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1.7.

Conflict of Information
The edition of each document current at the date of enquiry shall apply, together
with all published amendments. Where conflict occurs between the requirements of
this Specification and referenced Codes and Standards, the SUPPLIER shall notify
EMPLOYER in writing immediately for resolution. In all cases, the most stringent
shall apply. All deviations from the requirements of this Specification, its
appendices and the referenced Codes and Standards shall be stated on the
Purchase Order. In the absence of such a statement, full compliance with the order
of precedence below shall be assumed. The order of precedence for the documents
shall be as follows:
• Purchase Order
• This Specification
• Material Data Sheet
• Project Specifications
• International Codes and Standards
1.8. References
The Heat Shrinkable Sleeve (HSS) shall be designed in accordance with the Nigerian
National Standards and legislation, and International standards. Unless the edition
of any code, standard, regulation or document is specifically referenced the latest
edition shall be used.
1.8.1. Nigerian National Standards and Legislation
• The Mineral Oils (Safety) Regulations of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
• The Oil Pipeline Act (CAP 338 LFN 1990)

his recommended practice covers the pressure testing of


new and existing liquid petroleum pipelines. It recommends
minimum procedures to be followed, suggests equipment to
be used, and points out factors to be considered during the
pressure testing of liquid petroleum pipelines. This recommended practice does not
address low pressure pneumatic
testing.
This recommended practice suggests procedures that are
based on sound engineering judgment, but certain governmental requirements may
differ from the procedures set forth
in this recommended practice. Such requirements should be
fulÞlled because this recommended practice is not intended to
supersede or override them.
Please be advised that this document does not preclude
requalifying a line for liquid service under the provisions of
ASME 31.8, Appendix N (as provided for 49 Code of Federal
Regulations 195.5 (a) (1) (I.)).
2 Referenced Publications
Unless otherwise speciÞed, the most recent editions of
the following standards, codes, and speciÞcations shall,
to the extent speciÞed herein, form a part of this standard.
ASME1
B31.4 Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas,
Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols
DOT2
Research and Special Programs Administration
(Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 195)
3 Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum
Pipelines
3.1 DEFINITION
In pressure testing, internal pressure above the normal or
maximum operating pressure is applied to a segment of
pipeline, under no-ßow conditions, for a Þxed period of
time. A liquid test medium is used to apply the internal pressure.
3.2 CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESSURE
TESTING
3.2.1 New Construction and the Replacement of
Existing Pipelines
The pressure testing of newly constructed pipelines and
replaced segments of existing pipelines should be performed
in accordance with ASME B31.4, 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 195 and any
other applicable governmental regulations.
3.2.2 Qualification of Existing Pipelines For a
Higher Operating Pressure
The qualiÞcation of existing piping systems for an operating pressure higher than
the previously established operating pressure should be performed in accordance
with ASME
B31.4, 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 195 and any
applicable governmental regulations.
3.2.3 Requalification of Existing Pipelines for
Continued Operation at the Current
Operating Pressure
The requaliÞcation of existing piping systems for continued operation at the
previously established operating
pressure should be performed in accordance with ASME
B31.4, 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 195 and any
applicable governmental regulations.
3.3 TEST MEDIUM
A suitable pig signaller should be fitted to signal the launch of each pig and the
total number of pigs
launched, similarly, a pig signaller should be fitted to the pig receiver to signal
receipt of each pig and
the total number of pigs received.
Equipment should also be supplied to locate a stuck or stalled pig within the
pipeline.
Pig signalling and location equipment data sheets and specifications are to be
submitted to COMPANY
for review prior to inclusion in specific project procedures.
The volume of fluid injected behind a pig or pigs should not be used as the sole
method for the
determination of pig location.
7.5.2. Pig Design
All pigs introduced into pipeline will be of the metal-bodied bi-directional type,
supplied by a reputable
manufacturer, specifically for the project, or refurbished to as new condition. Pig
disks must be new
and unused. All pigs will be able to accept signalling and location equipment. All
pigs will be uniquely
and permanently marked with numbers such that they can be visibly identified in
photographs. Pigs
will be Dual Diameter where required.
All bi-directional pigs will be fitted with a minimum of four sealing discs. Pig
design(s) including the
suppliers scaled, dimensioned drawings and specification sheets must be submitted
to COMPANY for
review prior to inclusion in project procedures.
7.5.3. Gauge Plates
Gauging pigs will be bi-directional disc type. The gauging plate will be fitted in
front of the third disc.
Gauge plates will be machined aluminium, 6-12 mm thick and be removable from the
pig. The leading
edge of each gauge plate will be chamfered 45° to half the plate thickness.
The gauge plate diameter is to be calculated according the following formula
The standard was revised in 1978 to include SI metric dimensions. The outside
diameter and
wall thicknesses were converted to millimeters by multiplying the inch dimensions
by 25.4.
Outside diameters larger than 16 in. were rounded to the nearest millimeter, and
outside diameters
16 in. and smaller were rounded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Wall thicknesses were
rounded to the
nearest 0.01 mm. These converted and rounded SI metric dimensions were added to
Table 2. A
formula to calculate the SI metric plain end mass, in kilograms per meter, using SI
metric diameters
and thicknesses was added to section 5. The SI metric plain end mass was calculated
and was
added to Table 2. These changes in the standard were approved and it was designated
an American
National Standard on July 18, 1979.
Further revisions were made in 1984. The ANSI designations, which are no longer in
use, were
deleted from Table 1, and the list of specifications was revised to agree with
current ASTM and
API specifications. Additional sizes and thicknesses which had been added to API
specifications
were added to Table 2. That edition was approved as an American National Standard
on August
19, 1985.
The next edition included additional wall thicknesses and was approved by the
American
National Standards Institute on August 24, 1995.
The 1996 edition contained revisions to Table 2, adding pipe sizes, changing some
plain end
weights and masses, identifying metric pipe by the dimensionless designator DN, and
eliminating
the API Specification column. The 1996 edition was approved as an American National
Standard
on September 23, 1996.
The 2000 edition contained revisions to Table 2 to include the revised density for
steel incorporated into Section 5 previously. Table 1 was deleted and other
editorial changes to Sections 1, 2,
3, 5, 8, and 9 were made. The 2000 edition was approved as an American National
Standard on
December 1, 2000.
The current edition contains revisions to Section 5 and Table 1. It corrects the
equation for
nominal plain end weight. It adds the missing DN schedule numbers in Table 1. This
edition
was approved as an American National Standard on June 23, 2004.

Metallic bearing strips are prohibited. Side protection shall


be provided for pipe shipped in gondola cars where the pipe
may contact the sides of the car. Blocking, where required
because of uneven car sides, should be introduced between
car sides and stakes, and firmly attached to stakes.
The thickness of the bearing strips shall be sufficient to
prevent the pipe from touching the bed or protrusions thereon,
but in no case less than 2-in. (50 mm) nominal thickness and
4-in. (100 mm) nominal width. Furthermore, the following
situations shall require 2-in. (50 rum) nominal thickness and
6-in. (150 mm) nominal width for bearing strips, except
whereAAR stipulates greater dimensions: pipe size ~ 6 floating loads, and pipe size
~ 20 in. loads other than floating.
Strip height shall not exceed strip width. A minimum of four
bearing strips shall be used, and an even number of bearing
strips should be used for each pipe stack. Bearing strips shall
be evenly spaced (see 4.5 and 4.6 for bearing-strip requirements for pipe with Dlt
ratios of 50 or more).
The bearing strips shall be aligned so that the load on individual bearing members
is not excessive. All intermediate
bearing members should be level with respect to the end
bearing members within approximately 1/2 in. for pipe of
sizes 65/8 - 16 exclusive, and within approximately 114 in. for
pipe of sizes 16 and larger or for any pipe having a Dlt ratio
of 50 or more. The blocking used for leveling shall be firmly

3 The Contractor is required to submit As-Built records in CAD format. The


Contractor must also submit Red Line Drawings detailing all relevant As-Built
records. All submitted records are to be approved by the Superintendent’s
Representative.

9.4 Documentation Submittals

9.4.1 The Contractor shall liaise closely with the Superintendent’s


Representative during the documentation of survey work, and shall provide the
Superintendent’s Representative with ade-quate opportunity to verify any
measurement or detail the Contractor considers necessary prior to the commencement
of reinstatement operations.

9.5 Post-Construction Dilapidation Report

9.5.1 The Contractor is responsible for all pre-construction and post-


construction property as-sessments. These assessments shall be a means of
determining whether and to what extent, damage has resulted from the Contractor’s
operations during the Works.

10.Principal Representation

10.0.1 The works under the contract will be delivered with a Technical Advisory
Inspector on site to ensure the works are executed safely, in an environmentally
friendly manner and to an ac-ceptable quality standard.

10.0.2 The availability and need for onsite Principal Representation will be based
on the project size, contract value and project risk and will be outlined in the
Project Specific Specification.

10.0.3 The Contractor must allow the Superintendent or their Representative access
to the drill cab and all drilling records at any time during the project.

Prior to commencement of production coating, Contractor shall have compressive


strength test specimens of the design mix prepared and tested in accordance with
ASTM Method C-39 or British Standards Institute Method BS 1881. Test
specimens shall be tested after a period of 24 hours and shall have a minimum
compressive strength of 1000 psi. If more than one design mix is to be used
because of the use of more than one source of any one material for the concrete,
testing shall be done for all design mixes. Testing shall be by an independent
agency approved by Company and test results shall be submitted to Company.
No coating shall commence until Company has accepted all design mixes.
If the mix is changed for any reason after commencement of coating, the new mix
shall be tested, and test results accepted by Company before the mix is used.
5.2 Batching and Mixing
5.2.1 Primary mixed concrete shall be placed within a time-temperature controlled
period so that it will produce a homogenous cohesive grout.
The concrete materials shall be accurately proportioned and mixed in a machine
that will ensure a thorough intermingling of all materials in the concrete. The
metering and feed systems shall be initially calibrated by weight before the start
of
the concrete application. The amount of water and the method of its introduction
into the mix shall result in a mixture providing the physical properties stipulated
in
this specification.
Prior to commencement of production coating, Contractor shall have compressive
strength test specimens of the design mix prepared and tested in accordance with
ASTM Method C-39 or British Standards Institute Method BS 1881. Test
specimens shall be tested after a period of 24 hours and shall have a minimum
compressive strength of 1000 psi. If more than one design mix is to be used
because of the use of more than one source of any one material for the concrete,
testing shall be done for all design mixes. Testing shall be by an independent
agency approved by Company and test results shall be submitted to Company.
No coating shall commence until Company has accepted all design mixes.
If the mix is changed for any reason after commencement of coating, the new mix
shall be tested, and test results accepted by Company before the mix is used.
5.2 Batching and Mixing
5.2.1 Primary mixed concrete shall be placed within a time-temperature controlled
period so that it will produce a homogenous cohesive grout.
The concrete materials shall be accurately proportioned and mixed in a machine
that will ensure a thorough intermingling of all materials in the concrete. The
metering and feed systems shall be initially calibrated by weight before the start
of
the concrete application. The amount of water and the method of its introduction
into the mix shall result in a mixture providing the physical properties stipulated
in
this specification.
5.2.2 Should Contractor propose a method other than batching or using sacked and
weighed materials, a description of such method, including the measures to be
taken to assure a coating conforming to the specification, shall be presented to
Company for approval prior to beginning of coating.
5.2.3 For the impingement method of application, the use of reclaimed rebound
material
shall be allowed if placed within 30 minutes. Both freshly mixed material and
rebound material shall be placed so that there is no detrimental effect to the fina
5.2.2 Should Contractor propose a method other than batching or using sacked and
weighed materials, a description of such method, including the measures to be
taken to assure a coating conforming to the specification, shall be presented to
Company for approval prior to beginning of coating.
5.2.3 For the impingement method of application, the use of reclaimed rebound
material
shall be allowed if placed within 30 minutes. Both freshly mixed material and
rebound material shall be placed so that there is no detrimental effect to the fina

It is recommended that the boundary between location class 1 and class 2 in


relation to population density is determined in a manner equivalent to that
used in IGEM/TD/1 Edition 5:2012 to determine the boundary between Type R
and Type S areas. On this basis, the point at which the required degree of
protection changes adjacent to the boundary between location class 1 and
class 2 areas should be determined as the point at which the population density
exceeds the class 1 limit. In order to determine the boundary position, the
population should be calculated within circles of diameter equivalent to twice
the 0.3 cpm risk contour distance from the pipeline or eight times the distance
calculated in accordance with 5.5.3.2. By using such circles in sequence outwards
from the high density area, the circle within which the population density first
falls below/above 2.5 persons per hectare should be determined. The centre of
this circle should then be taken as the class 1/class 2 boundary.
Occasionally the method of population density assessment can lead to an
anomaly in location class such as might occur, for example, in a ribbon
development area. In such cases, a more stringent classification than would be
indicated by population density alone should be used where necessary. Societal
risk should be taken into account in these instances.
Flanged valves shall have raised face flanges with dimensions and tolerances in
accordance
with the requirements of ASME B16.5 or MSS SP-44-1996.
Welded ends shall be beveled to accommodate a butt weld connection to pipe in
accordance
with the manufacturing specification. The specifics of the matching pipe are
provided on the
Application Datasheet.
The Vendor shall indicate whether pipe transition pieces would be required to
accommodate the
butt weld to the matching pipe. Valves ends made of cast materials shall have
transition pieces
supplied and installed by the Vendor to accommodate the butt weld to matching pipe.
In some cases, the Company will require transition pieces and will specify this on
the
Application Datasheet. If transition pieces are required, the Company and Vendor
shall agree on
the supply of materials and the design of the end connection.
The theory o f auto frettage is based on the fact that the stress in a thick‐
walled cyl indrical vesse l is h igher at the
bore than at the outs ide surface for a given internal pressure . I f such a vesse
l is sub j ected to a continuous ly increas ing
pressure , the entire vesse l wi l l deform e las tical ly unti l some pressure is
reached at which the material at the bore begins
to p lastical ly deform . As the pressure continues to increase , the boundary at
which material begins to yie ld moves from
the bore through the vesse l wall unti l it reaches the outer wal l , caus ing p
lastic co llapse [see KD -2 1 0 (e) (6 ) ] . In the pro -
cess of autofrettage , the pressure is increased from the po int o f first yie
lding at the bore to a pressure that wi l l p lace the
e lastic–p las tic interface at the des ired radius . The removal o f this pressure
then produces compress ive res idual tangential s tress at the bore and tens ile
res idual tangential stress at the outer wall .
(b) The effects of these res idual compress ive tangential s tresses are to
(1 ) increase the value of any subsequent app l ication of internal pressure which
wi l l cause the onset of additional
permanent deformation of the cyl inder
(2) reduce the effective mean stress value of the cyclic bore s tresses and thus
increase the fatigue l ife
(3) reduce the effective fracture mechanics stress intens ity factor at the tip of
a crack or crackl ike flaw near the bore
due to internal pressure . This wi ll retard the growth of fatigue or s tress
corros ion cracks near the bore surface .
KD-502 NOMENCLATURE
Non-welded line-up clamps shall be used for alignment of all pipes and equipment
work. Ground clamps shall be provided and insulated electrode holders and/or leads
shall be employed.
The clamps shall preferably be of the internal type for establishing concentricity
of the pipe bores without scoring or otherwise damaging the metal surfaces.
Application of external clamps is subject to where the use of internal clamps is
impracticable and at tie-in points and shall be approved by PRINCIPAL
Representative. The use of internal line up clamps for all nominal pipe sizes of 12
inches and larger is mandatory.
Clamps actual design shall be subject to the approval of PRINCIPAL Representative.
SUPPLIER shall use clamp types specified by an authorized inspector representing
PRINCIPAL specific for the work being done. Pipes shall have a length of at least 3
m for application with internal clamps.
Flanged valves shall have raised face flanges with dimensions and tolerances in
accordance
with the requirements of ASME B16.5 or MSS SP-44-1996.
Welded ends shall be beveled to accommodate a butt weld connection to pipe in
accordance
with the manufacturing specification. The specifics of the matching pipe are
provided on the
Application Datasheet.
The Vendor shall indicate whether pipe transition pieces would be required to
accommodate the
butt weld to the matching pipe. Valves ends made of cast materials shall have
transition pieces
supplied and installed by the Vendor to accommodate the butt weld to matching pipe.
In some cases, the Company will require transition pieces and will specify this on
the
Application Datasheet. If transition pieces are required, the Company and Vendor
shall agree on
the supply of materials and the design of the end connection.

desirable because a softer and more ductile grain structure is then obtained in the
metal in the area of the weld.
When welding mild steel pipe, the s~ower cooling rate of thethin-walled pipe does
make it possible to deposit the weld at a faster
rate without harmful effects to the welded joint. For this reason,downhill welding
is preferred when welding thin-wall mild steel pipe.
The ductility of the metal in the weld and in the surrounding areacan be further
improved by depositing several beads around the
weld. Each succeeding bead heats the previous bead, which coolsrelatively
slowly.The fabrication of cross-country transmission pipelines and other
low pressure storage vessels are examples where the downhill method of arc welding
(SMAW) is used. Since such fabrications will be ofmaterials less than 3/8 ofan inch
thick, the downhill technique allows
faster welding speeds with less tendency to bum through the root of the joint. In
contrast, thicker materials and many of the alloy steel materials require the
uphill welding method.
Downhill welding requires the use of fast-freezing, lightly coated electrodes such
as 6010, 6011, 6012, 7010, and 7014 that produce
minimum slag. As the electrode is moved down along the joint the molten puddle and
it's slag covering will tend to smother

Law wave and steep wave


In the wave type, buoyancy and weight are added along a longer length of the riser,
to
decouple the vessel motions from the touch down point of the riser. Lazy waves are
preferred
to steep waves because they require minimal subsea infrastructure. However lazy
waves are
prone to configuration alterations if the internal pipe fluid density changes
during the riser
lifetime. On the other hand, steep wave risers require a subsea base and subsea
bend stiffener,
and yet are able to maintain their configuration even if the riser fluid density
changes.
Buoyancy modules are made of syntactic foam which has the desirable property of low
water
absorption. The buoyancy modules need to be clamped tightly to the riser to avoid
any
slippage which could alter the riser configuration and induce high stress in the
armor wires.
On the other hand the clamping arrangement should not cause any significant damage
to the
external sheath of the riser as this might cause water ingress into the annulus.
Buoyancy
modules tend to lose buoyancy over time, and wave configurations are inherently
designed to
accommodate up to a 10% loss of buoyancy.
- L a qSand steep S
In the lazy S and steep S riser configuration there is a subsea buoy, either a
fixed buoy, which
is fixed to a structure at the seabed or a buoyant buoy, which is positioned by
e.g. chains. The
addition of the buoy removes the problem with the TDP, as described above. The
subsea buoy
absorbs the tension variation induced by the floater and the TDP has only small
variation in
tension if any.
‘S’ configurations are considered only if catenary and wave configurations are not
suitable for
a particular field. This is primarily due to the complex installation required. A
lazy-S
configuration requires a mid-water arch, tether and tether base, while a steep4
requires a buoy
and subsea bend stiffener. The riser response is driven by the buoy hydrodynamics
and
complex modeling is required due to the large inertial forces in action. In case of
large vessel
motions a lazy-S might still result in compression problems at the riser touchdown,
leaving a
steep4 as a possible alternative.
- Pliant wave
The pliant wave configuration is almost like the steep wave configuration where a
subsea
anchor controls the TDP, i.e. the tension in the riser is transferred to the anchor
and not to the
TDP. The pliant wave has the additional benefit that it is tied back to the well
located beneath
the floater. This makes well intervention possible without an additional vessel.
This configuration is able to accommodate a wide range of bore fluid densities and
vessel
motions without causing any significant change in configuration and inducing high
stress in
the pipe structure. Due to the complex subsea installation that is required, it
would be required
only if a simple catenary, lazy wave or steep wave configurations are not
viable.404 Part IV Riser Engineering
22.1.4 Component Descriptions
The components of a riser system must be strong enough to withstand high tension
and
bending moments, and have enough flexibilityto resist fatigue, yet be as light as
practicableto
minimize tensioning and floatation requirements, A short description of the most
common
riser components and auxiliary components (such as end fittings and bend
stifferners) is given
below.
- Riser joints
A riser joint is constructed of seamless pipe with mechanical connectors welded on
the ends.
For drilling risers, choke and kill lines are attached to the riser by extended
flanges of the
connector. The riser can be run in a manner similar to drill pipes by stabbing one
stalk at a
time into the string and tightening the connector.
- Buoyancy modules
Buoyancy modules can be attached to the riser to decrease the tension required at
the surface.
These modules may be thin-walled air cans or fabricated syntactic foam modules that
are
strapped to the riser. These buoyancy modules require careful design and the
material for their
construction needs to be selected appropriately so as to ensure that they have a
long-term
resistance to water absorption.
- Bend Stiffeners and Bellmouths
One of the critical areas of a flexible riser is the top part of the riser just
before the hang-off
arrangement. This area is prone to over-bending and hence an ancillary device is
incorporated
into the design to increase the stiffness of the riser and prevent over-bending of
the riser
beyond its allowable bend radius. The two devices used for this application are
bend
stiffeners and bellmouths. Figure 22.2 illustrates a schematic of both devices.
Flexible pipe
manufacturers tend to have a preference for one or the other device, yet bend
stiffeners are
known to provide a better performance in applications with high motion vessels.
Bend
stiffeners also provide a moment transition between the riser and its rigid end
connection. The
ancillary devices are designed separately from the pipe cross section analysis, and
specialized
software is used for this purpose. Global loads from the flexible riser analysis
are used as
input to the ancillary device design.
Bend stiffeners are normally made of polyurethane material and their shape is
designed to
provide a gradual stiffening to the riser as it enters the hang-off location. The
bend stiffener
polyurethane material is itself anchored in a steel collar for load transfer. Bend
stiffeners are
sometimes utilized subsea, such as in steep-S or steep-wave applicationsto provide
support to
the riser at its subsea end connection, and to prevent over-bending at this
location. Design
issues for bend stiffeners include polyurethane fatigue and creep characteristics.
Figure 22.3
shows an example of a bend stiffener. It is to be noted that bend stiffeners longer
than 20 ft
have been manufactured and are in operation in offshore applications.
Bellmouths are steel components that provide the same function as bend stiffeners,
Le. to
prevent over-bending of the riser at its end termination topsides. The curved
surface of aChapter22 Design of Deepwater Riser 405
bellmouth is fabricated under strict tolerances to prevent any kinks on the surface
that might
cause stress concentrations, and damage to the pipe external sheath.

Where piggy back lines or umbilicals are to be located on the pipelines for
installation as a bundle, then the piggy back lines/umbilicals shall be located
at the top center of the mainline. Piggy back lines shall be strapped to the
mainline by means of monel straps every 4 m all throughout the length of
the line. Suitable spacers/guide supports shall be provided at every 2 m.
Between the strap and the line as well as between the spacer and the line, a
strip of 6 mm thick neoprene shall be provided to avoid any damage to the
corrosion coating. Care shall be exercised to ensure the piggy back
line/umbilical does not foul with the pipeline anodes.
7.8.14 Stub End Pipelines
Incase the Contractor is required to tie-in to any existing stub-line,
Contractor shall deploy divers and shall check the condition of the lay down
heads and disconnect any shackles, slings, etc. Depending on the condition
of the pipeline from pre-construction survey, a survey may be carried out by
a ROV for 500 m length of the stub-ends, measured from the lay-down
heads to identify any obstruction, which may hamper the recovery
operations.

Further revisions were made to the standard in 1975. Additional sizes and
thicknesses
of steel pipe that had been added to API specifications were added to Table 2.
Table 3,
Dimensions and Weights of Welded Wrought Iron Pipe, was deleted in its entirety,
since
wrought iron pipe is no longer produced. These changes in the standard were
approved
and it was designated an American National Standard on June 5 , 1975.
The standard was revised in 1978 to include SI metric dimensions. The outside
diameter
and wall thicknesses were converted to millimeters by multiplying the inch
dimensions by
25.4. Outside diameters larger than 16 in. were rounded to the nearest millimeter,
and
outside diameters 16 in. and smaller were rounded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Wall
thicknesses
were rounded to the nearest 0.01 mm. These converted and rounded SI metric
dimensions
were added to Table 2. A formula to calculate the SI metric plain end mass, in
kilograms
per meter, using SI metric diameters and thicknesses was added to section 5. The SI
metric
plain end mass was calculated and was added to Table 2. These changes in the
standard
were approved and it was designated an American National Standard on July 18, 1979.
Further revisions were made in 1984. The ANSI designations, which are no longer in
use, were deleted from Table 1, and the list of specifications was revised to agree
with
current ASTM and API specifications. Additional sizes and thicknesses which had
been
added to API specifications were added to Table 2. That edition was approved as an
American National Standard on August 19, 1985.
The next edition included additional wall thicknesses and was approved by the
American
National Standards Institute on August 24, 1995.
The 1996 edition contained revisions to Table 2, adding pipe sizes, changing some
plain
end weights and masses, identifying metric pipe by the dimensionless designator DN,
and
eliminating the API Specification column. The 1996 edition was approved as an
American
National Standard on September 23, 1996.
The current edition contains revisions to Table 2 to include the revised density
for steel
incorporated into Section 5 previously. Table 1 was deleted and other editorial
changes to
Sections 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 9 were made. This edition was approved as an American
National
Standard on December I , 2000.

7. MANUFACTURING
7.1. Mother Pipe
Mother pipe shall be manufactured as within the requirements as stated in the DEP
31.40.20.37 Ref. [8] and line pipe specifications report. The carbon steel shall be
ISO 3183 Ref [22] PSL 2.
Company shall be notified if there is intent to upgrade or modify the strength of
either the mother pipe or induction bend after the bending process.
7.2. Qualification Test Bend
The test bends shall be manufactured with approved MPS as stated in the DEP
31.40.20.33 Gen. Ref. [6]
7.3. Production Bending
Induction bending shall be carried out in accordance with the qualified MPS.
Interruption of the induction bending operation shall result in rejection of the
bend.
7.4. Post-Bending Heat Treatment
Except acceptable properties can be demonstrated after bending for any L450 X65
line, the
Contractor shall provide a quench and temper heat treatment of the entire joint.
The temperature of each furnace-load of bends shall be monitored by thermocouples
connected directly to selected bends and shall be recorded. The type and location
of the thermocouples shall be as specified in the MPS.
7.5. Strip/Plate End Welds
Induction bends shall not contain coil-strip end welds or plate end welds.
7.6. Forming and Sizing after Bending
This shall be done according to ISO 15590-1 Ref [20] as amended by DEP 31.40.20.33-
Gen. Ref. [6]
7.7. Jointers and Girth Welds
Induction bends ordinarily should not contain girth welds. The DEP 31.40.20.33-Gen
Ref. [6] permits jointers during manufacture of bends on the condition that on
completion of the bend, the joiner shall be removed such that no effect from the
joiner shall remain including the heat affected zone.
7.8. End Preparation
Bends shall be square except otherwise specified by company. The cutting method
shall not affect the properties of the bend when compared to the mother pipe.

The sleeves shall be provided in sheet form which can be wrapped around the pipe
and closed to form
a tube which shall upon the application of heat, shrink around the joint.
The type of field joint coating selected for this project is Polyethylene Heat
Shrinkable Sleeves and the
Polyethylene Heat Shrinkable Sleeves shall be applied over a suitable epoxy primer
coating in
accordance to section 8.1.4.2 of DEP 31.40.30.37.
The external surfaces of joints and bends shall be coated as follows:
 The pipeline field joints shall be coated with Polyethylene Shrink Sleeves.
 The bends, elbows and other irregular configurations on pipelines shall be coated
with heat
Shrinkable Cross-linked Polyolefin Tape.
The minimum acceptable standard of surface preparation shall be to the following
equivalent
internationally recognized standards.
 ISO 8501-1
 Sa 2½ Near white SSPC-SP10
On completion, the entire surface shall show the blast cleaning pattern and at
least 95% of the surface
shall be clean, bare steel. The surface may show some shadows, streaks or
discoloration, but these
should be slight and distributed over the surface, and not concentrated in spots or
areas.
3.2. Information to be Supplied by the Contractor
For this project qualification, the CONTRACTOR shall supply technical information
to the
SUPPLIER regarding the project, in particular the installation and operating
conditions. This
information shall contain as a minimum in accordance to DEP 31.40.30.37-Gen Section
6.1Abrasive Blast Cleaning shall be in accordance with DEP 31.40.30.37-Gen, Section
9.2.1 through 9.2.6.
There are situations in which are economically advantageous to transport both
liquid and gas in a single pipeline simultaneosly .This is called Two phase flow
pipeline.

An example of two phase flow pipeline involves certain offshore oil


operation,where it is extremly expensive to separate the liquid and gas phases in
deep water.

4.3. Blast Profile


The blast cleaned profile shall be sharp and angular. Angular profile value shall
be determined by heat
shrink sleeve manufacturer in accordance with ISO 8503-5 requirements and
acceptance criteria.
4.4. Surface Cleaning
After blast cleaning to the specified quality, surfaces shall be brushed, vacuumed
or blown clean with
dry, oil-free compressed air to remove all dust and blast cleaning abrasive from
the surface and in
particular from pockets and corners. The pipe surface shall be cleaned of mill
scale, rust and other
foreign matter to achieve a minimum surface cleanliness of Sa 2½ in accordance with
the DEP
31.40.30.37-Gen, Section 9.2.6.
4.5. Mechanical Cleaning
Where, with the agreement of COMPANY, it is recognized that abrasive blast cleaning
cannot be
carried out; the area to be coated shall be cleaned by power wire brushing in
accordance Swedish
Standard SIS 055900 Standard ST3.
The prepared joint area shall be freed of all slag, weld spatter, mill scale, dirt
or other foreign matter, as
in abrasive blast cleaning.
such as adjacent utilities or structures. The survey should be performed in an area
sufficient in size to show equipment set-up and storage locations.
Information to be gathered during the survey should include, but not be limited to,
the following:
• Existing grade elevation data referenced to a public datum if practical;
• Surface features such as roadways, sidewalks, utility poles, overhead power
lines, fire hy-drants,
• Ledge or rock outcrops;
• Boring/test pit locations;
• Waterways;
• Potentially delineated wetlands;
• Culverts;
• Visible subsurface utility landmarks such as manholes or valve boxes; and
• Structures such as buildings, towers, or bridges adjacent to the proposed
drilled path.
Waterway crossings also require a hydrographic survey. The hydrographic survey
should include tidal ranges and edges of waterways. It should be conducted along
the proposed drill path and in-clude data as appropriate upstream and downstream of
the path.
Construction control points shall be established sufficiently far away from the
work so as not to be affected by ground movement caused by the construction
operations. Such control points shall be checked regularly against permanent bench
marks to ensure the accuracy of the HDD construc-tion is not compromised by ground
movement.
6.8.2 SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION
Once the surface survey data have been obtained, evaluation of subsurface features
can be initi-ated. Subsurface feature concerns that may affect HDD design and
therefore should be investi-gated include the presence of existing utilities,
adjacent structure foundations or other manmade
Obstructions, and geotechnical and hazardous materials conditions along the
proposed HDD alignment.
6.8.3 Geotechnical Investigation
The contractor will carry out geotechnical investigation of the HDD route.
A second phase of subsurface investigation for HDD projects is the determination of
soil conditions. Once the proposed routing has been identified, a geotechnical
investigation should be performed. The geotechnical investigation should be
tailored to suit the complexity of the installation being de-signed. A general
geologic review involves examining existing geological data to determine what
conditions might be encountered in the vicinity of the installation. Existing data
may be available from construction project records in the area of the HDD
(buildings, piers, bridges,).
A typical geotechnical survey consists of taking exploratory borings to collect
soil samples for clas-sification and laboratory analysis.
The number, location, and depth of exploratory borings should be determined taking
into account site-specific conditions such as the general geology of the area,
availability of access, availability of existing data, cost, etc. Borings should be
located off of the drilled path centerline to reduce the gging and gauging
activities shall be submitted as part the Contractors pressure testing procedure.
7.6.17.2 At the completion of the carrier pipe pull, the carrier pipes are to be
pigged and flushed clean. A number of cleaning passes may be required until clean
water remains in the carrier pipes. Pig selection shall be relevant to the pipeline
material and confirmed with a pig supplier and/or manufacturer. Cleaning acceptance
criteria shall be ≤10mm dust penetration with a low density foam pig for a maximum
length of 2km. For sections exceeding 2km an agreed value between Unitywater and
the Contractor is to be established.
7.6.17.3 Cleaning pigs shall be numbered, logged, condition noted and comments
surrounding debris removed. Any pigging near residents or the general public shall
be controlled to ensure material exiting the pipeline is controlled and does not
impact the surrounding area. Silencers shall be used when appropriate.
7.6.17.4 When pigging with compressed air, gauges shall be used at both ends with
constant communication between launching and receiving ends. No tools shall be used
on the pipeline until both ends of the pipeline have confirmed the gauges read
0kPa.
7.6.17.5 The gauging pig is to be sized to the internal diameter of each carrier
pipe according to the project specific specification. The Contractor is to complete
this work and use a fit for purpose cleaning pig and gauging pig. The gauge plate
shall be a minimum 3mm thick, 95% of the internal diameter, segmented and shall be
free of defects once received. Location of the gauge plate on the gauging pig is to
be at the Contractors discretion. Gauge plate material shall not be able to damage
the parent material of the pipeline.
7.6.18 Alignment Tolerances
7.6.18.1 The HDD bore path must follow the approved designed alignment and conform
to the allowable tolerances depicted in Table 12 below unless otherwise detailed in
the Project Specific Specification.
7.6.18.2 The alignment shall be constructed on the project specific centre lines
and agreed to by the Superintendent’s Representative and Principal.
Table 12

The Contractor shall notify the Company of any conflict between this specification,
the Codes and Standards and any other specification included as part of the Project
documen-tation.
This specification and the guidelines set forth do not relieve the Contractor, its
Sub- Con-tractors and Vendors of the responsibility to provide a finished product
capable of perform-ing its intended service.
Any exception to this specification and referenced documentation shall be raised by
the Contractor and approved by the Company in writing, following the applicable
procedure for concession requests as defined in the Quality Management Procedures
of the Project.
During further stages of the project (detailed design) Contractor is obliged to
verify calcula-tions, the design and dimensions of all equipment using its own
calculations based on pro-cess, design, safety and warranty data given in the
tender documentation. The detailed de-sign must be agreed upon with the Company.

i. The Contractor shall be responsible for the design and construction of all
aspects of the HDD works including any temporary works and temporary supporting
structures. All de-sign assumptions regarding subsurface conditions, equipment
requirements, groundwater and other factors are the responsibility of the
Contractor and shall be fully documented.
ii. Based on the alignment shown in the Principal Drawings, the Contractor shall
design and size the excavated profile to accommodate all temporary and permanent
works.
iii. A design vertical and horizontal profile shall be submitted to the
Superintendent’s
Representative for review prior to commencement of work.
iv. The Contractor shall not proceed with any work until the Contractor’s RPE
certified design has been accepted by the Superintendent’s Representative.
Acceptance of the Contrac-tor’s design by the Superintendent’s Representative in no
way diminishes the responsibility of the Contractor for the design.
v. The HDD crossing shall be designed in accordance with this Specification and
the refer-enced documents by a person suitably qualified and having experience with
the design considerations required for this type of work. The profile design shall
take into account the following:
• Temporary works associated with the HDD construction;

to the tensile force acting on the pull section.


Calculation of the tensile load required to install a pipeline by HDD
is complicated due to the fact that the geometry of the drilled path must
be considered along with properties of the pipe being installed, subsurface
materials, and drilling fl uid. Assumptions and simplifi cations
are typically required. A theoretical pulling load may be calculated by
hand or with the aid of one of several commercially available software
packages.
Regardless of the method used to calculate an HDD pulling load, the
design engineer should be aware that numerous variables affect pulling
loads, many of which depend upon site-specifi c conditions and individual
contractor practices. These include prereaming diameter, hole stability,
removal of cuttings, soil and rock properties, drilling fl uid properties,
drilled path geometry, and the effectiveness of buoyancy control measures.
Such variables cannot easily be accounted for in a theoretical
calculation method designed for use over a broad range of applications.
For this reason, theoretical calculations are of limited benefi t unless
combined with engineering judgment derived from experience in HDD
construction.
The fi rst step in calculating a pulling load is to analyze the drilled path.
This analysis can be based on the designed drilled path, a “worst-case”
drilled path, or “as-built” pilot-hole data, if available. Bearing in mind
that most pilot holes are drilled longer, deeper, and to tighter radii than
designed, a conservative approach in the absence of as-built pilot-hole
data is to evaluate a worst-case drilled path that accounts for potential
deviations from the design. This worst-case path should be determined
based on allowable tolerances for pilot-hole length, elevation, and curve
radius as defi ned in the contract documents. The design engineer should
be aware that deviations in these parameters are typical and are often due

At least one (1) reading per drill rod is required during the drilling of the pilot
hole, registering inclination, heading, length, depth and the orientation of the
bent sub. This information shall be recorded on the steering log and be available
for inspection of the superintendent as and when required.
7.7.2.3 The Contractor shall ensure proper calibration of all equipment before
commencing directional drilling operation and provide proof of calibration
documentation to the Superintendent’s Representative

For steel piping operating above –20F, alloy steel studs ASTM
A193 Grade B7, with ASTM A194 Class 2H semi-finished heavy
hex nuts shall be used except for sulphide stress cracking service
where stud bolts shall be ASTM A193 Grade B7M. For steel piping
operating below –20F, ie: blowdown service, ASTM A320, Gr L7
studs, with ASTM A194, Gr 7 semi-finished hex nuts shall be used,
except for sulfide stress cracking services where stud bolts shall be
ASTM A320, Gr L7M.

For steel piping operating above –20F, alloy steel studs ASTM
A193 Grade B7, with ASTM A194 Class 2H semi-finished heavy
hex nuts shall be used except for sulphide stress cracking service
where stud bolts shall be ASTM A193 Grade B7M. For steel piping
operating below –20F, ie: blowdown service, ASTM A320, Gr L7
studs, with ASTM A194, Gr 7 semi-finished hex nuts shall be used,
except for sulfide stress cracking services where stud bolts shall be
ASTM A320, Gr L7M.
(2) Bolting threads and lengths shall conform to the dimensions listed
in the appropriate national or industry flange standard. Headed
bolts (rather than stud bolts) shall not be used without prior PTT
approval.
(3) All bolts and nuts shall be coated with PTFE, or equivalent
material.
(4) For Austenitic bolting materials shall be in accordance with piping
material classification data sheets.
1.4.6 Proprietary Connectors
Proprietary connectors shall be used as required by project Specifications.
1.5 Design Considerations for Particular Piping Systems
1.5.1 General
This
(2) Bolting threads and lengths shall conform to the dimensions listed
in the appropriate national or industry flange standard. Headed
bolts (rather than stud bolts) shall not be used without prior PTT
approval.
(3) All bolts and nuts shall be coated with PTFE, or equivalent
material.
(4) For Austenitic bolting materials shall be in accordance with piping
material classification data sheets.
1.4.6 Proprietary Connectors
Proprietary connectors shall be used as required by project Specifications.
1.5 Design Considerations for Particular Piping Systems
1.5.1 General
This
The finish required by B16.5 for steel raised-face flanges is also to
be used for non-steel metallic flanges, for steel male and female
flanges, that is 125 to 250 micro inches. For steel tongue and
grove flanges gasket face finish shall be 32-63 micro inches.
(5) For NPS 26” and larger, ASME B16.47 SERIES A flanges shall be
used. Use SERIES B flanges only when needed to mate with
equipment flanges. When attached to pipe with a yield strength
greater than 248.4 MPa (36000 psi), the hub thickness requires
prior PTT approval.
(6) Except for galvanized piping threaded flanges shall not be used
without prior PTT approval and then only in steel NPS 2 and
smaller.
(7) The bore of weld neck flanges to be used in severe cyclic
conditions, ie: reciprocating pumps and compressors, or in services
with high corrosion rates shall have the same ID as the attached
piping. If the ID is not the same, the flange shall be taper bored
conditions may bear on the abandonment decision-making process.
The development and implementation of an abandonment plan consists of at least the
following seven steps:
(1) review prevailing regulatory requirements applicable to the abandonment
project; (2) compile all relevant information on the pipeline system, including
easement agreements; (3) analyze by segment taking into account the factors
addressed in Section 3 of this paper, including present and future land use; (4)
develop the abandonment plan in consultation with stakeholders (such as landowners,
government authorities, and other directly affected parties), incorporating the
information compiled in the above steps; (5) secure regulatory and landowner
approvals as required for the pipeline abandonment and site reclamation; (6)
implement the abandonment plan, the scope of which should include post-abandonment
responsibilities (addressed in Section 4); and (7) secure final regulatory release.

A proponent undertaking an abandonment plan should follow these six steps,


recognizing that site-specific conditions may require additional steps in the
development of the plan.
Please refer to the next page for a flowchart of the abandonment planning process
and to Appendix B for a detailed abandonment checklist.
Page
the removal of equipment or buildings or other structures or appurtenances; # the
conducting of investigations to determine the presence of substances; # the
decontamination of buildings or other structures or other appurtenances, or land or
water; # the stabilization, contouring, maintenance conditioning, or
reconstruction of the land surface; or # any other procedure, operation, or
requirement specified in the regulations
(as defined in the Alberta Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act)
Removal The pipeline is completely removed from the rightof-way.
Roach Excess soil placed over the ditch line to compensate for soil settlement.
Road or Railway Crossing
The crossing by a pipeline of a highway, road, street, or railway.
Sight Block
A mechanism to restrict the visual impact of a pipeline right-of-way.
Soil The naturally occurring, unconsolidated mineral or organic material at least
10 centimetres thick that occurs at the earth's surface and is capable of
supporting plants. It includes disturbance of the surface by human activities such
as cultivation and logging but not displaced materials such as mine spoils.
Spoil Soil materials other than topsoil excavated from the trench. In most cases,
the excavated soil is suitable for return to the pipeline trench, and allows for
recontouring of the right-of-way.
Subsoil Although a common term it cannot be defined accurately. It may be the B
horizon of a soil with a distinct profile. It can also be defined as the zone below
the plowed soil in which roots normally grow.
Surface Water
Water in a watercourse and water at a depth of not more than 15 metres beneath the
surface of the ground.
Suspension The cessation of normal operation of a pipeline pursuant to its licensed
use. The pipeline need not be rendered permanently incapable of its licensed use,
but must be left in a safe and stable state during this period of suspension, as
prescribed by the applicable regulations and guidelines. See also "deactivation".

The SDV valve will be provided at the station inlet and outlet. In case of an
emergency event the SDV valves will cut off the gas supply from the suppliers and
to the pipelines.
The compressor station will be designed for locally manned, fully automatic,
permanent operation from Station Control Room with remote monitoring of the station
from the Central Control Room.
9.2 Pig Receiver
Pig Receivers will be provided at all pipelines entering the compressor station.
The pig receiver is described in section 10.8.
9.3 Filter Separator Skid
The filter separators, as described in section 10.1, shall be provided at Obigbo
Compressor Station at each gas supply source.
The filter separator design and operating conditions are: Parameter Value QIT
Source Obigbo Node Source Cawthorne and Alakiri Source Okono/Okpoho
Design Pressure
98.0 barg
98.0 barg
98.0 barg
98.0 barg
Design Temperature
60˚C
60˚C
60˚C
60˚C
Operating Capacity
290 MMscfd
161 MMscfd
145 MMscfd
100 MMscfd
Maximum pressure drop clean
0.5 bar
0.5 bar
0.5 bar
0.5 bar
Maximum pressure drop dirty
1.0 bar
1.0 bar
1.0 bar
1.0 bar
Table 46 Filter Separators Design Conditions-Obigbo CS
Trans Nigeria Gas Pipeline Project (Early Gas Phase + Phase1) G791-ILF-XXGE-GE-REP-
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9.4 Inlet Gas Metering and Control Package
The Gas Metering and Control Package, as described in section 10.4, shall be
designed to provide technical metering of gas transferred between the gas suppliers
and Obigbo Compressor Station, to equalize the gas arrival pressure supplied from
different sources and to maintain constant gas supply to the CS suction header.
The gas metering and control skid design conditions are: Parameter Value QIT Source
Obigbo Node Source Cawthorne and Alakiri Source Okono/Okpoho
Design Pressure
98 barg
98 barg
98 barg
98 barg
Design Temperature
60˚C
60˚C
60˚C
60˚C
Minimum outlet pressure
52 barg
52 barg
52 barg
52 barg
Operating Capacity
290 MMscfd
170 MMscfd
145 MMscfd
100 MMscfd
Table 47 Inlet Gas Metering and Control Skid Design Conditions-Obigbo CS
9.5 Turbo Compressors
For compression of gas, centrifugal compressors compliant to API 617 shall be
installed. The compressor shall preferably be driven by a gas turbine compliant
with API 616.
Gas flow from the station inlet towards the exit shall be ensured by an optimized
numbers of compressor units as resulting from the hydraulic simulations. TUCO units
selection shall be based on the “worst case” principle. The available gas turbine
power shall match the required total compressor shaft power under the most severe
ambient conditions (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure). The configuration
of the TUCO units for compressor station shall be the result of a study considering
the operational requirements and the availability of the overall system.
The TUCO units will be housed inside a common shed.
A unit control system (UCS) shall control each TUCO unit. Overall operation and
control of the complete CS will be provided by a station control system (SCS). The
SCS shall have a separate functionality for load sharing and station recycle for
overall control of all TUCO units within each station.
Trans Nigeria Gas Pipeline Project (Early Gas Phase + Phase1) G791-ILF-XXGE-GE-REP-
0002 Rev. 3
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TUCO unit shall be delivered as a package. The TUCO unit package

Is name used for the Company executing pigging operations during


pre-commissioning, commissioning, start-up and routine operation
of the Trans Nigeria Gas Pipeline System. This Company
is responsible for all activities associated with pipeline pigging
process i.e. pigging procedures elaboration and submission
to Company approval, pigging process, waste and sewages disposal
generated during pigging etc.
Project FEED of Trans Nigeria Gas Pipeline (Early Gas Phase+Phase1)
Station Means a compressor stations, metering stations, off-take stations,
in take stations, terminal gas stations, block-valve stations and other
related above ground or underground installations used in the
transportation of gas through Trans Nigeria Gas Pipeline System.
Pig Trap Means either a pig launcher or a pig receiver
Table 2 List of Definitions
Abbreviations Expression in Full
EPC Engineering Procurement and Construction
ID Internal Diameter
IP In-Line Inspection Pigging Tools
OD Outside Diameter
PS Pigging Station
TNGP Trans Nigeria Gas Pipeline Project
Table 3

For the purpose of commissioning, inspections, services and decommissioning


activities,
the TNGP pipeline sections will be equipped with pigging traps intended for pigging
tools
launching and receiving.
Pigging facilities shall be provided at gas stations. A proposed pigging traps
locations
consider only pigging technical possibility at design conditions of the pipeline
systems.
The distance between pigging stations shall take into account also the security of
the
pigging operation. If the maximum allowable distance between pigging stations does
not
allow for the location of the pigging station at a gas station, an additional
intermediate
pigging station shall be provided preferably combined with a block valve station.
At the detail design stage of the project the proposed location of the pigging
traps shall
be agreed with local Pigging Contractors to take in to account local security
considerations.
2.1 Pipeline
The pipeline reception area shall be installed in an above ground secure fenced
facility.
Configuration of the pipeline system is presented on the Pipeline System Overview
Diagram [Ref. 1].
The basic of construction of the pipeline will be as follow:
 the pipeline section will be constructed with the constant internal diameter
and varied external diameter to account for different wall thickness requirements,
 pipeline will be constructed of carbon steel,
 pipeline systems will be buried type protected from corrosion by external coating

A station recycle valve will be located between the discharge and suction header in
order to provide the following functions:
 Establish the required compressor minimum flow in case of major sudden demand
reductions in the system (e.g. shut-down of any of gas off-takes);
 allow for TUCO units load sharing in case of gas demand increase and reduction;
 protect TUCO units against surge conditions as the first-stage protection;
Discharge gas from the TUCO Packages will flow to the air-coolers. The discharge
gas temperature downstream of the coolers will be controlled via variable speed
motors. Then the gas will be sent via the discharge header to the Outlet Gas
Metering Packages and the outlet control valves. Finally it will be routed to Ob/Ob
and/or Umuahia.
The outlet flow control valves will provide the following functions:
 flow control and flow distribution in case of simultaneous gas supply in the
direction of Ob/Ob and Ajaokuta via Umuahia;
 flow control in case of the Compressor Station by-pass operation;
 pigging operation (gas flow control);
 controlled pressurization of the outlet pipelines;
The outlet gas metering packages will provide technical metering of gas transferred
between the compressor station and TNGP pipelines and will transmit the TNGP system
boundary conditions data (actual pressure and flow) to the SCADA and Pipeline Leak
Detection