Surakarta, 5-10.

3. Rusmawan, P. N. (2018). Teaching Writing Descriptive Text Activities In Islamic


Boarding School. Jurnal Al-Makrifat, 3, 66.

4. RiniAsrial. 2015. Teaching Writing Descriptive Text By Combining Brainstorming


And Y Chart Strategies At Junior High School.

5. 17George E. Wishon and James M. Burk.op.cit., 379.

6. Lilies SetiasihDadi, How to Write A Short Essay in English Academic Writing,


(Bandung: Alfabeta,2015)171.

7. Emily F.Callhoun, Teaching Beginning Reading and Writing with Picture Word
Inductive Model ( Alexandria, Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development, 1999), 21.