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l Nkholas P. Cheremisinoff
I ' Paul N. Cheremisinoff
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Selection, Design and Practice

I i. I
,. '

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Selection, Design and Practice

Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff
Paul N. Cheremisinoff
Copyright © 1981 by Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.
P.O. Box 1425,230 Collingwood, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106

Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 81-65711

ISBN 0-250-40407-9

Manufactured in the United States of America

All Rights Reserved


As the least expensive and most efficient alternative, once-through cooling

has historically been the preferred method for cooling hot process waters
in industrial operations and power plants. However, since thermal pollution
has become a major environmental problem, the unlimited use of water for
cooling purposes has become one of the major social and political issues
constraining plant siting in many parts of the country. As an example, a
WOO-megawatt power plant utilizing once-through cooling requires 300,000
to 700,000 gallons per minute of water consumption. Plant sites have
drastically diminished near water sources where such water usage is pos-
sible. Consequently, closed-cycle cooling methods thaFrattempt to make
maximum use of limited water supplies have become the primary cooling
Cooling tower technology progressed slowly until very recently. New
developments aim at improving the thermal efficiencies and minimizing
maintenance of existing designs to save large capital investments. When sound
engineering principles are applied to upgrade existing designs or new instal-
lations, cooling towers can produce colder process water and save input
energy, while at the same time can minimize pollution impacts. To meet these
objectives, design and process engineers' must thoroughly understand the
operating principles and the limitations of the best technology that is
presently available. Equally important is some insight into how technology
needs are likely to change in the near future. '
This book gives state-of-the-art evaporative cooling tower techniques.
Design practices and applications of modern cooling tower technology are
presented. A design basis can be established through the detailed calculation
procedures outlined and with selected use of the nearly 400 references
compiled at the end of the book. Detailed abstracts of more than half of
these references have been prepared so that the reader can readily obtain
the most useful information for his or her specific problems,

Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff
Paul N. Cheremisinoff

Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff is Senior Project Engineer with
: Exxon Research & Engineering Co. in Florham Park, N.J.
He received his BS, MS and PhD degrees in Chemical
, Engineering from Clarkson College of Technology, where
he was an instructor from 1976 to 1977. Dr. Cheremisinoff
is the author of a number of books and has contributed
to the industrial press. He is a member of a number of
professional and honor societies including Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi and AIChE.
His special research interests, include heat and mass transfer phenomena and
new energy technology.

Paul N. Cheremisinoff is Associate Professor of Environ-

mental Engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Tech-
nology. A consultant and registered professional engineer,
he has more than 30 years of practical design, development
and manufacturing engineering experience in a wide range
of organizations, specifically in chemical processing. He is
the author/editor of many Ann Arbor Science Publishers
handbooks, including Pollution Engineering Practice Handbook, Carbon
Adsorption Handbook and Environmental Impact Data Book.



1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Historical Developments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Operating Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Cooling Tower Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Design Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2. Properties and Definitions for the Air-Water System. . . . . . . . .. 13

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13
Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .". . . . . . . .. 13
Saturated Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . .. 16
Definitions in Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 18
Wet Bulb Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 26
Humidity Charts . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 29
Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 31
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33

3. Heat and Mass Transfer Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 35

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 35
The General Energy Balance Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 35
Principles of Energy and Material Balances. . . . . . . . . . . .. 39
Principles of Direct-Contact Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 43
Heat and Mass Transfer Analogies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 44
Mass Transfer Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 46
Transfer Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 51
Lewis Number Relationship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52
Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 53
Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55

4. Cooling Tower Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 59

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 59
Cooling Tower Subclassifications and Configurations. . . . .. 59

Fill Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. 70
Distribution Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. 70
Mechanical-Draft Cooling Towers. . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. 70
Factory-Assembled Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. 74
Fan Assisted Hyperbolic Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. 75
New Tower Designs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. 77
Dry Cooling Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. 79
Wet/Dry Tower Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : .... : . .. 83

5. Theory and Design Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 87

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 87
Gas-Liquid Contacting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 87
Application of Psychrometric Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 91
Application of the Energy Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 96
Construction of Equilibrium Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 102
Guidelines for Tower Specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 104
General Design Considerations and Packing Coefficients. . .. 108
Correcting for Liquid Film Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 112
Integrating Procedures for Tower Sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 113
Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 119
Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 120

6. Operation and Design Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 125

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 125
Tower Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 125
Tower Characteristics and Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 127
Power Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 130
Considerations in Cooling Tower Selection. . . . . . . . . . . .. 134
Empirical Approach to Tower Sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 136
Problems Related to Outside Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 138
Winter Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 141
Problems with Fog Formation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 143
Blowdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 146
Water Consumption and Recirculation Rates . . . . . . . . . .. 149
Gas Cooling Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 150
Fire Hazard and Safety Precautions with
Cooling Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 153
Cooling Tower Plumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 154
Cooling Tower Specification Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 158
Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 159
Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 160


7. Mechanical Components of Cooling Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 163

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 163
Circulating Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 163
Fans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 165
Speed Reducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . .. 167
Drive Shafts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 167
Instrumentation, Valves and Flowsheets . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 168
Example of Cooling Tower Requisition. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 169
Cooling Tower Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 179
Bids Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 179
Cooling Tower Economics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 183

8. Cooling Tower Water Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 185

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 185
Problems Inherent to Water Contaminants. . . . . . . . . . . .. 186
Pretreatment of Cooling Water Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 188
Corrosion Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 190
Methods of Evaluating Cooling Water Inhibitors. . . . . . . .. 191
Langelier and Ryznar Equations: Saturation and
Stability Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 191
Organic Growths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,", . . . . . . .. 192
Legionnaires' Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . .. 193
Water Analysis and Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 194
Plastic Cooling Towers ...... : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 198

9. Guidelines for Winter Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 207

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 207
Overall Ice Prevention System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 207
Mechanics of the Fill Bypass and Ice Prevention
Ring Sections. . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 209
Supplemental Ice Control: Fill Zoning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 211
Guidelines for Integrated System Operation. . . . . . . . . . .. 212
Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 213

Appendix A': Steam Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Appendix B: Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Appendix C: Solutions to Selected Chapter Problems ...... . 245
Appendix D: Source Listing and Abstracts of the Cooling
Tower Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341


1.1 Cooling tower operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.2 Countercurrent and crossflow cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 10
2.1 Vapor pressure curve for water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14
2.2 Heat capacity curves for air and water vapor. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22
2.3 Graphic representation of enthalpy change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23
2.4 The principle of wet-bulb temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 27
2.5 Psychrometric chart for the air-water vapor system . . . . . . . . .. 30
2.6 Humidity chart example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 31
3.1 Energy, balance for an open system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 36
3.2 Energy balance for a closed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 37
3.3 Process operations or equipment can be represented by a
generalized flow process known as the black
box technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 39
3.4 Generalized flow process considered in Example 1. . . . . . . . . .. 41
3.5 The action of diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 47
3.6 The Arnold diffusion cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55
3.7 Water tank for problem 3.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 56
3.8 Adiabatic gas-liquid contact system for problem 3.9. . . . . . . . .. 57
4.1 Subclassifications of cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 60
4.2 Atmospheric spray tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 61
4.3 Hyperbolic natural draft tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 61
4.4 Counterflow tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 62
4.5 Crossflow tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 63
4.6 Single-structure type wet/dry cooling tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 64
4.7 Wet/dry cooling tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 64
4.8 Coil shed cooling tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 65
4.9 Cross section of a simple cooling tower formed by enclosing
a spraypond with louvered walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 66
4.10 Various geometries employed in constructing redwood fill
for cooling towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 67
4.11 Power plant installation where multiple tower arrangement is


utilized (towers are operated in parallel). Cooling towers

are placed in a row at right angles to the prevailing winds 68
4.12 Differences between crossflow and counterflow hyperbolic
cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.13 Operating principles behind splash-packing and. film-packing ... . 71
4.14 Gravity and splash-type water distribution systems employed
in cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.15 Large mechanical-draft cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.16 Design elements of mechanical-draft cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.17 Factory-assembled units are shipped in modular package form
and erected in the field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.18 Forced draft tower curves and manufacturer's design procedure .. 76
4.19 Fan-assisted hyperbolic tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.20 Cooling tower design developed by Baltimore Aircoil Co. The
system is designed to operate without fill packing ....... . 79
4.21 Direct, dry-type cooling tower condensing system utilizing a
mechanical-draft tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.22 Indirect, dry-type cooling tower condensing system employing
a natural-draft tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.23 Schematic of advanced dry cooling system proposed by
McHale et al. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ":1 • • • • • . • • 83
4.24 Design features of the wet! dry cooling tower ..... ' . . . . . . . . . 84
5.1 Free and interrupted flow through a column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
5.2 Tower packing configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.3 Cross-sectional view of commonly used cooling tower
fill arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.4 Example of adiabatic humidification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.5 Cooling tower operation for Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.6 Countercurrent cooling tower operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5.7 General operating diagram for a cooling tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
5.8 Daily and annual variations in ambient air wet-bulb
temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.9 Effect of flow variance on cooling tower size factor . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.10 Effect of range variance on tower size factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.11 Variation in tower size factor with approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
5.12 Important design parameters for the countercurrent cooling
tower operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
5.13 Cooling tower operation for Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
5.14 Equilibrium curve and operating line for Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . 116
5.15 Evaluation ofNTU' for Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
5.16 Cooling tower operation for problem 5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
6.1 Countercurrent cooling diagram for constant conditions,
variable L:G ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
6.2 Crossflow tower cooling diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 127
6.3 Generalized tower characteristic curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 129
6.4 Countercurrent cooling tower rating chart for 15° range . . . . . .. 130
6.5 The effects of varying process conditions on a cooling
tower's enthalpy temperature diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 133
6.6 The effect of variations in performance requirement on tower
ground area for a fixed tower design with constant G . . . . .. 136
6.7 Catwalks are an essential part of the cooling tower package.
Shown here is a small cooling tower with a walkway around
the entire unit for inspection and maintenance purposes. . .. 139
6.8 Interface and recirculation problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 139
6.9 Proper tower orientation can avoid interference from multiple
tower arrangements .. '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 140
6.10 Heat balance about a cooling tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 141
6.11 Equation 6.8 correlated mechanical-draft performance data .... , 142
6.12 Portion of psychrometric chart illustrating fog formation. . . . .. 144
6.13 Fog formation assisted by wake formation and hourly
variations in ambient air humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 145
6.14 Chart for estimating cooling tower makeup requirements. . . . .. 148
6.15 Chart for estimating cooling tower blowdown. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 149
6.16 Lewis number correlation for the air-water system. . . . . . . . . .. 151
6.17 Typical pl~t comparing relative ground concentration in the
cooling tower stack direction. Ground-level concentrations
are normally averaged over the year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 157
7.1 Recommended minimum submergence depths versus velocity. .. 164
7.2 Various methods to prevent vortex formation. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 164
7.3 Centrifugal fan configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 167
7.4 Typical flowsheet for a cooling tower system . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 170
7.5 Typical cooling tower performance curves for different
water loadings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 180
8.1 Modular constructed plastic cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 199
9.1 Illustrates the danger of freezing for normal cooling
tower operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 208
9.2 Diagram showing the proper flow allocations during low heat
load operation, with water flow diverted from the
fill section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 210
9.3 Typical fill water ,distribution pattern in the zoned mode
of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 212
9.4 Operating regions for the winter operating modes for
ice prevention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 213



2.1 Constants for Heat Capacity Equation 2.28 for

Air and Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23
2.2 Enthalpy Values for Air and Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24
4.1 Comparison Between Characteristics of Mechanical- and
Natural-Draft Cooling Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 78
4.2 Design Considerations and Characteristics of Dry Cooling. . .. 82
5.1 Heat Absorbed by Cooling Water for Various Operations. . .. 105
5.2 Humidification Characteristics of Packing Materials. . . . . . .. 112
5.3 Guide to Packing Height Specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 112
5.4 Air-Water Mixtures-Enthalpies and Humidities. . . . . . . . . .. 115
5.5 Computations for Construction of Figure 5.15 . :\ . . . . . . .. 117
6.1 Maximum Temperatures and Maximum Wind Velocities for
Different Cities in the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 131
6.2 Fill Packing Factors at 120°F .. ',' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 137
6.3 Specification List for Cooling Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 158
7.1 Economic Considerations of Wet Cooling Systems. . . . . . . .. 181
7.2 Procedure for Estimating Potential Water Cost and Sewer
Taxes Savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 182
8.1 Pretreatment Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 190
8.2 Chemical Treating Agents for Cooling Water Towers ..... " 197
8.3 High-Impact Polyethylene Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 200
8.4 Plastics Chemicals Resistance Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 201





In the light of the ecological renaissance of the last two decades, thermal
pollution is now receiving serious attention. It is environmentally unaccept-
able to directly discharge hot water back to its source after it has been
used to cool chemical process equipment, electrical generating turbines
or refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. Hot process waters must
either be cooled before discharge, or cooled and recyoled. Purchasing and
then discarding large quantities of water into sewage systems is cost prohibi-
tive in many parts of the country, and even if favorable economics were
to exist, environmental concerns would forbid such practices.
In the past, abundant resources made' it possible to use cold water on a
once-through basis. Where topographical considerations were accounted
for, large ponds, lakes or canals were used to contain, cool and recirculate
or discharge process waters. To facilitate cooling and reduce land require-
ments, spray systems were often employed to aerate the water in the ponds.
In today's economic framework, however, energy conservation matches
the importance of our ecology. Consequently, utilizing cooling water effi-
ciently is a vital engineering consideration. As examples, by using colder
water, a chemical plant can condense more salable condensate, refrigeration/
air conditioning machinery will consume less power, and power plants can
significantly reduce energy generation debits.
Cooling tower technology has progressed slowly until recently. A large
portion of the recent advances is aimed at improving existing cooling towers
to save large capital investments. When sound modern engineering principles
are applied to upgrading existing designs or to "grass-roots" installations,
cooling towers can produce colder water and save input energy, while at
the same time eliminating potential pollution problems.
To meet these objectives, both design and process engineers must have
a thorough understanding of the principles of operation and the limitations

of the best available technology that presently exists. Equally important

is some insight into how technology needs are likely to change in the near
future. This book is intended as a state-of-the-art review of the design and
application of modern-day cooling tower technology.


The technique of evaporative cooling can be traced back to ancient times

when rivers, seas, lakes, ponds, etc., were utilized as a medium of water
supply. With limited industrial activities of the past ages and plentiful
resources, cold water could be used "once-through," discharged and for-
gotten. Where topographical corisiderations were taken into account in
plant site selection, large ponds or canals were employed to hold, cool,
recirculate or discharge process waters. This type of an approach required
large land areas. To reduce the amount of real estate needed, spray systems
were installed to aerate the water in holding ponds and to promote faster
cooling by generating more water' surface to the atmosphere in the form of
spray. This early development eliminated the need to rely on top layer
evaporation and sensible heat exchange.
The next logic~ development of cooling tower technology came when
it was discovered that by spraying downwards in a box, instead of upwards,
lower temperatures could be achieved. Shortly after this observation was
made, instead of relying on prevailing winds for air movement in spray ponds
and atmospheric spray towers, aerodynamically designed fans or air movers
were incorporated into designs.
As the mechanics and hydrodynamics of water cooling became better
understood, fill or packing material was included in designs to slow the
vertical fall of water and to provide greater air/water interfacial contact
for more difficult cooling. Today, everyone of these techniques is utilized
in some form or another.
Cooling tower technology appears to have made an entire circle, as
emphasis is once again directed toward atmospheric cooling. However, there
are significant differences in these modern designs compared to early proto-
types. Hyperbolic cooling towers are being constructed without the use of
fans or air movers. These structures measure about 980-1700 meters in
diameter at the base a~d 980-1700 meters in height. With structures of
this magnitude, detailed and reliable engineering design practices are essential.
Presently, the United States accounts for 50% of the world cooling tower
market. About 25% of the U.S. market is with the petrochemical industry,
15% involved in personal comfort and 60% with electric power genera-
tion [1]. More than twice as many of these towers are mechanical draft,
as opposed to natural draft, units. The former type are employed nationwide,
---~~-- --~-- ~~~-


while the latter are concentrated in the Appalachian area because of favorable
climatic conditions. This balance, however, is likely to change in the light
of developing technology.


Cooling tower operation is based on evaporative condensation and exchange

of sensible heat. The mixing of two fluid streams at different temperatures
(in this case air and water) releases latent heat of vaporization, causing a
cooling effect to the warmer fluid (water). This cooling effect is accomplished
by transforming a portion of the liqUid into a vapor state, thereby releasing
the latent heat of vaporization.
This effect can be simply demonstrated by wetting the back of your hand
and blowing on it. The airstream releases the latent heat of vaporization,
causing the temperature of the water on the skin to drop. As the water is
transformed to the vapor state, it consumes heat, which it derives from the
remaining water on the skin. The net effect is one of cooling.
In a cooling tower's operation, sensible heat also plays a role. When warm
water contacts cooler air, the air cools the water and its temperature rises
as it gains the sensible heat of the water. Roughly 25% ,gf the sensible heat
transfer takes place within the tower, with the bala~ce of the cooling
phenomenon achieved from the evaporative effect of the latent heat of
vaporization. In simple terms, a cooling tower is a device that transfers
quantities of heat from one mass to another. As we will see in later chapters,
a cooling tower is simply an air-mass heat exchanger.
A more technical description of a cooling tower is that it represents a
heat rejection solution to the chemical process, or correction of the heat
penalty generation of compression equipment [2]. Regardless which defini-
tion is preferred, cooling towers simply move heat from point A to point B
and ultimately discharge the heat to the atmosphere. The atmosphere thus
represents the ultimate disposal site for waste thermal energy and is appro-
priately referred to as a "heat sink."
During operation there is a loss of water. Water vapor passes through the
cooling tower and is discharged into the atmosphere. For normal operation,
water losses amount to approximately 0.2% of the total volume of water
circulated for every 10° of cooling range, 1% for each 12° temperature differ-
ential in the area of 1000 Btu/lb of water evaporated. As an example, a
1O,000-gpm unit with a 20° temperature range (Le., water entering at 100°F)
and exiting at 80°F) will lose an average of 167 gpm of water because of
evaporation. Evaporation losses are due to a number of factors, principal ones
being blowdown, splashing and drift. These will be discussed in detail later.
When the temperature of the heated air is below 140°F, cooling towers

generally represent the most economical atmospheric heat rejection system.

Temperature differential is related to the ambient wet-bulb temperature.
It is a function of natural conditions and is independent of tower design.
In normal operations, continuously recirculating water picks up waste
heat from a refrigeration compressor or process heat exchanger, and the hot
water is pumped to the top of the tower and dropped over the cooling tower.
Evaporative action removes the heat from the water and adds it to the air.
The hot, moist air is ejected from the fan stack, and the cooled 'water returns
to the compressor or exchanger to pick up more heat. Figure 1.1 illustrates
the cooling tower operation.
As noted, two principles of heat transfer are involved: evaporation and
convection. The rate of heat transfer by both convection and evaporation
increases with an increase in air-to-water interfacial surface, relative velocity,
contact time and temperature differential. Packing and fill in a tower serve
to increase the interfacial surface area; the tower chimney or fans create
the relative air-to-water velocity; and contact time is a function of tower
size. These three factors all may be influenced by the tower design.
The ability of a tower to function is measured by how close it brings
the cold water temperature to the wet-bulb temperature of the surrounding




RANGE::: ~T ::: TI - T
2 ::: 20°F
APPROACH ::: T2 - Twb ::: 7 OF

Figure 1.1 Cooling tower operation.


air. The lower the wet-bulb temperature (which indicates either cool air,
low humidity or a combination), the colder the tower can make the water.
The water temperature will never go below the temperature of the incoming
air. In practice, the final water temperature will be several degrees above the
wet-bulb temperature.


There are a number of terms with rather rigorous definitions within the
context of cooling tower technology. It is' worthwhile for the newcomer
to this subject to learn these definitions early on in the discussions. In sub-
sequent chapters we will apply the following definitions to establishing
specific design guidelines.
Acceptance Testing-Test procedures to determine the water cooling
capacity of towers. Instrumentation used and measurement procedures
should be those recommended by the Cooling Tower Institute (CT!) in
its "Acceptant Text Procedures."
Air Inlet-That portion of the cooling tower structure in which air is
drawn into the system.
Ambient Dry-Bulb Temperature-External outdoor te'l11perature as indi-
cated by a dry-bulb thermometer and expressed in degrees ,Fahrenheit.
Ambient Wet-Bulb Temperature- The temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
to which air can be cooled, making it adiabatic to saturation by the addition
of water vapor. In practical terms, the wet-bulb temperature is the
temperature indicated by a thermometer, the bulb of which is kept moist
by a wick and over which air is circulated.
Approach or Approach to the Wet-Bulb-The difference in temperature
CF) of the cold water leaving the tower and the wet-bulb temperature of
the ambient air.
Balancing Valve-Hand or mechanically operated valve installed in each
riser pipe of a multicell tower to control water flow.
Basin-The area at the bottom of the tower for collecting cold water.
Crossflow towers have a hot water distribution basin at the top and, in
some cases, 'a water basin between the top and bottom basins.
Blowdown (Purge)-The continuous or intermittent wasting of small
amounts of circulating water. Its purpose is to prevent an increase in the
concentration of solids in the water due to evaporation, normally expressed
as a percentage of the water being circulated.
Capacity-The average amount of water circulating in the cooling system
at any given time, expressed in gallons per minute.
Casing-The vertical enclosing side- or endwall of a tower, exclusive of
the air inlet louvers.

Cell-A unit consisting of a distribution system, mechanical equipment

and partition walls. A single tower can have several independent cells.
Individual cells can be shut down, or several cells can be run on partial
Cellular Film-Asbestos fill packing that converts water droplets into
a thin molecular filter for more efficient cooling. Less static pressure is
encountered than with splash-bar fill, thus permitting the use of higher
air velocities.
Concentration Cycles-Comparison of dissolved solids in makeup water
witli solids concentration in the circulating water.
Cooling Factor-The ratio of the pounds of water circulated per unit of
time to the pounds of dry air cooling the water per unit of time.
Cooling Tower Institute-International organization of cooling tower
engineers, manufacturers and users, dedicated to improving the professional
and technical state of the art.
Counterflow-A system in which air encounters the hot water at a 180
angle. Air enters near the base of the tower and moves upwards through the
fill and falling water.
Crossflow- A system in which air encounters the hot water at a 90 angle.
Air enters through the entire sidewall and moves horizontally through the
fill and falling water.
Delta Temp~rature (Range)-Difference between entering and leaving
water temperatures.
Design Conditions-Thermal parameters for which the cooling tower is
purchased. They consist of a given gpm flow of water entering the tower
at a specific temperature, cooling through a given range, leaving the tower
at the required temperature, and having a designated approach to a stated
wet-bulb temperature.
Diffusion (Redistribution) Deck-A device below the hot water distribution
basin of a crossflow tower to break up the water going through the orifices
before it goes through the fill.
Distribution System-Mechanical method of passing hot water over the
fill uniformly. Low-pressure spray-through piping and nozzles are usually
used in counterflow towers; gravity drop is normally utilized in crossflow
Drift-Entrained water droplets that escape from the tower with the
exhaust air, expressed as a percentage of water circulated.
Drift Eliminator-Baffling that causes discharging hot air containing en-
training water droplets to change direction a number of times. Droplets
hit the eliminator surface and fall back into the tower.
Enthalpy -Total heat content; the sum of the sensible heat of the air and
water vapor and of the latent heat of vaporization.

Fill Packing-Specially designed baffling used to provide a large surface

area for heat transfer. Two classes of materials are used: splash bars of wood,
metal transite or plastic and film pack (cellular fill). The splash type cools
the water as the droplets bounce down a series of bars in the air stream;
film packing converts droplets into a thin film ..
Fog-A mist formed where the ambient air cannot absorb all the plume's
moisture. The intensity of the fog is a function of the heat rise of air passing
through the tower and the temperature and humidity of the ambient air.
Fog plumes are normally permissible since there are no droplets of water
raining out of the discharge area; however, fog may cause icing of nearby
roads and may restrict visibility.
Forced Draft-Air introduced at the bottom of the tower is forced to the
top by a centrifugal blower.
Heat Load-Amount of heat (in Btu) dissipated in a cooling tower. It is
equal to the weight of water circulated per unit of time multiplied by the
cooling range.
Induced Draft-Air mover, usually an aerial fan, on top of the tower pulls
air up through the fill and out the stack.
Latent Heat of Vaporization-The heat required to change a liquid into a
vapor without a change in the temperature or pressure.
Louvers-Baffles used for changing the direction of air flow into the tower
in a uniform, parallel manner, and for preventing water droplets from
splashing out of the tower as they fall through the structure.
Makeup -This term refers to the water required to replace the circulating
water that is lost by evaporation, drift, bl~wdown and leakage. It is expressed
as a percentage of the water circulated and normally is automatically
controlled by a float valve.
Net Effective Volume-A portion of the total structural volume in which
the circulating water is in intimate contact with the air flowing through the
tower (expressed in cubic feet).
Performance-The measure of the tower's ability to cool water. It is usually
expressed in terms of cooling a quantity of water (gpm) from a specified
hot water temperature to a specified cold water temperature at a stated
wet-bulb temperature.
Performance Curve-A graphic representation of the relationship of water
temperature, approach, wet-bulb temperature, range, static pressure and air
Plenum-An enclosed chamber in which pressure is higher than atmospheric
Plume-Visible manifestation of water vapor condensing as warm, moist
air mixing with the cooler, outside air.
Psychrometer-Instrument used to measure the wet-bulb temperature.

Pumping Head-The energy required to raise water to the distribution

elevation and overcome friction losses through pipe, valves, fittings and
nozzles. It is expressed in feet of liquid the pump must move and is equal
to the total friction loss, static head and pressure drop through the distribu-
tion system.
Range-The numerical difference between the temperature of the hot
water entering the cooling tower at the distribution system and the
temperature of the colder water leaving the sump basin. '
Recirculation (Recycle)-Hot exhaust air forced downward and back into
the cooling tower raises the wet-bulb temperature of the entering air above
dry-bulb temperature, impairing tower performance. It is usually caused
by design, wind or placement problems.
Sensible Heat-The heat requIred to change the temperature of air or
Static Pressure Drop-The reduction of air movement through the tower
resulting from resistance of internal components such as air-intake louvers,
fill packing, water distribution system, internal supporting beams, drift
eliminators and fan stack configuration.
Sump-Depressed section of the cold water collecting basin, from which
cooled water retlfrns to the heat source.
TDS-Total di~solved solids contained in solution in the cooling water
Water Load-Circulating rate of water over the tower, expressed in gallons
per minute.
Wet-Bulb Temperature-The temperature of saturated air. The lower the
wet-bulb temperature, the more exchange of heat a cooling tower can do.
A tower cannot cool the water to a temperature below the wet-bulb
temperature of the entering air.
Windage-The loss of water through the air-intake louvers as a result of
malfunctioning of the wind check walls in the lower section of the tower.


One of the earliest cooling tower configurations was developed so that the
water would pass through the distribution of piping or troughs and fall
vertically through the Jill packing area. In this design, air was drawn to the
bottom of the tower and then moved vertically upward through the fill
packing. During the fluid-fluid mixing, both air and water flowed counter
to each other, thus the term counterflow tower.
To meet other requirements, such as increased water throughput, lower
architectural profile demands and greater utilization of electrical energy,
as well as to improve cooling efficiency, crossflow designs were developed.


In the crossflow design, hot water is brought to the top of the tower and
pumped into basins or pans where it falls through specially designed orifices
on top of the fill area. In crossflow designs, air travels horizontally through
the fill region of the tower and at a 90° angle (Le., across the vertical falling
water). Figure 1.2 illustrates both the counterflow,· or countercurrent, tower
and the crossflow tower.
Air movers on many industrial installations usually consist of propeller-type
air foils. These induce air through the tower and discharge the hot moist
air through cylinders that surround the propellers. Such systems generally
consists of electric motors connected by flexible-shaft couplings and gear-
reducing trains to provide the driving force.
Fan blade technology has advanced such that more efficient systems are
now available in lightweight materials such as plastics. Due to this weight
reduction as well as to the high strength associated with plastics and
reinforced plastics, fan usage has been extended to larger diameter
towers [3].
In the smaller cooling tower installations employed for refrigeration and
air conditioning service, induced-draft propeller-type air movers are used.
A favored design utilizes the rotary centrifugal squirrel cage blower, which
is normally driven by electric motors connected to the rotors by V-belts.
Because of lower fan efficiency, these often use more,,> electric power to
achieve the same results as propeller fans.
To ensure high performance, it is important that the water distribution
system provide a uniform flow pattern through the fill material. Water flow
maldistributions are very common, especially with units that have been
operated for a number of years. This is caused by tower and fill deterioration,
and nozzles undergoing fouling or clogging. When a nozzle becomes clogged,
it naturally leaves a dry spot in the fill. Air, as any moving flUid, will follow
the path of least resistance and thus channel through this dry spot. Con-
sequently, a large amount of energy and 'cooling potential can be lost due to
water maldistribution.
Newer nonclogging, noncorroding ceramic nozzles have been introduced
to the market. These generally help reduce maintenance requirements and
are now replacing steel nozzles on existing installations.
Drift was' defined earlier as entrained water droplets in the air stream,
which pass through the tower and discharge along with the hot air through
the plenum or fan stack. A drift eliminator, which is merely a specially
designed baffling system, can be installed between the water distribution
system and the air discharge to minimize entrainment. Older designs for
drift eliminators consisted of zigzag slats, which abruptly change the air
flow direction prior to discharge. This causes droplets to impinge on the
baffles and fall back into the tower. This type of design is energy intensive
as it requires significant energy to transport the air through the baffling.
(A) -

( F) (F)
' ... AIR / (F)
...... /
"'-1(- . - - - - - - - - - - - , iiE~=~
A. MECHANICAL .......~-

Figure 1.2 Countercurrent and crossflow cooling towers.



Cellular eliminators (discussed later) can cause the air to change less abruptly
and make multiple direction changes as well. This is a more efficient method
of minimizing entrainment than the conventional wooden slat system.
Cooling towers themselves can be sources of pollution since they do not
destroy heat but merely move it from one plaoe to another, ultimately
discharging it to the atmosphere. There are engineering principles that can
assist in the selection of the method and area of discharge. We will examine
these principles in more detail in the chapters to follow.


1. Kolfat, T.D. "Cooling Tower Practices," Power Eng. (January 1975).

2. Burger, R. "Cooling Tower Technology," Poll. Eng. (May 1980).
3. Cheremisinoff, N. P., and P. N. Cheremisinoff, Fiberglass-Reinforced
Plastics Deskbook (Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.,


1. Burger, R. "Know Your Cooling Tower," Power (March 1979).

2. Burger, R. "Cooling Tower Retrofit," Chern. Eng. Prog:"(March 1979).
3. Dickey, 1. B. "Managing Waste Heat With the Water Cobling Tower," Com-
bustion (May 1979).
4. Holzhauer, R. "Industrial Cooling Towers," Plant Eng. (July 1975).
5. Knuesch, T. "Keep Your Cool When Selecting the Right Tower," Process
Eng. (September 1978).
6. Knuesch, T. "Environmental Aspects of Cooling Tower Selection," Process
Eng. (November 1978).
7. Maze, R. W. "Air Cooler or Water Tower-Which for Heat Disposal,"
Chern. Eng. (January 1975).
8. McGraw, M. G. "Before-the-Fact Modeling Solves Tower Problem," Elec-
trical World (October 1979).




In this chapter we will review some of the principles of thermochemistry,

with particular attention to the air-water vapor system. Basic definitions in
thermodynamics are reviewed along with important physical properties and
definitions for gaseous mixtures. It is important that these definitions be
learned early on. Note, however, that this chapter is only meant as a review.
The references listed at the end of this chapter should be consulted for a de-
tailed treatment of these subjects. Further, example problems are included at
the end of the chapter to stress principles discussed.


A gas existing below its critical temperature is generally referred to as a

vapor because it can condense. If a pure gas is maintained at a constant tem-
perature below its critical temperature and the pressure is increased, eventu-
ally the gas begins to condense into a liquid. This procedure can be reversed
by decreasing the applied pressure and the liquid will be transformed back to
its gaseous state. In our discussions, the term vapor will be used to refer to a
gas below its critical point in a process where the phase change is of interest.
The terms gas and noncondensable gas will refer to a gas above the critical
point or to a gas that cannot condense.
If both temperature and pressure are kept constant, then vaporization and
condensation are equilibrium processes. The equilibrium pressure is referred
to as the vapor pressure. There is only one pressure at which the liqUid and
vapor phases of a pure substance can exist in equilibrium at a given tempera-
ture. Naturally, either phase may exist over a wide range of conditions.


A pressure-temperature diagram best illustrates the processes of vaporiza-

tion and condensation. Figure 2.1 is such a diagram for pure water. From
this plot, a corresponding pressure can be obtained at which water vapor and
water liquid exist in equilibrium. Boiling water is a good example of an equi-
librium condition. Any substance has an infinite number of boiling points.
The "normal" boiling point, however, refers to the temperature at which
boiling occurs at a pressure of 1 atm (760 mm). For water, the normal boiling
point occurs when the vapor pressure of the water equals the pressure of the
surrounding atmosphere.
To illustrate the' vaporization process, let us assume that we begin heating a
pan of water from an initial temperature of 150°F (Point A on Figure 2.1). If
the pan is open to the atmosphere, then the water vapor above the liquid sur-
face is at all times in eqUilibrium with the liquid. As the temperature rises
(and the atmospheric pressure remains constant), nothing really occurs until
the water reaches 212°F, at which temperature the water begins to boil or
evaporate. Evaporating water molecules push back the atmosphere and com-
pletely change from liqUid into vapor (Point B on Figure 2.1). If we now
cover the pan with a lid and continue heating the water vapor from point B


go I


11.1 E
500 z
11.1 ..J F (CHARLES' LAW)
a.. dS

150 190 212

Figure 2.1 Vapor pressure curve for water.


(which is formed at constant pressure), then the gas laws become applicable
in the region B-C and higher temperatures. To reverse this process, we would
cool the liquid to point B where vapor condenses to form a liqUid. The
temperature at point B represents the dew point for the case described.
The process of vaporization/condensation at constant temperature can be
explained by the points D, E and F on Figure 2.1. Water either would con-
dense or vaporize at constant temperature as the pressure approaches point E
on the vapor-pressure curve.
Line G-H shows that when the solid form (ice) passes directly into the
vapor phase without first becoming a liquid, then sublimation is said to occur.
Water sublimes below 32°F. As an example, everyone has seen frost disappear
in the winter, even though the thermometer might have read 25°F.
The pressure-temperature plot of Figure 2.1 extends all the way to the
critical temperature and pressure, which has not been shown. Above the
critical temperature, water strictly exists as a gas. The term saturated is used
to describe the vapor-liquid portion of the curve. Basically, it implies the
same thing as saying that vapor and liqUid are in equilibrium with each other.
The gas is said to be saturated if it is ready to condense the first drop of
liqUid. Conversely, the liquid is saturated if it is just about to vaporize. For
the gas, this condition is called the dew point; for the liquid, it is the bubble
The term "wet gas" refers to a mixture of liquid and vapor at equilibrium
(Le., both liqUid and vapor are saturated). The region to the right of the
vapor-pressure curve in Figure 2.1 is the superheated region. The region to
the left of the curve is the subcooled regfon. The temperatures in the super-
heated region, when measured as the difference (line K-L) between the actual
temperature of the superheated vapor and the saturation temperature for the
same pressure, are referred to as the degrees of superheat. Another term we
will use in later discussions is "quality." Quality refers to the weight fraction
of vapor.
As we have already observed, the vapor-pressure-temperature curve is non-
linear. To reduce this curve to a linear form, a plot of log (p*) versus (l/T)
can be made for moderate temperature intervals. The resultant straight line is
described by the following expression, which can be derived from the
Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

log (p*) = m T +C (2.1)

Equation 2.1 describes the change of a substance's vapor pressure with tem-
perature. The intercept C depends on the specific substance.
An equation for the change of vapor pressure with total pressure at con-
stant temperature is as follows:



where V is the molal volume of saturated liquid or gas, and Pt is the total
Under normal conditions this effect can be neglected.


The molecules of water vapor are free to migrate randomly in all directions.
If in a closed vessel, the molecules will eventually distribute themselves
throughout the entire volume of the container.
When any gas contacts a liquid, the gas acquires vapor from the liquid. If
sufficient contact time is allowed, equilibrium will result. At equilibrium, the
partial pressure of the vapor equals the vapor pressure of the liqUid at the
temperature of the system. At equilibrium, the gas is said to be saturated with
the vapor at the given temperature (Le., the gas is at its dew point).
Both air and water vapor can be described by the ideal gas laws. We can use
this fact to col1tpute the partial pressure of air at saturation conditions. From
the perfect gas l~ws at constant temperature:



(2.4 )

when 7) is moles.
This can be rearranged to give

Pair Pair Yair

PH,O - Pt - Pair Vt - Yair

where P t is total pressure.

Equation 2.5 can be generalized for any two components:

Subscripts indicate component 1 and 2.



The most useful form of Equation 2.6 is:


If equilibrium has not been reached between a mixture of components, the

condition is referred to as partial saturation. At partial saturation the gas mix-
ture obeys real gas laws. There are several ways to express the concentration
of a vapor in a mixture of gases. Most often, weight or mole fraction is used.
Other definitions are relative saturation (relative humidity), molal saturation
(molal humidity) and absolute saturation (absolute humidity).
Relative humidity is defined by the following relation:

--=oR s (2.8)

where Rs relative saturation


Pvapor partial pressure of the vapor in the gas mix ture


Psatd = partial pressure of the vapor in the gas mixture if the gas were satu-
rated at the given temperature of the mixture

For the air-water system, %RH = PH,o/PH,o (100)_ A;,\OO% relative hu-
midity, the partial pressure of the vapor is the same as the vapor pressure of
the condensed vapor,
Another way to express vapor concentration is by molal saturation, which
is the ratio of the moles of vapor to the moles of vapor-free gas.


where Ms =0 molal saturation

7)v =0 moles of vapor
7)' =0 the moles of vapor-free or dry gas

For a two-component




7), P, VI 7)1 P, v,
-:::::-:;::-:::::--=--=0--- (2.12)

Multiplying by the ratio of the molecular weights, the weight of vapor per
weight of dry gas can be computed:

7Jy (MWy) = Wy
, (MW') W'
(2.13 )

Subscript V refers to vapor and superscript prime (') refers to the dry gas.
MW is molecular weight.
Absolute saturation is defined as the ratio of the moles of vapor per mole
of dry gas to the moles of vapor that would be present per mole of dry gas if
the mixture were completely saturated at the existing temperature and total
pressure. We can express this as


Note that PI saturated is really pi and that Pt =PI + P 2. Then the relation-
ship becomes '

, PI
\'. . Pt- P, PI(pt-p;)
% SaturatIOn = (100)--*-
_p 100

Pt - pi

From Equation 2.8 we can write the following:

% Saturation =
Pt- P
RH ( Pt _ P:
*) 100 (2.16)

The percent saturation is never greater than the relative saturation except at
saturated conditions or at zero percent saturation (where % saturation =


This section reviews some basic definitions and formulas in thermo-

dynamics. These definitions will be used to develop energy balances to
describe cooling tower operations. In our discussions we will use the
following terms: system, property, extensive and intensive properties, and

state. The term system refers to any specified mass of material or piece of
equipment under consideration. Any system enclosed by a boundary that
prevents the exchange of mass with the surroundings is a nonflow or
closed system. An open or flow system, such as a cooling tower, has ex-
change of both mass and energy with the surroundings.
The term property refers to a characteristic of a material and can be mea-
sured. Examples are pressure, temperature and volume. Properties may also
be computed, such as, for example, internal energy, which cannot be mea-
sured directly. An extensive property is one whose value is the sum of each
of the subsystems comprising the entire system. An example is a gas mixture,
in which each constituent (or subsystem) has masses or volumes different
from the original system. Thus, mass or volume is an extensive property.
An intensive property is one whose values are not additive and do not vary
with the quantity of the sample in the system. Examples are temperature,
pressure and density.
The term state refers to material with a specified set of properties at a
given time. It is not a function of the system configuration but only of its
intensive properties.


Heat can be defined as a portion of the total energy flo~ across a system
boundary and is caused by a temperature difference between the system and
the surroundings. Heat can be exchanged by conduction, convection and/or
radiation. We can evaluate heat transfer by use of the energy balance, which
will be discussed later.


Work can be defined as the energy transferred between the system and
surroundingso It is often expressed as a vector force acting through a vector
displacement on the system boundaries:

W= fFdX (2.17)

where F is in the direction of dx.

Work can be classified as energy that can be transferred to or from a
mechanical state. This should not be confused with heat, which is the transfer
of energy to atomic or molecular states. The former is macroscopically ob-
servable, whereas the latter is not.


Kinetic Energy

Kinetic energy refers to the energy that a system possesses because of its
velocity relative to the surroundings. Mathematically it is defined as follows:

kE = -mY' (2.18)
where v is fluid velocity.

Potential Energy

Potential energy refers to the energy a system possesses due to the force
exerted on its mass by a gravitational field with respect to some reference
plane. Mathematically, it is' defined as follows:

PE = mgh (2.19)

Internal Energy

Internal energy refers to the macroscopic changes of molecular, atomic and

subatomic energies. All these follow rigorous conservation laws for dynamic
systems. Irlternal energy is an exact differential, which, for a pure substance,
can be e~pressed exclusively in terms of temperature and specific volume,
U = U(T,V), where the bar (-) refers to per unit mass. By taking a total
derivative we can state the following:

aT v dT+ (a:Q)
av TdV (2.20)

The term (aU/aT)" is defined from thermodynamics as the heat capacity at

constant volume (Cv). The second term on the right hand side (RRS) of
Equation 2.20, (au/avh, is much less than Cv and can be neglected. By
taking the integral of our differential expression we obtain a relation for
internal energy:

- =fT, CvdT
t;U (2.21)

Engineers prefer to estimate internal energy changes from enthalpies.


Enthalpy is an exact differential, which is expressed as the sum of two


H = U + pV (2.22)

where p is pressure and V is volume. Enthalpy is a function of both tempera-

ture and pressure: H = H(T,P)-and can be expressed by the following differ-
ential expression:

aT PdT+(aH')
ap TdP (2.23)

(aH/aT)p is the heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp). The second term on
the RHS of Equation 2.23 can be neglected at modest pressures. Therefore,
the integral of this expression gives the following:


Enthalpy changes are most frequently computed with respect to a reference

condition. In the steam tables, this reference condition is liquid water at 32°F
and its vapor pressure. Thus, the left-hand side (LHS) of Equation 2.24 is



= Hz - H, (2.25)

Heat Capacity

Previously, we defined the heat capacity t~rms as follows:

Cp =(aH')
aT P (2.26)


A simplified definition of heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to

raise the temperature of a material by 1°. Various units for heat capacity in-
clude cal/(g-mole )CC), kcal/(kg-mole )(C), Btu/(lb-mole )CF), cal/(g)(C) or
Btu/(lbm)CF). Heat capacity curves for water vapor and air are given in
Figure 2.2.

0. ....
(.)LI.. 16

1-...1 14
«. 12
(.) ..... 10
1 -'
«;:) 8
6 o o
o o
oII) 0

Figure 2.2 Heat capacity curves for air and water vapor.

Most equations for heat ~apacities of substances are empirical. Heat ca-
pacity at constant pressure is generally expressed in terms of temperature
with a power, series type formula:

Cp = a + bT + CT' + dT3 + ... (2.28)

or sometimes in the following form:

Cp = a + bT + CT-lI' + .. . (2.29a)

C p = a + bT - cr' + .. . (2.29b)

In general, heat capacity equations are valid only over a moderate range of
temperatures. Table 2.1 gives constants to be used with Equation 2.28 for
air and water gases. The units of heat capacity with these constants are
cal/(g-mole )CK or °C) or Btu/ (lb -mole)(R or OF).
Another useful term is specific heat, which is the ratio of the heat capacity
of one substance to the heat capacity of a reference material. The heat ca-
pacity of water is approximately unity in cgs and American engineering units.
Heat capacity is used to compute enthalpy changes. Note that the defini-
tion given by Equation 2.24 is really the area under the heat capacity curve
between temperatures Tl and T2 (Figure 2.3). We can also obtain an exact
integral by substituting an expression for Cp (such as Equation 2.28) into
Equation 2.24 and performing the following integration:

Table 2.1 Constants for Heat Capacity Equation 2.28 for Air and Water

State T a 10 2 b lOSc 109 d CK)

Air Gas °C 6.917 0.09911 0.07627 - 0.4696 0-1500

oK 6.713 0.04697 0.1147 - 0.4696 273-1800
of 6.900 0.02884 0.02429 - 0.08052 32-2700
oR 6.713 0.02609 0.03540 - 0.08052 492-3200
Water Gas °C 7.880 0.3200 - 0.04833 0-3500



T, T2

Figure 2.3 Graphic representation of enthalpy change.


For estimates, a mean heat capacity is used, which is defined as the enthalpy
change divided by the temperature differential for that change. This can be
stated as follows:


Note also that if the heat capacity expression is a power series (e.g., Cp ==
a + bT + cT2 + ... ), then,


l/J = Tb (2.34)

where Ab is the molal heat of vaporization in cal/g-mole and Tb is the normal

boiling point in oK. For water, the constant ljJ has a value of 26.
The Clausius-Clapeyron equation is an exact thermodynamic relationship
between the slope of the vapor pressure curve and the molal heat of vaporiza-

dP* A
dT T(VG - VI)

where p* = vapor pressure

T = absolute temperature
, A =molal heat of vaporization at temperature T
V,G = molal volume of gas
VI = molal volume ofliquid

Equation 2.35 can be rearranged to a simpler form by neglecting VI to give

d(1/T) = -AIR (2.36)

where R is the ideal ~ga:;.s_l_a_w_c~o_n_s_ta_n_t_.~",!"," _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

On integrating this I?xprl?ssion, WI? obtain

log,op* = A +a (2.37)
2.303 RT

where a is a constant of the integration.

Dry-Bulb Temperature

This is the'temperature of a vapor-gas mixture as ordinarily determined by

immersion of a thermometer in the gas mixture.

Dew Point

Dew Point, as waS defined earlier, is the temperature at which a vapor-gas

mixture becomes saturated when cooled at a constant total pressure out of
contact with a liquid.



CPm =
CpdT aCT z - T ,) + ~ (T~ - T~) + ~
(T z -T,)
(T; - T~)
_ T,

where T 1 in this expression is a reference temperature. For example, if T =

O°C or O°F, then Equation 2.32 reduces to the following:

b C
Cp m = a + -2 T 2 + -3 T Zz (2.33)

With regard to enthalpy changes, the simplest manner for computing is via
tabulated enthalpy data. Data can be found in the literature [1,2]. Typical
enthalpy data for air and water are given in Table 2.2. The Steam Tables are
the most frequently used sources of enthalpy data for water.

Heat of Vaporization

There are several expressions that have developed, but our primary interest
is with wat~i. Trouton's rule states that the ratio of the molal heat of vapori-
zation of a,material at its normal boiling point (Le., at 1 atm) to the absolute
temperature is a constant:

Table 2.2 Enthalpy Values for Air and Water (Btujlb-mole)


°C oK of oR Air Water

0.0 273. 32 492 0.0 0.0

4.4 277.4 40 500 55.57 64.02
15.6 288.6 60 520 194.6 224.2
25.0 298 77 537 312.7 360.5
60.0 333 140 600 751.2 867.5
115.6 388.6 240 700 1450.0 1679.0
171.1 444.1 340 800 2153.0 2501.0
226.7 499.7 440 900 2861.0 3336.0
282.2 555.2 540 1000 3579.0 4184.0
393.3 666.3 740 1200 5035.0 5925.0
504.4 777.4 940 1400 6540.0 7730.0
615.6 888.6 1140 1600 8068.0 9602.0
726.7 999.7 1340 1800 9623.0 11540.0
837.8 1110.8 1540 2000 11224.0 13550.0

Humid Volume

The humid volume of a gas-vapor mixture is the volume, in ft3, of 1 lb of

dry gas and its accompanying vapor at the prevailing temperature and pres-
sure_ From the ideal gas law we can write the following:

1 .JI a ) TG+460 1 ( l . J 1 a )TG+460

vH= ( MW +MWA (359) 492 P =0.730 MWB +MWA ' P (2.38)
B t t

where ~H = humid volume, ft3

T G = temperature of the gas, 0 F
Pt = total pressure, atm
MW A B = molecular weight of constituent A, B
ila = absolute humidity

Humid Heat

This is the heat capacity, of an air-water vapo~ mixture expressed on the

basis of a unit weight of bone dry air. For a mixture of absolute humidity,
Jl a ,


If neither vaporization nor condensation occurs, then the heat required to

raise the temperature of WA lb of dry gas and its accompanying vapor AT is


where Q is the heat quantity (Btu).


The wet-buH temperature is the steady-state temperature achieved by a

small quantity of liquid evaporating into a large quantity of unsaturated gas-
vapor mixture. The wet-bulb temperature is essentially a measure of the
humidity of a gaseous mixture. We can describe the usefulness of this param-
eter by examining the behavior of a liquid particulate surrounded by a
moving stream of unsaturated gas-vapor mixture. Figure 2.4 illustrates the
system under consideration.

w P-A-R-T-I-A-L----l~!..--- LATENT H~AT

\ /1
" ...... - - ....... 1 II

Figure 2.4 The principle of wet-bulb temperature.

If the liquid droplet is initially at a higher temperature than the gas dew
point, then the liquid's vapor pressure would be greater at the gas-liquid
interface than the partial pressure of the vapor in the gas. Under these con-
ditions, the liquid will evaporate and water vapor molecules will diffuse into
the gas stream. The latent heat needed for evaporation will first be derived
from the sensible heat of the liquid drop, causing it to cool down. When the
liquid temperature has dropped below the dry-bulb temperature of the gas,
heat begins to flow from the gas to the liquid. The rate at which this heat
transfer occurs increases as the temperature differential becomes greater.
After sufficient time, the heat transfer rate from gas to liquid matches the
rate of heat requirement for the evaporation. Here, the temperature of the
liquid remains at some constant low value known as the wet-bulb tempera-
We can describe this process by a simple mathematical model developed
for steady-state conditions. The total heat release at the interface, q, can be
expressed in terms of the latent heat of vaporization and heat of solution, qs:


where A. is the molar-heat of evolution and NAB is the mass rate of diffusion
or mass flux.
In the example given by Figure 2.4, there is no heat transfer across the
gas-liquid interface (Le., q = 0), and we can assume that air does not diffuse
into the liquid droplet (Le., NB= 0).

By asswning the rate of mass transfer is small and using principles of the
film theory [3], the following expressions can be developed:

qs = N MW C /1 (TG - tW) "" hG(TG - tW) (2.42)

1 - e- A A A lG


where CA = heat capacity, Btu/(lb)CF)

hG == heat transfer coefficient of the gas, Btu/(hr)(ft'WF)
TG == temperature of the gas, of
tw = wet-bulb temperature, of
F' = overall mass transfer coefficient, Ib-mol/(hr)(ft2)
kG = gas phase mass transfer coefficient, Ib-mole/(hr)(ft2)(atm)
Pt = total pressure, atm
P 1,B = partial pressure, atm
PAW = vapor pressure of component A at the wet-bulb temperature, atm

Equations 2-42, 2-43 and 2-41 can be combined and, through some alge-
braic acrobaNcs, the following expression derived:

TG -tw (2.44 )

The quantity TG - tw is known as the wet-bulb depression. kH is the re-

defined mass transfer coefficient defined by


where PGM is the average partial pressure of the gas .

.Ha and .HaW are the molal absolute humidity at TG and tw, respectively
(Ib-mole vapor/lb-mole gas). hG/kH is known as the psychrometric ratio.
The wet-bulb temperature is measured with a device called a psychrometer. .
A simple one can be made by attaching a wick or porous cotton cloth to the
mercury bulb of a thermometer and then wetting the wick. As long as the
gas flow past the wick is turbulent, readings are not affected by gas velocity
and the psychrometric ratio is constant. Dropkin [4] showed that for the
air-water system hG/kH "'" 0.227.


The humidity chart or psychrometric chart is a convenient plot for repre-

senting the properties of mixtures of a permanent gas and a condensable
vapor. There are a number of forms in which this chart has been presented.
One form, proposed by Grosvenor [5], is shown in Figure 2.5 for the air-
water system at 1 atm.
On the humidity chart of Figure 2.5, temperatures are plotted as abscissas
and humidities as ordinates. Any point on the plot represents a specific mix-
ture of air and water. The curve marked 100% humidity refers to saturated
air and is a function of air temperature. Any point to the left of the satura-
tion curve represents a mixture of saturated air and liquid water (this portion
of the plot is useful in determining fog formation). Any point to the right of
the saturation curve represents undersaturated air. Any point on the tem-
perature axis represents bone-dry air. The curves between the two limits
(saturated line and the temperature axis) represent mixtures of air and water
of definite percentage humidities. Linear interpolation between the satura-
tion curve and the temperature axis locates lines of constant percentage
The diagonal lines that run upward and to the left of the saturation curve
in Figure 2.5 are referred to as adiabatic cooling curves. Li'nes for the specific
volume of dry air and the saturated volume are also shown. Coordinates of
points on these lines are computed by use of Equation 2.38. The humid
volume of unsaturated air can be determi!1ed by linear interpolation between
the two lines, based on percentage humidity.
Use of the humidity chart is best illustrated by examples. Let us consider
just a portion of the psychrometric chart (Figure 2.6). Consider an un-
saturated stream of air at some temperature, T b and a percentage humidity,
Jl a , represented by point A on Figure 2.6 (this point is the intersection of the
constant temperature line, T1, and - a constant percentage-humidity curve,
Jl a1 ). The humidity of this air is fi1 (point B on Figure 2.6). The dew point
can be determined by tracing the constant-humidity line through point A
to the left to point C on the saturation curve. The dew point temperature is
the abscissa value for point C (point D on the temperature axis). The
adiabatic s;turation temperature is that temperature applying to the adia-
batic-cooling curve through point A. The humidity value at adiabatic
saturation is determined by following the adiabatic line through point A to
point E on the saturation curve and reading the value Jl s on the humidity
scale. The adiabatic saturation temperature is the abscissa value of point E,
Le., Ts.
The humid volume of the air stream is determined by locating points F and
G on the saturated and dry-volume curves, respectively, which correspond to
24 130
2000 ("')
23 120 150011:: 0
22 < Z
II:: 1000>- C')
< BOO C ~
21 100
c 20 DRY AIR 600 Z ~
19 DRY AIR 400 ~ tor.l
.... CURVE 300 ;
~ II.
0 ..J
200 <
1&1 I-
::IE 150 z
~ 1&1
> 100 I:z:


I:z: 0

30 40 50 60 SO 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240


Figure 2.5 Psychrometric chart for the air-water vapor system at 1 atm [5].


Ts T.

Figure 2.6 Humidity chart example.

temperature, T!. We then locate point H by moving along G-F a distance of

(Ra/lOO)FG from point G. This is known as the lever law; and FG is the line
segment between points G and F. The humid volume is read off of the ap-
propriate ordinate, /lH'
With the psychrometric chart of Figure 2.5 we can determine the enthalpy
of the dry air as well. We will apply this portion of the curve to some specific
problems in Chapter 3. The end of this chapter contains example problems
for the reader to attempt. Solutions to these problems can be found in
Appendix A.


A = constant in Equation 2.37.

a = constant for heat capacity expressions (see Table 2.1)

b = constant (see Table 2.1)

C = constant in Equation 2.1

Cp = heat capacity at constant pressure, Btu/(lb )(F)

CPm = mean heat capacity-see Equation 2.32, Btu/(lb) (F)
Cs = humid heat (Equation 2.39), (Btu of a vapor-gas mixture )(lb-dry gas)


Cv = heat capacity at constant volume, Btu/(lb )CF)

c = constant (see Table 2.1)
F = force, lbf

Fl = mass transfer coefficient, Ib-mole/(hr)(ft2)

g = gravitational acceleration, 32.2 ft/sec 2 or (980 cm/se,c 2)
H = enthalpy, Btu/lb
.JI = humidity, lb vapor /lb dry gas

h = distance above reference plane, ft

hG = heat transfer coefficient, Btu/(hr)(ft2)CF)
KE = kinetic energy, Btu

k = mass transfer coefficient, Ib-mole/(hr)(ft 2)(atm)

MW = molecular weight, lb/lb;mole

Ms = molal saturation, moles vapor/moles dry gas
m =mass, lb
N = molar hux, Ib-mole/(hr)(ft 2 )
P = pressure, atm

PE = potential energy, Btu

p = partial pressure, atm

p * = vapor pressure, atm

Q = heat quantity, Btu

q = heat release, Btu/sec

R = gas constant, 0.729 (ft 3)( atm )/(lb-mole )CR)

Rs = relative saturation
RH = relative humidity
T = temperature, ~F

tw = wet-bulb temperature, of

U = internal energy, Btu/lb

V = volume, fe

V = molar volume, ft3/lb-mole


v = fluid velocity, fps

W = work done, ft-lb[
w = weight or mass, lb
x = distance, ft
7) = number of moles, lb-mole

A. = latent heat of vaporization, Btu/lb

/J == humid volume, ft3

ljJ = ratio of molal heat of vaporization to its normal boiling point.


1,2 = positions 1, 2
a = absolute

A = substance A, the vapor

B == substance B, the gas

G == refers to gas

= saturated

w = at wet-bulb temperature


2.1 A mixture of vapor and liquid is 'in equilibrium. The density of the
mixture is 0.99 lb/ft 3. From the Steam Tables, determine the quality
of steam for the conditions of 305°F and 72.2 psia.
2.2 A lS00-cm 3 sample of wet H2 is saturated at 35°C and 752 mm Hg.
Determine the volume of dry gas at standard conditions. The vapor
pressure of water at 35°C is 42.18 mm Hg.
2.3 The percentage humidity of air at 90°F and total pressure of 755 mm
Hg is 29%. Determine the percent relative humidity, the partial pres-
sure of the water vapor in the air, and the dew point.
2.4 Prove that the heat capacity for an ideal gas is given by Cp = Cv + R,
where R is the gas law constant.
2.5 The heat capacity equation for a material is as follows:

This page intentionally left blank




For any system or process, the law of conservation of mass enables a

mathematical expression of the operation by a series of equations derived
from a total or overall material balance and a material balance for
individual components within the system. The energy balance provides an
additional independent overall expression. This often <~presents the addi-
tional tool by which systems or unknown parameters can be solved for.
Before developing specific relationships to describe cooling tower opera-
tions, it is worthwhile to review some elementary principles in developing
material and energy balances. In addition, we need to review heat and mass
transfer analogies before tackling design problems. The more experienced
reader may wish to proceed to Chapter 4 or try the example problems at
the end of the chapter as a refresher.


In this book, both material balances and energy balances are treated
on a macrpscopic basis. The general macroscopic energy balance for any
system is as follows:

.} of {Energy
into theTranSferred}
S s em { Energy Transferred out }
{AEnergy wlthm = thr I Sy t - of the System through
the System oug
B ld ystem System Boundary
oun ary

Energy Generation} _ {Energy consumption} (3.1)

+{ within System within System

I 35


There are several types of energy associated with the general balance.
Those energies associated with the transfer of mass either in the system or
across the system boundaries include internal energy (U), kinetic energy (KE)
and potential energy (PE). Energy can also be transferred across system
boundaries by heat (Q) and work (W).
The energy balance and individual components are illustrated in Figure 3.l.
The energy balance shown in the figure is for an open flow system. For a
nonflow (or closed) system, the energy balance would appear as in
Figure 3.2.
By using appropriate symbols and terms defined in Chapter 2, we can
express Equation 3.1 as follows:

Ee+t.e- Ee = [(II ;'+ gl) mt.~l- [(II

+ + ;' + gl~mt.el
Transport through Defined Boundaries
+ Qt.e - WM +' ~t.e + ER (3.2)
'--v-"' '--v-"' '--v-"' '--v-"'
Heat Work Transport through Generation or Consumption
Other Boundaries



m m'
( Ut + Kt + Pt ) ( U' + K' + P')
t t t


Figure 3.1 Energy balance for an open system.



Figure 3.2 Energy balance for a closed system.

where E = the total energy of the system (U + KE + PE)

'if =rate of energy transfer accompanying mass transfer
m= rate of mass transfer across system boundaries
Q = rate of heat transfer
E R = rate of energy generation
v = fluid velocity through the system
W = rate of work done by the system
IJ = time

The relation given by Equation 3.2 has units of energy per unit time.
If we divide both sides of this expression by !::J.8 and take the limit as
!::J.8 -+ 0, we obtain the integrated form, where units are those of energy:


The formal integration is



and, finally,

Ee+M - Ee = -t.[(H + KE + PE)mj + Q - W + ER 0.5)

The quantities designated in Equation 3.5 without the tilde (~) are
integrated values. The bar (-) indicates per unit mass.
Note that the enthalpy expression is really

t.H = t.U + t.pV (3.6)

where Llp V represents the pressure energy, Le., the work required to
transfer a unit mass of material into a system and the work done by the
system on a unit mass leaving the system. As defined in Chapter 2, work is


and if the pressures at the entrance and exit to the system remain constant
for differential displacements of mass,


where the subscript 1 now refers to the upstream condition and V is the
volume per unit mass. By the same reasoning, the work recovered is
W =P,V,.

For many cases, including cooling towers, not all the terms of the general
energy balance expression need be considered. The most common assump-
tions applied to the general energy balance are summarized below. Some
of these assumptions we will later apply to developing specific relationships
for cooling towers.
(No Mass Transfer), Le., a closed system

b.E =Q- W (3.9)

This is known as the first law of thermodynamics.

(No Accumulation, No Mass Transfer, No Reactions)

Q=W 0.10)

(No Accumulation, No Reactions, With Mass Flow)

Q - W = b.[(H + KE + PE)mj (3.11)



(No Accumulation)

Q,W,KE,PE,ER,b.H = 0 (3.12)

(No Accumulation, No Mass Transfer)

W,KE,PE= 0 (3.13)


Additional cases applied to the general energy balance are:

1. Isothermal. This is a constant-temperature system (i.e., dT = 0).
2. Adiabatic. This means no heat exchange (i.e., Q = 0). Examples include
insulated systems, small Q in relation to other terms in the energy
equation, and very fast processes where there is insufficient time for heat
transfer to take place.
3. Isobaric. This is a constant-pressure system (i.e., dP-':= 0).
4. Isometric. This is a constant-volume system (Le., dV = 0).


Engineers like to approach process problems with a "black box" technique.

That is, any system or piece of equipment operating under steady-state
conditions can be represented by a bo~ with input and output streams
consisting of mass flows and/or energy. Figure 3.3 illustrates the concept.

A, LI kg/sec E R = ENERGY e,L 2

Figure 3.3 Process operations or equipment can be represented by a generalized flow

process known as the black box technique.



For the generalized process in Figure 3.3, an overall material balance

would be as follows:





as derived from Figure 3.3.

If we have several components in the streams that we can distinguish as
a, b, c ... , then we can describe each of these by Xji, the weight fraction
of any component, j, for any input or output stream, i. Thus, a material
balance for component "a" would be


For component b, etc., it would be


We can also write an overall energy balance by defining Hi as the

enthalpy of the system with respect to some reference temperature of any
component. If we neglect kinetic and potential energy changes, we obtain
the following:


The solution of steady-state material and energy balances can be quite

tedious, depending on the complexity of the process. Consequently,
computers must be relied on heavily for more complex analysis. The
following example illustrates a slightly more involved system than the
one shown in Figure 3.3. As a refresher, the reader may try some of the
study problems at the end of this chapter. More examples can be found
in the literature [1-3].

Example I-Developing Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances

We can examine the generalized flow process of Figure 3.3 by its

individual equipment or process components. For the purposes of this

0" " .

ENVELOPE (I) ... ' .. '. ENVELOPE (0)

FOR BALANCE ~., ........ .......... '. / FOR OVER-ALL
ABOUT PRO- ... " . " '. BALANCE

" •••••••••• 0'

" ...... . . ............ .

(IT) • . (m) ~ -7 - Qm

ENVELDPE In~):···:··· ·:····:·\ENVELOPE (UD



Figure 3.4 Generalized flow process considered in Example 1.

example, the overall process actually consists of three interrelated sub-

processes-I, II and III-as illustrated in Figure 3.4. We can write a series of
material and energy balances for the entire system and for each individual
process. Dotted envelopes have been drawn to illustrate that four possible
sets of equations are possible. Based on an overall balance (Envelope 0),
the following set of equations is written:
Total Mass Balance

F=A+B (3.19)

Component Mass Balance:


Energy Balance:



For a balance about subprocess I (Envelope I):


F + Rn + Rill = G+L (3.22)





For a balance about subprocess II (Envelope II):







For a balance about subprocess III (Envelope III):


L = RIll + B (3.28)





Note that not all of these equations are independent. For example, if
we sum up the mass balances from Envelopes I, II and III, the overall
material balance (Equation 3.19) is obtained. Similarly, the sum of the

energy balances from Envelopes I, II and III gives the overall energy balance
(Equation 3.21).


A review of heat exchanger design and configuration is beyond the scope

of this volume. However, the reader who wishes to review some of these
principles can refer to the literature [2-4]. In conventional heat exchangers,
the hot and cold fluids are separated by impervious boundaries or surfaces.
If the equipment is tubular, it is the tube that limits the intimacy of contact
between the two fluids. It also acts as a surface on which resistances tend
to accumulate. These resistances develop in the form of fouling and scale
films. So that a fluid in turbulent motion within the tube receives heat,
particles in the eddying fluid body must be able to contact a warm film at
the tube wall. Here it acquires heat by means of conduction, then mixes
with the eddying fluid body. On the shells ide of the exchanger a similar
process takes place, with the net heat exchange occurring through as many
as seven individual resistances.
Shell and tube heat exchangers evolved because of the need to prevent
contamination of the hot fluid by the cold fluid in ril'any heat transfer
operations. In the case of a water cooling tower, where ~ne of the fluids is
a gas and the other a liqUid, an impervious surface or separation is not
necessary because the gas and liqUid are .readily separable after mixing and
exchanging heat.
Cooling towers fall under the general category of direct-contact equipment.
In direct-contact equipment, fouling resistances are automatically eliminated
because a surface is no longer available on which they can form. This is a
unique feature because it allows direct-con tact equipment to operate
indefinitely without interruption in therm~l performance.
As noted back in Chapter 1, a cooling tower is basically a box-like
structure with internals designed to promote better air-water contact.
Cooling towers are used to contact hot water from process cooling
systems with air for the purpose of cooling this water, thus making it
again useful in the process. Normal cooling tower operation can reduce
fresh cooling water reqUirements by as much as 98%. However, as we will
see later, there is some mutual contamination caused by the saturation of
air with water vapor.
The principles of direct-contact heat transfer, treated in the discussions
to follow, are presently almost exclusively applied to water cooling and
humidification of air. It should be noted, however, that these very same
principles can be applied to the cooling or heating of just about any
insoluble gas or liqUid.



Suppose we take a sample of bone-dry air at some temperature, Tb and

directly contact it with water until it becomes saturated at the same
temperature. The water vapor that enters into the air contains with it
its latent heat of vaporization. The vapor pressure of water out of the
liquid will be greater than it is in the saturated air, causing yaporization to
occur and subsequently increasing the humidity of the air-water-vapor
mixture. The pr9cess of vaporization ends when the vapor pressure of the
water in the air becomes equal to that of the liqUid. At this condition the
air is saturated. During the air saturation process, isothermal conditions
for the water can be maintaine~ if heat is supplied to replace the heat lost
from it to the gas as latent heat of vaporization. Thus, heat transfer during
the saturation of a gas with a liqUid can be accomplished without a
temperature differential (although this is rarely encountered). This type of
heat transfer phenomenon, better known as diffusional heat transfer, is
different from conduction, convection or radiation.
The transfer of mass from on~ phase to another because of a concentration
difference (or, in this case, because of vapor pressure) is called diffusion.
Diffusion, or mass transfer, although analogous to heat transfer, must be set
apart from the basic concepts of heat transfer.
Analogies have been developed between heat transfer and fluid friction
(Le., energy and momentum analogies) [5-7]. Similarly, analogies have been
developed for systems having a transfer of matter by diffusion accompanied
by heat transfer [8-10]. Our discussion here is limited to flow in a tube.
When handling gases, the heat transfer factor for a fluid flowing inside a
tube [8,9] is best expressed as follows:


Often the heat transfer factor is deduced as jh:


where D = inside tube diameter, ft

G = mass velocity, lb/(hr)(fe)

And from a simple heat balance,


where L is the tube length and h the heat transfer coefficient. Note that
G = 4m/7TD 2 ; by substituting for G and h into Equation 3.32 and multiplying
by 7TD/7TD, we get

ih =l (C P Il)2/3 = T2 -TI (.A)(C PIl)2/3 (3.34)

CpG k l>Tref S k

where A is the cross-sectional area of flow and S is the tube surface area
Now let us briefly examine the process of condensation. If vapor is
absorbed from an unsaturated gas, vapor molecules may diffuse into the
absorbent while molecules of the absorbent pass into the gas phase. As
the water vapor passes from the gas into a condensate film, which, for our
discussion, is liquid water alone, the transfer of material takes place in one
direction only. The moles of material that diffuse from the gas to the liqUid
phase are expressed by the following expression:

dN = d -GAPV)
- ,- = KGl>pdS (3.35)
( MWPt

In Equation 3.35,

A = flow area of gas and vapor, ft2

KG = mass transfer or diffusion coefficient, mole/(hr)(ft2)(atm)
MW = mean molecular weight of the vapor and noncondensable, lb/mole
N = number of moles diffused, mole/hr
Pv = partial pressure of the vapor, atm
Pt = total pressure, atm
S =diffusion surface, ft'

The pressure differential, Llp, represents the instantaneous driving potential

(atm) and is the difference between Pv and the partial pressure of the vapor
at condensate film.
The analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer is summarized in KG.
The mass transfer coefficient's relation to Llp in mass transfer is analogous
to the role that the overall heat transfer coefficient is to LlT in heat transfer.
In the integrated form, and making a few simplifying assumptions [8-10],
Equation 3.35 becomes

KGPg}m = (PI - P2) (pglm) (.A) (3.36)

G/MW' l>p Pg S

where Pl,P2 are the partial pressures of the diffusing material at Sl and S2,
respectively. Pglm is the log mean of the pressure of the inert gas in the gas
body, Pg. Colburn et al. have reduced this expression to the following:


where jd and kd are the diffusion or mass transfer factor and the diffusion
coefficient, respectively. Note the similarity between Equations 3.37 and
There is a great deal of evidence to show that both jd and jh have the
same functional dependency on the Reynolds number. By equating the
expressions for jd and jh we can develop an expression for the overall mass
transfer coefficient in terms of heat and mass transfer coefficients.

h(C Jl/k) 21 3
K = p (3.38)
G CPPglm MW'(Jl/pkd)2/3

Equation 3.38 properly implies that both the rates of diffusion and heat
transfer are not Independent.
There are nu'fnerous empirical correlations that have been developed for
the diffusi vity, kd. One expression developed. by Gilliland [11] is given
below. Others can be found in the literature [12]:

T (1
3 2

kd = 0.0166 Pt(vA3 + Vlt)2

1 )1/2 (3.39)

where the units ofkd are ft2/hr, and

v A, VB = molecular volumes of diffusing and inert gases

T = absolute temperature, OK
MW A B = molecular weights of the diffusing and inert gases
Pt = total pressure, atm


The action of diffusion is illustrated in Figure 3.5 for a system consisting

of air, acetone and water. Let us assume we have a column in which fresh
water continuously flows down the walls in the form of a film or thin layer.
If we introduce a gaseous mixture of acetone and air to the column, the
acetone will diffuse into the water phase. For the purposes of this example,
assume the air to be insoluble in water. In our idealized system a stagnant


~III :.:;;:i ." ..

' -0',
'., ',:1
.'. -0 .
:<:'-:-:1 , . ~;-;"-ACETONE

MAIl' /1. THIN


Figure 3.5 The action of diffusion.

air film develops over the gas-liquid interface, caused by the loss of
momentum of air molecules hitting the Jiquid surface and being dragged
along by it. The liquid film can be considered to be moving slowly in
comparison to the main body of air.
The system described forms the basis of the two-film theory. Because of
the mutual solubility of acetone in water, the rate at which molecules of
acetone move through the liquid film is large. Consequently, acetone
molecules in the air that approach the liquid film are removed at such a fast
rate that the concentration of acetone in the air film becomes less than it is
in the main body of gas. This concentration gradient between the air film
and main air body supplies the main driving force for the transfer of mass.
We can think of the air and liquid films as being resistances in series. In
this respect; they are similar to thermal resistances. If we designate the
acetone by subscript A (Le., the diffusing species) and the air by subscript B
(Le., the inert or insoluble species), we can write an expression for the
concentration of each species in terms of their individual molar densities:


-d7)A represents the rate at which the concentration of species A decreases

in the gas phase. As shown by Equation 3.40, this rate depends on the


number of moles of species A and B Ci) A,ilB), the relative difference of

movement between the velocities of A and B (VA - VB), and a characteristic
dimension or length of the air film. Cl:AB is a proportionality constant which
for now we will call diffusivity. Note that the dot (-) on 7) signifies moles
per unit volume.
For the insoluble gas species the net diffusion is zero, vB = 0, and if we
define NA as the number of moles per unit time transferred through the film
surface area A, ,




Furthermore, we note that -dilA = dilB and, therefore,

A d7JB A dln7]B
N -------- (3.43)
A - OIAB7]B dl - OIAB dl

For the case of equimolar diffusion of component A into B, NAI A =- NB I A


We can thus rewrite Equation 3.40 as follows:

1 d7]A
VA7JA =- OIAB(7]A + 7JB) ill

Looking back at Equation (3.15), the continuity equation, we can write

a material balance for the steady·state condition where there is no
accumulation of species A in the gas film:


where e is time. By substituting expression 3.44 into 3.45, we obtain



Defining the diffusion coefficient introduced earlier, kd,


where 7)t = 7) A + 7)B, then

aiJA = 1- (k aiJA) (3.48)

ae a1 d a1

Looking back to our molar flux expression (Equation 3.43),


From the ideal gas law and noting that 1) = 7)/V,


Performing the above integration over the length of the gas film from the
gas body to the gas-liquid film interface, we arrive ,..\at the following


In Equation 3.51, the subscript i refers to conditions at the liquid film-gas

film interface. Note also that concentrations have been expressed in terms
of partial pressures.
Equation 3.51 can be rewritten in a more useful form:


where PB1m is the log mean driving pressure of B defined as


For an ideal gas mixture, partial pressure is directly proportional to mole

fraction; thus, we can write the following:



where y, Yi = mole fractions in the main gas body and at the interface,
respectively (refer back to Figure 3.5), and kG is defined as follows:


The driving force (p - Pi or Y - Yi) will vary as a function of the tower

height. We can think of the total transfer then as the sllm of individual
transfers through incremental surfaces (i.e., a differential potential exists
at each increment). Consequently, a differential expression is developed
over the entire height of the diffusion column.


A similar development follows for the liquid film-liquid body interface,

where we arrive at the followin,g expression:


[C] represents the concentration of species A in the liquid and x represents

the mole fraction of the diffusing species in the liquid. Note that we have
introduced k L , the liquid phase mass transfer coefficient. The cap C)
indicates average value.
We can equate Equations 3.56 and 3.57 to give the following:




where p" = partial pressure of diffusing vapor that is in eqUilibrium with the
liquid of the concentration of the liquid body (atm)
[CAl" = concentration of diffusing vapor that is in equilibrium with the
partial pressure of the diffusing vapor in the gas body, Ib-mole/ft 3
x",Y" = the mole fractions corresponding to [CAJ" and p", respectively.
KG,K L = the overall mass transfer coefficients for the gas and liquid phases,

For the gas phase, coefficient units are Ib-mole/(hr)(ft 2) (atm of partial
pressure difference). For KL, units are Ib-mole/(hr)(ft 2) (concentration
difference Ife).



The overall mass transfer coefficients KG and KL can be related through

Henry's Law, which states that


where p" is the equilibrium partial pressure of species A in the gas phase
(Le., corresponding to a liquid concentration of [CAr). KH is the Henry's
law constant. Henry's law is applicable only to relatively dilute solutions.
With the use of Equation 3.58, the overall mass transfer coefficients can be
expressed as follows:




Classical treatment of mass transfer is to consider a unL~ of mass transfer

as a measure of the interphase equilibrium changes needed to produce a
desired degree of diffusion [13]. This concept is best applied to the concept
of a theoretical plate in distillation [4]. Defining Gm as the gas superficial
molar velocity (mole/hr/ft 2 of tower cross' section) and dy as the change of
concentration of the diffusing species, then


The molar flux expression (Equation 3.58) can thus be rewritten as follows:


Let "a" signify the surface area per cubic foot of tower (ft2/ft3). Then the
total area is '

dA = adV (3.63)

where V is the volume of the tower per unit area of tower cross section.
And we Can define the following relation:

Ntu =
f dy V
- - , , = KGa-
y-y Gm


Ntu is the number of transfer units. It is basically an index of the size of the
absorption or desorption task that must be achieved. The integral of
dy/(y - yl/) is performed over the entire height of the tower and gives the
number of times the average potential can be divided into the total desired
concentrate change. Note that Ntu X Gm = KGaV, which is the total number
of moles of material diffused. To meet desired diffusion, a single transfer
unit can require different heights for different towers, depending on the
tower construction and the amount of surface per cubic foot of volume
provided for contact. The height of a single transfer unit is defined as

Htu = Z/Ntu (3.65)

where Z is the overall height of the tower.

We will apply these definitions in Chapter 5 to analyzing cooling tower
operations. At this point the reader should examine some of the problems
at the end of this chapter to review some of the concepts discussed thus far.


Earlier it,.',was noted that a definite relationship exists between the heat
transfer coefficient and the maSs transfer coefficient. Chilton and
Colburn [10] developed Equation 3.31, which will be restated here:

. hD/k ( CP Il)'t3 h ( CPIl)'t3

lH = f/2 = (DG/Il)(Cpll/k) k = CpG k

It is stated slightly differently, with f being the friction factor (recall that
both heat and mass transfer have a Reynolds number dependency). For mass
transfer, they developed the following expression:


The ratio jd:jh must be unity according to our Reynolds number criteria:

KC (ll/pkd)'/3
. /. - p - 1 (3.68)
Jd Jh - h(C ll/k)2I3 -

or we can rearrange this to

- ------


These are dimensionless groups, and h/KCp is referred to as the Lewis

In this book, Le will denote the Lewis number (Le = h/kC p )' The Lewis
number states that the heat transfer coefficient is to the mass transfer
coefficient as the value of the medium's specific heat serves for both heat
transfer and mass transfer.


A = cross-sectional area, ft2

[C] = concentration in liquid, lb-mole/ft 3
Cp = heat capacity, Btu/(lb )CF)

D = diameter, ft
E = energy, Btu
ER = rate of energy generation, Btu/hr
F = force, lbf
f = friction factor

G = gas-phase mass rate, lb/hr

Gm = gas molar superficial velocity, lb-mole/hr/ft 2
g = acceleration of gravity, ft/hr2
H = enthalpy, Btu/lb
Htu = height of transfer unit

h =heat transfer coefficient, Btu/(hr)(ft 2)CF)

jd = diffusion factor, dimensionless
jh =heat transfer factor, dimensionless
KL,G = mass transfer coefficient, lb-mole/(hr)(ft2)(atm)
KE = kinetic energy, Btu

k = thermal conductivity, Btu/(hr)(fe)CF /ft)

kd = diffusivity, ft 2/hr

kG = gas film coefficient, lb-mole/(hr)(ft 2)(atm)


L =liquid-phase mass rate, lb/hr

Le = Lewis number, dimensionless

= distance or length, ft

MW = molecular weight, lb/lb-mole

m = mass rate, lb/hr
N = molar flux, lb-mole/hr
Ntu =number of transfer units
PE = potential energy, Btu

p = pressure, atm

Q = heat rate, Btu/hr

R = ideal gas law constant, 1544 ft-Ib/Btu

S =surface area, ft 2
T = absolute temperature, oK
U = internal energy, Btu/lb
V = vol uine, fe

v = velocity, fps

W = work, ft-Ibf
x = weight fraction for liquid phase

y = weight fraction for gas phase

Z = tower height, ft
Cl:AB = proportionality constant, hr/ft

~ = rate of energy transfer accompanying mass transfer, Btu/hr

7) = moles per unit volume

e = time, sec

KH = Henry's law constant, (atm)(ft3)/mole

J1 = viscosity, cp

/J = specific volume, fe/Ibm

p = density, Ib/ft3


A = diffusing species
B = inert gas

= gas-liquid interface

1m =log mean
= upstream or inlet condition

2 = downstream or outlet condition


3.1 The diffusion coefficient for a gas can be experimentally measured in

an Arnold diffusion cell. The device is shown in Figure 3.6 consisting
of a narrow tube partially filled with pure liqUid A. The system is
maintained under constant pressure and gas B flows across the open end
of the tube. Component A vaporizes and diffuses into the gas phase,
hence the rate of vaporization can be phYSically measured. Develop a
general steady-state expression to describe the dif~Jision of one gas
through a second stagnant gas. Assume that the gas has negligible
solubility in liqUid A and is also chemically inert in A.

*Solutions to selected problems can be found in Appendix A.

GAS B '"


Figure 3.6 The Arnold diffusion cell.


3.2 For problem 3.1, assume an ideal gas and express the steady-state
equation in terms of partial pressures.
3.3 We wish to estimate the time it takes to evaporate a puddle of water.
The depth of the puddle is 0.08 inches and covers a surface area of
2 ft2. Both the surr.ounding air (which is stagnant) and the water are
at a constant temperature of 77°F. The absolute humidity is 0.001 lb
water/lb dry air. Assume the evaporation to occur, through stagnant
gas film that is 0.28 inches thick. The gas diffusion coefficient of water
vapor at these conditions is 0.259 cm2/ses:.
3.4 For the system described in problem 3.3 develop a general expression
for computing the water vapor concentration profile through the
stagnant air film.
3.5 A 30-ft-deep water well has a cross-sectional area of 5 ft2. The
temperature of the water and the air in the well is 84°F. If there is a
slight breeze of air with humidity of 0.03 Ibm H20/Ib m dry air
blowing across the top of the well, estimate the rate at which the
water evaporates.
3.6 A lO-ft-diameter cylindrical tank contains water at a level of 3 ft
below,;'the top of the vessel. The capacity of the tank is 80 gallons.
If the top of the tank is open, determine the weight of water evaporated
per unit time. Assume dry air at 90°F is blowing across the vesse1's top.
3.7 A tapered top water tank (Figure 3.7) is open to the atmosphere.
Determine the weight loss of water per hour if air with an absolute
humidity of 0.02 lb H20/lb dry air blows across the top of the tank.


--1 6ft I--

(. - .______:1 ft

80 f t 12 ft

Figure 3.7 Water tank for problem 3.7.


3.8 What role does the Lewis relation (Equation 3.69) play on the
psychrometric chart (Figure 2.S)?
3.9 A gas-liquid contact operation is illustrated in Figure 3.8. Gas is
contacted with a liquid from a spray, resulting in both diffusion and
heat transfer between the gas and liquid. The gas exits the system
at conditions of humidity and temperature quite different from the
entrance conditions. Assume the operation to be adiabatic. Perform a
material and energy balance for the system.

L Ib liquid/(hr)(ft2)
TL = temperature
HL =enthalpy

G Ib dry air
s (hr )(ft2)
III =absolute humidity
HI = enthalpy
TG =dry - bUlb temperature

Figure 3.8 Adiabatic gas-liquid contact system for problem 3.9.

3.1 0 For problem 3.9 derive the relationship for the adiabatic saturation
curve for the system.
3.11 A mixture is made from 20 lb of water at 40°F, 10 lb of ice at 32°F
and 10 lb of steam at 2S0°F and 20 psia. Determine the final
temperature of the mixture and the amount of steam that condenses.
Assume the mixing process to occur adiabatically.
3.12 Derive' the equations for saturated volume, humid heat and the
adiabatic cooling lines for the psychrometric chart.
3.13 A SOO-gallon water tank has a continuous feed and discharge rate of
10 gpm and IS lb of NaCI are added to the tank in a batch method.
The tank has uniform mixing to maintain a uniform salt concentration
at all times. Estimate the amount of salt in the tank after 2 hours.
3.14 A 6-ft-diameter tank, 12 ft tall, is filled to capacity with water.
Determine the time it takes to drain the tank through a 2-inch-diameter
bottom drain.

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Cooling towers are classified according to the method by which air is

introduced to the tower. The principal types are atmospheric spray,
natural-draft, mechanical-draft, deck-filled, spray-filled, coil shed and hyper-
bolic towers. Most industrial cooling tower installations are field-erected
units designed for specific thermal characteristics.
In an atmospheric spray tower the air movement, is dependent on
atmospheric conditions and the aspirating effect of the spray nozzles.
Natural-draft cooling tower operation depends on a chimney or stack to
induce air movement. Mechanical-draft cboling towers utiliZe fans to move
ambient air through the tower. Deck-filled towers contain tiers of splash
bars or decks to assist in the breakup of water drops to increase the total
water surface and subsequently the evaporation rate. Spray-filled towers
depend only on spray nozzles for water breakup. Coil shed towers are
comprised of a combination structure of a cooling tower installed on top
of a substructure that contains atmospheric section coils. Hyperbolic
natural-draft cooling towers are typically large-capacity systems.
There is also a separate class of towers based on a dty cooling principle.
Each of these major designs is described below.


Cooling towers are broadly classified on the basis of the type of draft:
natural draft (natural convection), mechanical draft (forced convection)
and mechanical and natural. Further distinction is made based on (1) the
type of flow-crossflow, counterflow, co current flow; (2) the type of
heat dissipation-wet (evaporative cooling), dry, wet-dry; and (3) the type






N---R- 11 ~


4 1><1 FANS


Figure 4.1 Subclassifications of cooling towers.

of application-industrial or power plant. Figure 4.1 summarizes major

Each of the major types of cooling towers has a distinct configuration.
The reader should learn to recognize these different types early on. The
seven major designs are summarized in Figures 4.2 through 4.8 and a brief
description of each follows. We will examine these designs in more detail
later in this chapter.

Atmospheric Spray Towers

Air movement depends on atmospheric conditions and the aspirating

effects of the spray nozzles (Figure 4.2).

Natural-Draft Cooling Towers

These depend on a chimney or stack to induce air movement through

the tower (Figure 4.3).

Mechanical-Draft Cooling Towers

These designs use a fan to move ambient air through the tower. They can
be subdivided into two different types-indirect or forced air towers,

l I


INLET :--l===========:::::;~

,, , I'
II ,
' I , I I
'I' I I
II I , I I
I , I I I
I,' I I' I,

1'1 I I
AIR II 11/
" , I , I AIR
OUT ': 'I )1 I I 111/ OUT
I', I,' I II I I
, I, I I
,,I I' I I I, 11 ' /

',I ,' I I
I I 1:/
I" 1 ,
' II I I I 1,/
'I I , , I I

' ,
'I' I I I 11/
I, I ," I ,
~Ii'l , ,
, I 1,/
: I. 'I I I I
-.b '",
" I:' I' I ' 1 'I

, 1 ,, I I I

Figure 4.2 Atmospheric spray tower. Figure 4.3 Hyperbolic natural-draft tower.
~'--- --~---- --


1..-_-..,,/ DRAFT
IN LET --~=~~~~~:::~~r:::'~-+- 01 STR I BUT ION

-'\. y----

--~ Y •


Figure 4.4 Counterflow tower.

depending on whether the air is pulled or forced through the tower. At the
same time they can be grouped in crossflow or counterflow, depending on
the relative movement of air and water. In the cross flow type, air generally
travels horizontally across the falling water, while in counterflow, it travels
vertically upward through the falling water (Figures 4.4 and 4.5).
A new type of crossflow cooling tower is the wet-dry tower, which consists
of a normal crossflow tower over which a few air coils are placed. The hot
water is first cooled by an air-cooled heat exchanger and then drops to the
wet cooling tower where more cooling is obtained by the evaporative mech-
anism (Figures 4.6 and 4.7).

Deck-Filled Towers

These contain tiers of splash bars or decks to aid in the breakup of water
drops to increase the total water surface and, subsequently, the evaporation






Figure 4.5 Crossflow tower.

Spray-Filled Towers

These depend only on spray nozzles for water breakup,

Coil Shed Towers

These are composed of a combination structure of a cooling tower

installed on 'top of a substructure that contains atmospheric section coils
(Figure 4.8).

Hyperbolic Towers

Natural-draft cooling towers with a hyperbolic configuration are usually

constructed of concrete, have a large dimension and, consequently, large
capacities. They are generally used in power plants. Figure 4.3 also illustrates
this design.







Figure 4.6 Single structure-type wet/ dry cooling tower.

t t



Figure 4.7 Wet/dry cooling tower.




Figure 4.8 Coil shed cooling tower.

Natural-Draft Towers

Natural-draft cooling towers evolved from spray ponds. The simplest and
earliest design consisted of a small water spray pond surrounded with
walls having inwardly sloping louvers. Figure 4.9 shows a cross section of
a simple cooling tower formed by enclosing a spray pond with louvered
In this type of design, the air changes direction in passing through the
louvers as it leaves, and the suspended water droplets impinge on the louver
slats, deposit outward and drain back into the tower basin.
This design is improved by utilizing low-pressure water sprays at the top,
positioning horizontal decks in the tower, and arranging the walls so that
the air enters horizontally and is discharged vertically (Figure 4.4). The
vertical upward movement of air tends to slow the downward velocity of
the water droplets, thus increasing the effective surface area for any given
water loading. The fill material is usually staggered so that water droplets
fall through a distance of only a few feet before striking another surface.



AIR ~, ,i' ',1,1 1',1'~
__ -IP'~,II" '",',I ",: ~----
~ II" ""I'" ,~
~. 11"/11
~ I
~'\I/' 1'/' II ~

~;;f;.J;:.:.;~ . CONCRETE BASIN

Figure 4.9 Cross section of a simple cooling tower formed by enclosing a spray pond
with louvered walls.

Typical grids are made of redwood strips nailed to 1 X 2-inch stringers.

Figure 4.10 shows some typical fill geometries.
The increasing temperature of the upwardly moving air stream induces
circulation by thermal convection. This is a favorable condition if the wind
velocity is very 10»,. Towers are generally placed in a side-by-side arrangement
(i.e., in a row) at '~ight angles to the direction of prevailing winds. One such
power plant installation is shown in Figure 4.11.

Hyperbolic Towers

Early designs consisted of a cylindrical configuration. Later designs used

a pair of truncated cones. Today's design consists of a hyperbolic shape.
The advantages of this configuration include:

1. superior strength
2. close match to the natural flow of air through the tower shell, and
3. the need for fewer materials of construction than for earlier shapes (less total
volume is required because the hyperbolic shape of the sheli provides good
strength, so a thinner shell thickness can be used in comparison to older

The performance of a natural-draft tower is characterized in terms of a

duty coefficient (CD), which defines the overall capabilities of a tower under
all operating conditions:

= -----~"------ (4.1)
90.59 -~Q ~------
T V~Ta + 0.3124~Q
~ W





\ t~':~ ~

Figure 4.10 Various geometries employed in constructing redwood fill for cooling

where WL = water loading, lb/hr

.:l.Q = total heat of the air passing through the tower, Btu/lb of dry air
.:l. TW = change in temperature of water passing through tower, of
.:l. T a = difference between the dry-bulb temperature and wet-bulb temperature


Figure 4.11 Power plant installation where multiple tower arrangement is utilized
(towers are operated in parallel). Cooling towers are placed in a row at right angles
to the prevailing winds (courtesy of The Marley Company, Mission, KS).

The draft is due to the difference between the density of the air leaving
the tower and that entering the tower, and to the aerodynamic lift of the
wind passing over the top of the tower.
Increases in loading, cooling range and humidity all tend to improve cooling
tower performance. Two basic types of hyperbolic towers are counterflow
and crossflow, as shown in Figure 4.12.
Of the two operations, counterflow (or countercurrent) provides the more
efficient heat transfer mechanism because the coolest water contacts the
coolest air initially. In the crossflow operation, air flow is normal to the
water movement and fill is needed to transfer a given quantity of heat.
These designs have fill in a ring outside the tower. This produces a lower
water pumping head than in the counterflow. Fill inside a counterflow
must be spread over a much larger area. Thus, crossflow units have shallower
depths and vertical water risers have shorter pressure drops through the fill
(much less than in a counterflow tower). Selection of the arrangement
depends on operating requirements ..


HOT ("')
Figure 4.12 Differences between crossflow and counterflow hyperbolic cooling towers. CI:l



The two major types of fill arrangements are splash packing and film
packing. Both are illustrated in Figure 4.13. The role of any packing
material is to generate as much air-water interfacial contact area as possible
within the limitations of minimum air-pressure losses.
Splash-type fill are generally employed in cross flow designs. Hot water falls
over wave-shaped fill causing droplets to form continuously. This arrange-
ment presents a fresh-water surface to the cooling air throughout the tower.
Film-type fill is most often utilized in countercurrent designs. Here, the
fill consists of multiple vertical surfaces through which hot water flows in
the form of continuous thin films or sheets. The cooling air passes over
these films effecting heat transfer. <

In general, film-type fill occupies less volume and requires less shell
height than the splash type; however, the film type is subject to clogging
and fouling. Splash packing are often easier to repair or replace.


The function o£ the distribution system is to distribute the inlet hot

water evenly over the fill section. Figure 4.14 shows two types of systems
employed, namely, gravity- and spray-type distributions.
The gravity distribution basin located at the top of a crossflow tower is
left open to the atmosphere. Water gravitates through orifices to the tower
packing below, thus providing a splash-type pattern.
In the spray-type distribution system, normally employed for counterflow
towers, a main header carries water to spray trees containing a battery of
nozzles. The nozzles are sized and arranged to provide an even distribution
of water over the fill.


Mechanical-draft cooling towers can be either field-constructed or factory-

assembled systems. Installations that are constructed onsite are generally
those employed at utility stations. Factory-assembled towers have applica-
tions in smaller industrial operations.
The growing size and numbers of central stations, and new codes
governing water qualities as well as dwindling water supplies, have made
once-through cooling increasingly difficult. Today's economics simply favor
mechanical-draft towers over hyperbolics, except in very large stations.
Figure 4.15 illustrates the various mechanical-draft tower types.
l I



\ \ \ \ { ( (( I{,',
fr WETtJ
fr WET
.....,.1_ ~.,r.~

d2::::::::!~.:7i::S ""c::!:::i AIR OUT

--- ::it? t?;::~

Figure 4.13 Operating principles behind splash-packing and film-packing arrangements.


= : ---=- --=- -=-, :- --=-, -=-= =--- --




Figure 4.14 Gravity- and splash-type water distribution systems employed in cooling towers. -


Figure 4.15 Large mechanical-draft cooling towers.

Crossflow mechanical draft towers are thermally less efficient. They offer
less resistance to air flow and can operate at higher velocities than counter-
flow towers, which means less horsepower and smaller cell sizes for
comparable outputs. In practice, however, both crossflO\v;" and counterflow
designs have advantages and limitations, depending on the type of applica-
A cross-sectional view of a mechanical-draft tower is illustrated in
Figure 4.16. The primary design elements are numbered in this figure
and are summarized below:

1. Electric motors. These should be matched to power requirements of the fan.

2. Fan blades. These are fabricated of lightweight metal or plastics and are
3. Speed reducer. It is usually integrated with other elements, namely, motor,
shaft and fan. Its job is to convert the high-rpm, horizontal rotation of the
drive shaft into the vertical, low-rpm motion of the fan shaft.
4. Header pipe. This is usually made of redwood staves for very large towers.
5. Interior supports. These are an intricate cross-lacing of redwood beams
arranged to give maximum support to the fill and fan deck. Glass-reinforced
polyester connectors are positioned where diagonals cross upright. This
permits horizontal members an even distribution of the load and a certain
amount of expansion.
6. Fill. These are made from a number of materials; usually in a splash-type
arrangement or wave-shaped bars supported in a close-knit grid.
7. Louvers and casing. These are constructed from asbestos-cement board, about
f -inch thick, in large towers. To eliminate splash out, louvers are sloped at
an angle of about 40° with framework.
8. Cold water basin. This serves as a receptacle for cooled water and is usually
made of concrete.


Figure 4.16 Design elements of mechanical-draft cooling towers.


Recent trends have been towards an increase in factory-assembled over

field-erected jobs because of the rising cost of field labor, which has far
offset the higher transportation costs of shipping complete packages. In
addition, manufacturers are better able to control the quality of fabrication.
Elements of a factory-assembled tower are basically the same as field-
erected towers. The main difference is that in factory-assembled units, the
design is modular in concept, with units shipped as modules and arranged
on site. Figure 4.17 shows a typical installation. Manufacturers offer
considerable flexibility to permit best Use of available space for their


Figure 4.17 Factory-assembled units are shipped in modular package form and erected
in the field (courtesy of The Marley Company, Mission KS),

Air paths may be crossflow or counterflow. Fan placement can be ahead

of the fIll section (forced draft) or behind'it (induced draft). Manufacturers
use different criteria in sizing units. Figure 4.18 reviews one tower
manufacturer's approach. Specific design details should be obtained from
the tower manufacturer.
As shown in Figure 4.18, ambient air passes through the inlet cone of
the centrifugal fan, and through air vortex' breakers to boost fan efficiency.
During fan discharge, air passes through a diffuser, which equalizes flow and
provides optimum static pressure regain. Air then passes through a series
of serrated directional vanes, which ensure even air distribution below the


Recent hyperbolic tower designs have included fans for intermittent

operation. This type tower combines the features of both natural-draft
and mechanical-draft towers. These resemble natural-draft systems in that
they employ a hyperbolic shell; however, they are smaller and have large

~~~~~~~~-- --


80 76 72 6B
105 hM;\-~*-*-*-",*-..-..,


200 120 I 10,500
240 I 21,000
400 360 I 31,500
4BO I 42,000
600 I 52,500
800 720 63,000
840 84,840
960 64,000
1200 1200 105,000
1400 1440 1~6,OOO


Figure 4.18 Upper right figure shows a forced-draft or blowthrough tower, which has a
fan at the bottom for driving air through the fill above. Tower selection for smaller
units can be made from the accompanying curves and table for a cold water tem-
perature of 85°F (this is generally the water basin discharge temperature for small
towers). As an example, enter at 104°F hot water temperature to a wet bulb value of
75°F, then drop vertically to the water flow selected (580 gpm). This falls between
curves that designate the manufacturer's distinct model size. Select the next larger
size, i.e., the curve immediately below, and follow across to the recommended tower

motor-driven fans located at the periphery of the base. Fans provide greater
control than purely natural-draft systems. Figure 4.19 shows such a system.
An inherent problem with mechanical-draft cooling towers is the potential
for recirculation. Normally, a high air velocity discharge provided by fans
will eliminate this problem.
A rule of thumb for the dimensions of fan-assisted hyperbolic towers is
as follows:




Figure 4.19 Fan-assisted hyperbolic tower.

. 2
Diameter ="3 D (4.2)

Height = 1 h (4.3)

where D and h are the base diameter and height of a natural-draft tower
designed for the same performance, respectively. Fan operation can be
intermittent. That is, it may only be necessary at peak load conditions.
It should be clear that major differences exist between mechanical- and
natural-draft systems. Table 4.1 summarizes our discussion by comparing
the two types of towers.


A new design that has appeared on the market recently is shown in

Figure 4.20. This design was developed by Baltimore AircoH Co., Maryland.
Large quantities of air are induced into the tower by cooling water as it is
injected through spray nozzles at one end of a venturi plume. No fans are
utilized in this design. Effective mixing of air and water in the plenum


Table 4.1 Comparison Between Characteristics of Mechanical- and

Natural-Draft Cooling Towers

Considerations Mechanical Draft Natural Draft

Location Must be located in an area at some Can be built adjacent to plant

distance from the plant proper. buildings, on centers 1.5 (d)
This is necessary for air supply where d = base diameter, so
considerations and because of tha t piping CO$ts are reduced.
problems associated with fogging Their position must be
and drift from discharging air. chosen so as not to interfere
Noise considerations also tend to with power plant exhaust
dictate site selection. plumes.

Materials of May be constructed of wood, Constructed of thin concrete

Construction metal or concrete.'The structure shells that have good wind
must be designed to withstand resistance.
wind or earthquake stress, dead
loads such as weight of tower and
circulating water and vibrations
from mechanical equipment.

Initial Can be built with less expensive Built with relatively expensive
Investment materials like wood, asbestos- materials such as prestressed,
cement board and plastic precast and reinforced
,materials. Fan cost is higher. concrete and asbestos-cement
for fill.

Operation & Pumping head is less, so power Total operating cost will
Maintenance cost for the circulating water favor na tural-draft towers.
Costs pumps is less. Power cost for fans
is considerable. Cost of maintain-
ing fans and associated drives and
transmissions is also significant.

Recirculation, These are major problems. Design Because of its eleva ted
Fogging accommodation, restrictions on discharge, the natural-draft
tower dimensions, orientation tower rarely has the trouble
with prevailing winds, and added with recircula tion and
capacity for recirculation can fogging.
boost tower cost.

Applica tions Economics favor mechanical-draft Considering the climatic and

towers over hyperbolics, except in load conditions, natural draft
very large instalJations. has its best application in the
power industry. Selected
when: (a) operating condi-
tions consist of low wet-bulb
temperature and high relative
humidity; (b) a combination
of low wet-bulb and high
inlet and exit water tempera-
ture exists; and (c) heavy
winter load is possible.



-;-~,..,........,....,.,.-,-lf'.. ELIMINATORS


Figure 4.20 Cooling tower design developed by Baltimore Aircoil Co. The system is
designed to operate withou t fill packing.

perl11its evaporative heat transfer to take place without the fill that is
required in conventional towers. Cooling water collected in the sump is
pumped through the cooling water circuit for the return cycle. Capacities
generally range from 30 to 1920 gpm for standard conditions. Since the
tower has no moving parts, maintenance costs are low.


Under certain conditions, such as high water temperatures, insufficient

water supplies and problems of blowdown disposal, systems that depend on
convection and Use air as the transport medium may be preferable. The
two types of dry cooling towers are the direct and indirect systems.
Figures 4.21 and 4.22 show these systems in operation for nuclear station
cooling. Indirect units use a surface or jet condenser at the turbine to
condense exhaust steam. Water from the condenser is pumped to the dry
tower for cooling and recirculation back to the condenser. In the direct
system, steam' is condensed in cooling coils without interfacing with a
In the direct condensing system, a jet condenser is employed. Cool water
from the dry tower is sprayed into the condenser, where it mixes intimately
with exhaust steam from the turbine. The mixture falls to the bottom of
the condenser and is removed by circulating water pumps. The greater part
of this water flows to cooling coils, and an amount equal to the exhaust
steam from the turbine is directed back to the feed water circuit through
condensate polishers for reevaporation in the steam generator. Because of




I' PUMP Ie. 'lJ t:J '"'---.........

U ..... -.......... -

Figure 4.21 Direct, dry-type cooling tower condensing system utilizing a mechanical-draft tower.



RECOVERy ............ PUMP MOTOR
'--___'--___......._____-L.-.Q- CONDENSATE TO

Figure 4.22 Indirect, dry-type cooling tower condensing system employing a natural-
draft tower.

the intimate mixing achieved when using a jet condense],:.. circulating water
must be of condensate purity. .
After passing through a water recovery turbine, circulating water is again
introduced into the condenser and recycled through the system. The
recovery turbine is coupled to the drive shaft of the circulating water pump
to recover some of the pressure head between cooling coils and the
condenser. Circulating water does not come into direct contact with
cooling air; thus, no evaporative loss occurs, as with the wet-type tower.
In direct condensing, turbine exhaust steam is conveyed through a trunk
to the air-cooled coils, where cooling air passing over the finned coil surfaces
condenses the steam. Steam enters the coil section and condenses as it
travels downward, with steam and condensate flowing in the same direction,
minimizing pressure loss and increasing the heat transfer coefficient.
These designs have provisions for the removal of non condensable vapors
and air, for the prevention of freezing during cold weather. Excessive buildup
of non condensable vapors in the main condenser would prevent effective
condensation. Protection against ice formation is usually accomplished by
warm air recirculation and/or fan control. Condensed steam from cooling
coils flows by gravity to condensate receivers and is pumped back to the
feedwater circuit by a condensate pump.
The major difference between the two systems is the large volume of
exhaust steam that must be handled in the direct system, as compared to
I the smaller volume of circulating water in the indirect system. Cooling


coils in the dry system operate under high vacuum, which is perhaps a
disadvantage when compared to an indirect system that maintains positive
water pressure in the cooling coils. Because of size requirements for steam
pipes running from the turbine to the condenser, direct systems are limited
to small- and intermediate-sized plants, while indirect systems are expected
to be more economical and technically feasible for large plants.
Operating costs of dry towers are a function of the initial temperature
difference (lTD) between the hot fluid entering the cooling coils and
cooling air entering the tower. If the tower size is increased and the heat
rejection remains the same, lTD is reduced. The temperature of the turbine
exhaust steam is reduced, thus lowering turbine back pressure and boosting
plant efficiency. If the tower size is reduced and the heat load kept
constant, a greater lTD must prevail to dissipate the heat load. This would
increase the turbine heat rate and reduce operating efficiency. Table 4.2
summarizes major design considerations for dry cooling.
The use of dry-closed water loop cooling systems eliminates the need for
large water consumption in power plant cooling. It represents an attractive
solution to many of the environmental problems associated with wet tower
operations. It is, however, inherently costly. The low heat capacity of air
and the low heat transfer coefficients of air-cooled heat exchangers make
it necessary to have large air volumes, large surface areas and, consequently,
large, costly towers. Mechanical-draft systems requiring large air volumes
can result in high fan power requirements, which, in comparison to wet
towers, result in significant replacement energy costs. Note also that since
dry-bulb temperatures are greater than wet-bulb temperatures, dry cooling

Table 4.2 Design Considerations and Characteristics of Dry Cooling

1. Heat removal is by sensible heat transfer only.

2. For a given amount of cooling, the air-cooled unit must move an enormous volume of
air (because air has a specific volume 830 times as great as that of water while its heat
capacity is only about one-quarter).
3. Coolant temperature difference are 20-60°F for air, 10-40°F for water.
4. Design temperatures for cold water from wet towers are 80-90°F; from dry towers
they can be 20-30°F higher.
5. Air-cooled heat exchangers usually are selected on the basis of maximum coolant
6. Airside fouling is negligible when compared to the water-cooling problems of scale,
corrosion and biological growths.
7. Operating costs for air-cooled equipment are lower with designs that use both lower
fan horsepower and controlied fan operation.



systems are forced to reject heat to a higher temperature sink. This results
in higher turbine exhaust pressures and higher energy debits in comparison
to wet cooling systems.
Recent developments promise significant cost savings over conventional
dry cooling systems. McHale et al. [1] describe a proposed system that
employs ammonia as the heat rejection fluid rather than water and uses
high performance heat exchangers to further reduce costs. A schematic
of the proposed heat rejection system is given in Figure 4.23. For the
operation to be economical, the steam condenser ammonia exit quality
must be maintained at or below 0.80 to ensure that the ammonia evaporator
tubes are wetted at all times. At the separator, the ammonia vapor and
liqUid exiting the condenser are separated. The vapor is sent to the cooling
tower, where it is condensed, and the liqUid phase is returned to the steam
condenser. Fans are used on the dry tower(s) to control the heat rejected
as the system heat load varies. This control is provided by turning off
cooling tower fans whenever the turbine exhaust pressure falls below the
choke point. The reader is referred to the literature [1-4] for detailed


These towers combine features of both dry and wet cooling systems. They
not only conserve water, but also minimize plume formation. Wet/dry
towers are a combination of evaporative and dry cooling. Figure 4.24 shows



~ __________-r~PUMPS

Figure 4.23 Schematic of advanced dry cooling system proposed by McHale et al. [ll.
. I






Figure 4.24 Design features of the wet/dry cooling tower.

the design features. Design arrangements enable ambient air to be drawn

through both the dry and wet portions in parallel paths. Air streams
converge and are mixed within the cooling tower plenum before discharging
to the atmosphere.
Water to be cooled is passed through the dry air-cooled section, rather
than through the wet section of the cooling tower. The heated dry air
stream mixes with and dilutes the wet air stream to provide a less visible
plume above the fan discharge.
The principal design feature that permits economical application of the
wet/dry tower is the summer damper component. This is a door-like air
flow restrict or that is located in the heated dry air stream between the
air-cooled heat exchanger and the fan. Its purpose is to reduce the air
flow through the dry stream, while boosting the air flow in the wet stream,
thereby enhancing the wet section thermal performance during summer



1. McHale, C. E., G. E. Jablonka, J. A. Bartz and D. J. Webster. "New

Developments in Dry Cooling of Power Plants," Combustion 51 (11)
(May 1980).
2. Van Der Walt, N. T., L. A. West, T. J. Sheef and D. Kubal. "The Design
and Operation of a Dry Cooling System for a 200 MW Turbo-Generator
at Grootv1ei Power Station-South Africa," paper presented at the
IX World Energy Conference, Detroit, MI, (1974).
3. Gottzmann, C. F., and P. S. O'Neill. "Field Experience with High
Efficiency Heat Exchangers," paper presented at the AIChE 74th
National Meeting, March 12-15,1973.
4. Oleson, K. A., G. J. Silvestri, V. S. Ivins and S. W. W. Mitchell.
"Dry Cooling Affects More Than Cost," Elect. World (July 1, 1972).


1. Kolflat, T. D., et al. "Cooling Tower Practices," Power Eng. (January

2. Lichtenstein, J. "Performance and Selection of Mechanical Draft Cooling
Towers," ASME Trans. (1943).
3. Smith, E. C., and M. W. Larin off. "Alternative Arrangements and Design
of Wet/Dry Cooling Towers," Power (May 1976).
This page intentionally left blank



The use of cooling towers has grown tremendously during the last two to
three decades, due to an increasing necessity. Cooling towers, along with air
conditioning spray chambers, spray driers, spray towers and spray ponds, are
the largest users of applied diffusional heat transfer principles. As pointed out
in Chapter 1, many industrial locations do not lend thems~lves to unlimited
use of cold fresh water as a cooling medium. The supply of sufficient surface
and subsurface cooling water has become such a major problem today that
many new plants are attempting to develop continual reuse of limited water
that they may obtain from outside sources:
The cooling water's available temperature is a major consideration, having
direct impact on the economics of the design. This is especially true today for
the chemical and power industries. Chemical plants establish their cooling
water temperatures on the operating pressures on the condensers of distilla-
tion and evaporation operations and, consequently, on equipment preceding
them. Power plants base it on turbine- or engine-discharge pressures and the
ultimate heat recovery. To ensure that the proper water temperature is made
available, careful analysis of process requirements, as well as careful review
of cooling tower design principles, must be made. We will now use the
definitions presented in Chapters 2 and 3 to address the theory of cooling
tower operation and to develop specific design criteria.


The interfacial surface area made available for a gas and liquid to contact
largely establishes the thermal efficiency of the contact device. That is, the
gas-liquid interface is also the heat transfer surface. Consequently, the greater


this interfacial contact area, the greater the degree of heat exchange that
takes place. In spray ponds and spray towers this contact area is promoted by
utilizing spray nozzles to generate small liquid droplets.
In addition to interfacial area, the time of contact between the two phases
affects thermal efficiency. This is best illustrated by the example given in
Figure 5.1. Suppose we have a column Z feet tall and we gravity feed water
in the form of droplets at a rate of 1 drop/sec. If there is no initial velocity
imparted to the drops, then each drop descends through the column in
accordance with the free-fall law:


where e is the time it takes to fall through the column. If our column is
32 feet tall, then it takes Y2 sec for a single drop to pass through. At the feed
rate of 1 drop/sec then, there will always be 1.41 drops present in the
column. At the discharge, 1 drop/sec will be removed continuously. Con-
sequently, the interfacial or effective area in the column is that of \l2 drop-
Now if we alter the column by installing some baffles or plates on which
droplets can impinge or be deflected, we could increase the time it takes for
each droplet to pass through the column. By interrupting the flow then, we
might increase the droplet holdup time to 5 seconds. Then, as shown in
Figure 5.1, although 1 drop/sec is fed to the column and 1 drop/sec dis-
charges, there will always be 5 drops of water at anyone time in the
column for a continuous flow system. We thus have 5/ Y2, or 3.5 times
more effective surface than for the case of free-fall.
In gas absorption equipment, such as packed tower wet scrubbers, the
interfacial gas-liquid contact area and the contact time are established in the
form of a film surface. This film surface is generated by packing material.
The role of packing is to increase the turbulence and the contact surface
between the two phases. It is also designed to provide a tortuous path to
prevent bypassing. In early designs, broken rock or coke was used as a
packing material; however, these have been replaced by specially designed
geometric shapes to provide greater contacting efficiency. Figure 5.2 illus-
trates some common packing shapes that are commercially available.
Cooling towers have different design restrictions than absorption columns.
Because of large air volume and small allowable pressure drop requirements,
common cooling tower designs employ wooden slats of either triangular or
rectangular cross section at spaced intervals within the structure. This type
of packing arrangement leaves the tower substantially unobstructed.
Cooling tower packing material is commonly referred to as fill. The two
most common configurations used are illustrated in Figure 5.3. The purpose


rh Change

ted Flow


Figure 5.1 Free and interrupted flow through a column.

of fill is to interrupt the downward flow of water. The free space between
adjacent fill slats is relatively large; however, the horizontal projection of the
fill is designed so that water droplets can'not fall through the tower without
repeatedly striking successively lower slats. As the liquid descends through
the tower it impinges on the top of each successive slat. This splits the flow,
breaking it into turbulent flow as it continues to fall. This action forms new
water droplets with each successive slat impinged on, thus exposing new
water surface area for contact with the' air. Cooling tower fill provides the
interfacial contact by both film surface (as the liquid flows around the sides
of the slats) and droplet surface. As the water strikes the top of the slats,
droplets are created; however, more important, the draining action of falling
water into turbulent flow creates droplets.
Fill greatly increases the holdup time of liquid in the tower. Properly
arranged fill will never allow liquid droplets to reach their free-fall velocity.
Recall our simple example of water droplets falling freely in a column. At the
feed, the water droplets have zero initial velocity, but by the time they arrive
at the end of the column they have reached their terminal-fall velocity. By
interrupting the flow with slats, each time a droplet strikes the fill it is as if it
is released at the top of the column in Figure 5.1 with a zero initial velocity.
Consequently, droplets never reach their terminal free-fall velocity and con-
tact time is tremendously increased.




Figure 5.2 Tower packing configurations.

f-- '--
6 r- '--

0 '-- r-

(fV '-- r- o
•o &


Figure 5.3 Cross-sectional view of commonly used cooling tower fill arrangements.

It is important that no bypassing of the two phases occurs in the tower. A

uniform liquid distribution across the tower's cross section is essential. This is
accomplished by spraying the water over the top of the tower. Spray nozzles
also help to create droplet surface and increase contact time.


The reader should be familiar with the use of the air-water psychrometric
chart (Figure 2.5). If not, the reader should take a look at some of the
problems at the end of Chapters 2 and 3. By way of review, the basic chart
consists of a humidity(JI)-temperature (dry-bulb) set of coordinates along
with additional parameters (curves) of constant relative humidity, constant
moist volume (humid volume), adiabatic cooling curves (which are the same
as the wet-bulb or psychrometric lines, for water vapor only) and the 100%
relative humidity curve, also called the saturated-air curve. If any two values
are known, we can determine the air-moisture condition on Figure 2.5 and
evaluate all other required parameters.
The left-hand scale gives the enthalpy per pound of dry air of a saturated
air-water vapor mixture. The enthalpy of the wet air (in Btu/lb dry air) is
actually the following:

AH = AHair + AHH 2 0 UI) (5.2)


There are alternate methods available for computing enthalpy values [1,2].
For our specific system we could expand Equation 5.2 to the following:

AH = 0.240 (T - OaF) + .H[107S +. 0.45 (T - 32°F)] (5.3)

where 0.240 (T - 0) is Cp(ilT) for air (with OaF as the reference temperature,
.H(1075) is the heat of vaporization of water at 32°F and 0.45 (T - 32) is
Cp(ilT) for water vapor (with 32°F as the reference temperature).
Equation 5:3 can be cleaned up to give the following:

AH= 0.240T + .H(1061 + O.4ST) (5.4)

where T is in OF.
The use of these relationships in constructing and applying humidity charts
is best illustrated by examining a simplified case, that of adiabatic cooling or
humidification. Figure 5.4 illustrates this process between air and water that
is recycled through the cooling tower. In this operation air is both cooled and


~ T



I , r

Figure 5.4 Example of adiabatic humidification.

humidified while a portion of the recirculated water undergoes evaporation.

If equilibrium is reached the air becomes saturated and both the air and water
temperatures are the same. If the operation occurs adiabatically, then by
application of~n energy balance (see Chapter 3) we can develop an ex-
pression defining the adiabatic cooling line of the humidity chart.

Enthalpy Of) (EnthalPY of H 2 0 vapor) = (EnthalPY Of)

( Air in + in Air Entering Tower Exit Air

Enthalpy of H,G vapor)

+( in Exit Air

And defining Ts as the equilibrium temperature of the water,

0.240(Ti - Ts) + .H(~HHPB- + 0.45 (Tair - Ts) 1


= 0.240 (Ts - Ts) +.Hsl ~HH,GB- + 0.45 (Ts - Ts) 1 (5.5)


where the subscript s refers to saturation conditions, which is actually the

wet-bulb temperature (T wb).
Equation 5.5 can be rearranged to give the following:

(.Hs -.H) = __~_s_

(Twb - Tair) AHvap

where Cs is the humid heat (C s = 0.240 + 0.45)1).

The following examples demonstrate the use of these relationships.

Example 1

Develop a simple expression for the humid volume of moist air.


Humid volume is defined as the volume of 1 lb of dry air plus the volume of
water vapor in the air. Hence,

v= ( ft')
3591b_mole X
(lIb-mOle air) (T + 460) (
291b air
X 32 + 460 + 3591b_mole

lIb-mOle HP) (T + 460)
181bH 2 0 X 32+460 X
(.H Ibair
Ib H2 0)
v = (0.730T + 336)U9 + ts)
Example 2

A cooling tower operation is designed without any recycle stream.

Approximately 700,000 lb/hr of hot process water at 140°F is to be cooled
and returned to the process operation. Moist air is used as the cooling
medium and is fed at a rate of 5.5 X 10 6 fe/hr. The dry- and wet-bulb
temperatures of the incoming air are 80°F and 60°F, respectively. The air
leaves the tower with an estimated wet-bulb temperature of 95°F and a
dry-bulb telJlperature of lOO°F. Estimate the temperature of the water
returned to the process operation.


The cooling tower operation is illustrated in Figure 5.5. Absolute

humidities for incoming and exiting air streams can be obtained from the
psychrometric chart (Figure 2.5):

. . Ib H 2 0
Au m: .JI = 0.0069 Ib -d ryaIT

. Ib H 2 0
An out:.JI = 0.0357 Ib -dry aIT

Specific volumes for air streams can be computed from

v= (0.730T + 336)(2 9 +

Air in: v = (0.730 X 80° F + 336) (l9 + 0.010869)

= 13.75 ft' /Ib-dry air

~ir out: v= (0.730 X 100°F + 336)(2~ + 0.~~57)

\' = 14.91 ft'/Ib-dry air

700,000 LB/H R
Tj D 140°F

D 1000F 5.5X106 FT 3/HR
bD 95°F

Figure 5.S Cooling tower operation for Example 2.


Enthalpies of the moist air streams can be computed from

~H = 0.240(T - 0) + .H(1075 + 0.45(T - 32»

~ '--v-" ~
Cp(~T) for Heat of Cp(~T) for
air vaporization H 2 0 vapor
at 32° F

and consolidating terms:

~H= 0.240T + .H(1061 + 0.45T)

Air in: ~H= 0.240 X 80°F + 0.0069 (1061 + 0.45 X 80°F)

= 26.77 Btu/lb-dry air

Air out: ~H= 0.240 X 100° F + 0.0357 (1061 + 0.45 X 100° F)

~H = 63.48 Btu/lb-dry air

Enthalpy of entering water:

~Hi = Cp H2 0 ~T = 1.(140 - 32) = 108 Btu/lb-H~b

Enthalpy of exiting water:

~H= 1.(T o -32)

where 32°F is the reference temperature. Amount of dry air to the cooling
tower is

ft' ft' 5 lb-dry air

5.5 X 10· hr /13.751b_dry air = 4.0 X 10 hr

Amount of process water sent to the tower per unit mass of air is

lb-H 2 0 lb-dryair
700,000 11T /4.0 X 10 5 hr = 1. 75 lb H 2 0/1b-dry air

The amount of water evaporated is

0.0357 - 0.0069 = 0.0288 lb Hp/lb-dry air


The exiting temperature of the water for this operation can be computed
from a total energy balance about the tower. Reviewing each term in the
energy balance:
Moist air in:

Btu 5 Ib-dry air 7'

26.77 Ib-dry air X 4.0 X10 hr = 1.07 X 10 Btu/hr

Water stream in:

~ Ib H20 . 5 Ib-dry air _ 7 Btu

1081b-H20 X 1.751b_dry air X 4.0 X 10 hr -7.56 X 10 hr

Moist air out:

Btu 5 Ib-dry air _ 7

63.481b_dryair X 4.0 X 10 hr - 2.54 X 10 Btu/hr

Water stream out:

Btu Ib-H 20 Ib-dryair

(T -32) Ib-H,G X (1.75 -0.0288) Ib-dry air X 4.0 X 10 5 hr

= 6.89 X 10 5 (To -32) Btu/hr

At steady-state, energy in = energy out:

1.07 X 10 7 + 7.56 X 10 7 = 2.54 X 10 7 + 6.89 X 105(To - 32)

Solving for To,

Additional problems are given at the end of this chapter.


Let us now develop material and energy balances directly applicable

to cooling towers. The idealized cooling tower operation is illustrated in
Figure 5.6. The cooling tower operates with some type of heat source (a con-



Figure 5.6 Countercurrent cQoling tower operation.

denser for example) in a closed-loop arrangement. As shown, heated water

along with some makeup to compensate for water losses through evaporation
are sprayed over the top cross section of the tower.
As in gas absorption design, a convenient way to develop energy and
material balances is on the basis of unit cross-sectional area of flow. The
air rate (called the air loading) is expressed as a superficial mass rate (i.e., as if
it were flowing alone in the tower) per unit cross-sectional area of flow, thus
has units of G lb/(hr) (ft2). The water loading at the top of the tower is ex-
pressed in the same manner as L lb/(hr)(ftl). Similarly, we can express the
makeup supply as L 1lb/(hr)(ft2) of water. If Q is the heat rate (Btu/hr)
through the condenser, then we can define the heat load per hr per square
foot as q = Q/ A, where A is the cross-sectional area of flow of the cooling
tower. An energy balance about our system for air only yields the following:


In writing Equation 5.7 we have used a reference temperature of OaF for air.
Note that HI 2 is the enthalpy per pound of dry air and includes the heat of
the vapor associated with a pound of dry air.
An energy balance for the water component alone gives

q = LCp(T 3 -T,) + L,Cp(T, -T,) (5.8)

Equating both balances we get

G(H, - H,) = LCp(T3 -T,) + L, CpT, (5.9)


L = L, + L,

The amount of makeup water that is needed to compensate for evaporation

losses is

L, = G(.H, - .H,) (5.10)

By dividing Equation 5.9 by L J and using Equation 5.l0, we can rearrange

our balance into a more generalized form:

(H, -H')
L, .H,-.H, =LCp(T 3 -T,)+L,CpT, (5.11)

If we then combine Equations 5.l1 and 5.8, a general expression for make-
up water requirements for any fixed set of conditions is obtained:

= (H, - q
H,)/(.H, - .H,) - CpT, (5.12)

In cooling towers, cold air is used to cool hot water. As water descends
through the tower, it is possible for the temperature of the water to become
lower than the dry-bulb temperature of the incoming air; however, it will not
fall below the inlet air's wet-bulb temperature. In the upper regions of a
tower, hot water first contacts the discharging air which is still colder than
the water. It should be noted that in this region the partial pressure of the
water out of the liquid exceeds that which is in the exit air stream, while at
the same time the water temperature is greater than the discharging air. Both
these facts can be considered as potentials that tend to lower the water
temperature through the mechanisms or evaporation and sensible transfer to
the air. The net result is an increase in the air enthalpy. Both potentials may

operate adiabatically and in the same direction while saturating the air. This is
the main principle behind cooling tower operation and is the reason why this
particular direct contacting operation works so effectively in cooling water.
As water travels down through the lower regions of the cooling tower, it
will have a temperature of, or less than, the dry-bulb temperature of the air.
Under these conditions, sensible heat and mass transfer are in opposite
directions. This is analogous to the conditions of a wet-bulb thermometer (see
Chapter 2). In fact, the wet-bulb temperature represents the limit to which
the discharge water temperature can fall to in a cooling tower where adiabatic
equilibrium exists between the water and inlet air.
Merkel [3] has developed the equations describing the performance of a
cooling tower and Kern [4] has outlined the derivation in detail. The dis-
cussion below follows Kern's outline.
The total heat transfer in a cooling tower consists of two components: the
transfer of heat by diffusion and by convection from the water to the air:
Total Heat Diffusional Heat Transfer
Transfer = Heat Transfer + By
Per Unit Rate Convection


where q's are in Btu/(hr)(ft2).

The heat transferred by diffusion can 'be expressed in terms of the latent
heat of vaporization of the water:


where "AVG is an average value for al( the water vaporized in the tower.
Combining this expression with Equation 5.8 and rearranging terms we get
the following expression:

qc LCp(T, -T,) + Ll Cp(T, -T 1 ) - Ll A.

qD - LIA. (5.15)

An expression for the makeup water, LJ, is given by Equation 5.10.

Incorporating this and Equation 5.9 into Equation 5.15, the following
compact expression is obtained:


Note that Equation 5.16 gives us the opportunity to see which heat transfer
mechanism is dominant. That is, it provides the ratio of the heat transferred
by convection to that transferred by diffusion.
The sensible heat transfer from the water to the air is given by the following


where a = effective surface area of water per unit volume of tower (as both droplet
and film surface)
dV = differential tower volume

The value of "a" cannot be directly determined as it consists of both droplet

and film surface area. Film surfa~e is independent of the thickness of the
water film; however, the droplet surface is a function of both the liquid
loading generating drops and the size distribution of droplets formed. We
can bypass the difficulty in measuring "a" by measuring the product Ka for
the entire tower at specific operating conditions. This is discussed at greater
length later. '
The heat transfer area is, then,

dAH = adV (5.18)

And we can also define

dQc = GCpdT air (5.19)

dqD = A.dL (5.20)

dL represents the rate at which one component (water) diffuses. Using the
mass flux relationships developed in Chapter 3, it can be shown that

dL = K(.JI s - .JI)adV (5.21)

where K is the overall mass transfer coefficient (lb/(hr)(ft 2 )(lb/lb)).

Substituting for dL in Equation 5.20 we obtain the following:

dqD = KA,(,Hs -.JI) adV (5.22)

The total heat transfer, dq, is given by Equation 5.13, which in the
differential form is restated here:

dq = dqc + dqD = h(THzO - Tair)adV + KA.(.H s - .H)adV (5.23)

and we also get

dq = GdH (5.24)

We can rewrite Equation 5.23 in a more usable form by defining

average values for the humid heat, Cs, and the latent heat, A, and by
neglecting superheat. These are common assumptions applied to cooling

dq = KadV [(Hs - H) + Cs(TH,Q -Tair){K~s -I}] (5.25)

See Kern [4] for the details to the derivation of Equation 5.25.
Note that dq can be expressed in terms of the enthalpy decrease of the total
water quantity (or in terms of the enthalpy increase of the total air mixture).
Both of these quantities are equal so that dq = d(LCpTH z0) = CdH. The
gas loading C is constant through the tower since it is expressed on a dry
basis only. However, water loading is not constant due to y,Yaporation losses.
For normal operations, evaporation losses are generally le:ss than 2% of the
circulating water; therefore, a reasonably good estimate can be made by
assuming a constant, L. This allows us to write the following:

d(LCpT) = LCpdT (5.26)


LCpdT = GdH (5.27)

dq = d(LCpdT) = GdH (5.28)

In Equation 5.25 the quantity h/KCs is the Lewis number, which is unity
for the air-water system. Hence, our expression reduces to

LCpdT = GdH = K(H s - H)adV (5.29)

It should be noted that Lewis number, Le, is only a prediction. In reality,

Le is closer to 0.9. The manner in which Equation 5.29 was derived produces
an error only in the convective heat transfer coefficient. In normal cooling
tower operation, convective heat transfer is generally less than 20% of the
total heat load. For now, Equation 5.29 represents the centerpiece of our

analysis. It represents the major expression describing cooling tower per-

formance and from which we will develop a design basis.


We began our analysis with an overall energy balance about the system
given in Figure 5.6, producing Equation 5.9. Referring back to the system
drawing, note that L = LJ + ~, so that Equation 5.9 is also


If we apply the simplifying assllmption that negligible evaporation occurs

in the system, then L z ~ L, and our general balance becomes

G(H 2 - HI) = LCp(T 3 - T 2) (5.31)

This enthalpy balance can be graphically represented by plotting the gas

enthalpy II versus the water temperature TH 2 0, as in Figure 5.7. The line J-K
represents Equat~on 5.31 and it passes through the coordinates, which

0::: CURVE
~ H2 (Hi vs Tint)
: (HsVSTHi')

(!) I
0 H2 K
0.. I
c( I
::I: His I
I- I
1&.1 I

T2 T3

Figure 5.7 General operating diagram for a cooling tower.


represent the terminal conditions of the two fluids. As long as our assumption
holds that L - L2 is small, then JK is a straight line having a slope of LCp/G.
This is referred to as the operating line. Further, since Cp = 1.0 for water, its
slope is just the ratio of the liquid to air loading. Note that the equilibrium
curve represents conditions of the gas at the gas-liquid interface; that is, it is
the enthalpy of saturated gas at each temperature.
In our general discussion of diffusion theory (Chapter 3) we showed that
the number of transfer units [Equation 3.64 - Ntu = dy/(Y - y")] repre-
sented a method of estimating the magnitude of effort needed to achieve
a specified amount of mass transfer through diffusion. And if the height
of a single transfer unit (Htu) is known, then we can compute the total
height of the tower per unit cross section from the product Ntu X Htu
(Equation 3.65). By following the same reasoning behind the development
of Equation 3.64, we can rearrange our major cooling tower equation
(Equation 5.29) to the following:

f- dB
Hs -H
= Ka Y

Multiplying by GIL and noting that Cp for water is 1.0: '\

Ntu' = LdT -
= Ka Y

The number of transfer units for a cooling tower is distinguished from

the general definition given back in Chapter 3 by the prime ('). Note that
some texts prefer to call this the number of diffusion units (Ndu) and
distinguish Htu by the height of a diffusion unit (Hdu). The definitions of
Ntu and Ntu' are analogous, so it is not necessary to distinguish a box from a
Note that Ntu' is determined from process conditions imposed on the
operation. It is not based on the performance of the tower itself. The water
temperature ,unfortunately is not a simple function of IIvapor, hence
Equation 5.33 must be solved either numerically or via graphic solution.
Note that the value of II at any point on the operating line in Figure 5.7
can be determined by


The area of the plot bound between the equilibrium curve (saturation
curve) and the operating line represents the potential that drives the total

heat transfer. Suppose we change some of the process conditions so that the
operating line JK in Figure 5.7 is shifted downward. Then we would have a
larger area bound between the operating line and the saturation curve. In a
physical sense, this means that fewer transfer units and less height of any type
of tower are needed.


Before applying our generalized equations to sizing cooling towers, we need

to review some of the criteria for specifying operating conditions. The
critical conditions that must be established before the design is initiated are
the heat load, wet-bulb temperature, hot and cold water temperature and
water rate.

Heat Load Determination

The determination of the heat to be dissipated by a cooling tower is an

essential factor that not only affects the tower size, but also its effectiveness.
If the heat load ,determination is not accurate, either too high or too low, a
larger or smalle,~ size tower than is needed for a particular job could be
The imposed heat load on a cooling tower is determined by the process
operation. The degree of cooling is controlled by the normal operating
temperature level of the process fluid. Sometimes a low temperature is
desired to improve the quantity or quality of the final product or to increase
process efficiency. For example, low operating temperatures are required in
oil refineries to condense volatile vapors that otherwise would be lost. In
other cases, high operating temperatures are desirable, one example being
internal combustion engines. It is important to determine the heat load as
accurately as possible to select the proper size cooling tower.
Dependable information has been developed for the heat rejector require-
ments of different types of power equipment: air compressors, refrigeration
equipment, steam condensers, diesel engines and natural gas engines.
Table 5.1 gives information on the heat absorbed by cooling water for this
type of power equipment.

Wet-Bulb Temperature Determination

The wet-bulb temperature is an important factor in the sizing, selection and

design of water cooling equipment. It is defined as the temperature CF) to
which air can be cooled adiabatically to saturation by the addition of water
vapor and can be expressed as the lowest temperature to which water can be
cooled by the evaporative method.

Table 5.1 Heat Absorbed by Cooling Water for Various Operations

Btu/min/ton Btu/lb of steam Btu/Bhp/hr

Air Compressors
Single·stage 380
Single-stage with aftercooler 2545
Two-stage with intercooler 1530
Two-stage with intercooler and
Compression 250 2545
Absorption 500
Steam Jet Refrigeration Condenser
100 psi steam supply (dry)
2 inch Hg condenser 900 1100
Steam turbine condenser 1000
Diesel Engine (Jacket Water)
Four-cycle supercharged 2600
Four-cycIe nonsupercharged 3000
Two-cycle, crankcase compressor 2000
Two-cycle, large unit 2300
Two-cycle, high speed 2100
Natural Gas Engines
Four-cycle (250 psi compressor) 4500
Two-cycle (250 psi compressor) 3000

Theoretically, a cooling tower will cool water to the entering wet-bulb

temperature when operating without a heat load; however, a thermal
potential is required in all heat rejection processes, so it is not possible to cool
water to the entering wet-bulb temperature when a heat load is applied. The
wet-bulb temperature has a direct impact on the operating temperature of
the plant and influences operating conditions, plant efficiencies and
operating cost.
The selection of the design wet-bulb temperature is made on the condition
existing at the tower site and measured with a sling psychrometer. The
selected temperature is normally close to the average maximum wet-bulb for
the summer months.
Selection of wet-bulb temperatures that are not exceeded by more than 5%
during a normal summer have given satisfactory performance for most
industrial installations. The hours that wet-bulb temperatures exceed the
average maximum by 5% need not be consecutive hours and may occur in
periods of short duration. Study should be made on daily wet-bulb tempera-
ture cycle as well as monthly and even yearly temperature cycles. Figure 5.8
shows typical wet-bulb temperature cycle curves.

. 71
~ 70
0.. 69
v -..........
i5.... 68 /' ""-
"- L/
./ "
3: 12 MAX.' 4 8 12 4 8 12


0.: 70
::liE /" ""'" t......
....w 60

~ 50 / I'..
ID 40
. . .V f'.- -.....
w 30 F--
I....- ...... r--.....
3: J F M A M J J A SON D

Figure 5.8 Daily and annual variations in ambient air wet-bulb temperatures.

A distinction must be made between the ambient wet-bulb temperature and

the cooling tower's inlet air wet-bulb temperature. The ambient wet-bulb
temperature is the wet-bulb temperature that exists around the outside of a
cooling tower. The inlet wet-bulb temperature is the wet-bulb temperature of
the air entering the tower. The former depends on the specific atmospheric
conditions and the latter can be affected by the discharge of vapors being
recirculated into the tower or heating equipment located nearby. The
ambient wet-bulb temperature is the one that ASME Power Test Code on
Atmospheric Water Cooling Equipment recommends for official tower tests
and normally is used in the Purchasing Specifications.
Wind velocities, wind directions, wet and dry-bulb temperatures are avail-
able from data collected by the U.S. Weather Bureau or the U.S. Military
Forces covering a wide range of chronological periods. Sometimes informa-
tion can be obtained from weather stations located at nearby airports.

Hot and Cold Water Temperature and gpm Flow Determination

Once the heat load is known and the wet-bulb temperature established, the
selection of hot and cold water temperatures and gpm flow help to determine

the size and, consequently, the cost of the cooling equipment. For a fixed
heat load, the cold and hot water operating temperatures and the gpm are
interrelated; that is, a change in one affects the other two. For example, if
the cold water temperature increases slightly, the hot water temperature will
decrease by a large quantity, providing a lower average cooling water
temperature, all at the expense of increasing the gpm and, consequently,
pumping costs. All three parameters must be properly evaluated to obtain the
most favorable economic equipment.

Range and gpm

The cooling tower range is defined as

Heat load in Btu/min Btu/min

lb of water/min gpm X 8.33

The selection of the cooling range depends on process characteristics and

requirements, as well as the type of cooling tower under consideration. In
general, cooling ranges are divided into three categories:
Long range: 25-65°F
Medium range: 1O-25°F
Short range: 5-10°F
Long ranges are often used in oil refineries and steel mill applications.
Medium ranges are employed in power plants, while short ranges are used for
refrigeration and air conditioning uses. The relation given by Equation 5.35
permits the range and/or gpm flow to be computed from knowledge of the
heat load.
If we have a tower with a heat load, wet-bulb temperature and cold water
temperature already selected, the cooling range can be controlled by varying
the quantity of water circulated, and vice versa. The net effect of varying the
range (or the gpm), fixing the load, wet-bulb temperature and cold water
temperature is a change in the tower size. Increasing the' range will decrease
the tower size. Increasing the gpm will increase the tower size. Figures 5.9
and 5.10 illustrate these points through the use of a dimensionless
parameter called the tower size factor.


By definition, approach is the temperature difference of the cold water

temperature leaving the tower and the wet-bulb temperature of the ambient
air entering the tower. Once the wet-bulb temperature and range have been
computed, the establishment of the approach fixes all the operating tempera-
tures of the tower fluids.

a:: 1.3
~ 1.2
~ 1.1
1&.1 1.0
L....-- - L----I-

!::! ~
til 0.9
a:: O.B
3: 0.7
~ 0.6
40 . 60 BO 100 120 140 160 IBO

Figure 5.9 Effect of flow·variance on cooling tower size factor.

a:: 1.3
0 .......
(.) 1.2
~ 1.1 .............
1&.1 1.0 i'-......
-r-- -
iii 0.9
60 BO 100
120 140
160 IBO 200

Figure 5.10 Effect of range variance on tower size factor.

The approach has a significant effect on the tower size, as shown in

Figure 5.11. For a given heat load, gpm and wet-bulb temperature, the
cooling tower size increases as the approach decreases, and the closer the cold
water temperature approaches the wet-bulb temperature, the greater the
increase in the cooling tower size.



Approximately 80% of the transfer of heat is by evaporation and the

remaining 20% by temperature gradient. Practically, the cold water tempera-
ture approaches the wet-bulb temperature of the air and the magnitude

.... 2.5
2.0 ~


1&.1 1.0
I- 0.5
"-;---- I-
10 20 30

Figure 5.11 Variation in tower size factor with approach.

of this approach depends on the design of the cooling tower being a function
of contact time between air and water, amount of fill surface, water distribu-
tion over the fill, amount and size of water droplets formed. The cooling
process involves both mass and heat transfer; the water surface existing on the
tower packing contacts an air film, which is considered safbrated at the water
temperature. Heat is transferred by diffusion and conve'ction between this
film and the main body of air. The driving force is the difference of enthalpy
between the film and the surrounding air. ,
The number of transfer units or tower characteristics is based on the overall
heat and mass transfer expression given by Equation 5.33.
Let us examine the equilibrium curve in somewhat more detail. The
countercurrent system defined in Figure 5.6 is restated in Figure 5.12 in a
slightly more simplified form to illustrate some important features on the
enthalpy-temperature plot. In this figure', T denotes air temperature and t
water temperature. The following curves are of importance:
Curve A-B has been discussed already. It represents t/le saturation curve.
The points A, B are fixed by the outlet, t 2 , and inlet, t l , water temperatures.
Line A-B gives the enthalpy, lIs, of air if saturated and at various tempera-
tures includ~d in the water cooling range; the points A and B are fixed by the
outlet, t 2 , and inlet, t l , water temperatures, respectively.
Line C-D, the operating line, gives the actual enthalpy, H, of air plotted
against water temperatures. The wet-bulb temperature at any point on C-D is
found by projecting the point horizontally to the water operating line, then
vertically to the abscissa of the diagram.
Line E-F represents actual enthalpy data of the air stream plotted against
actual air temperatures. Should line E-F cross line A-B there is the possibility
of fog formation.
Lines B-C and A-D represent the initial and final driving forces, respectively.

G2 , HI' T2 I ,
L" , t I


G2 ,H 2 , TI L', t2




...J II
« II 1
~ HjiC~L~ ~~I~) II 1
z II 1
It: 3 .... i5
11 ....
al::>1 I
0: 1
« 1°1
.... ,
3:CiI I « ~I


Figure 5.12 Important design parameters for the COl'ntercurrent cooling tower opera-

Earlier we described the area bound by A-B-C-D and noted it to be propor-

tional to the reciprocal of the value of the integral for Ntu'. This value defines
the characteristics of the tower, and it is clear that the lower the area, the
higher the value KaV/L, i.e., high contact area (a) and high contact volume
(V); therefore, high investment cost. The reduction of the investment cost
and, therefore, the increase of area A-B-C-D, can be achieved by increasing

the approach or reducing the L:G ratio. By reducing the L:G ratio we obtain
a high area mass velocity, i.e., large power consumption for the fans.
Approach and cooling range are also indicated in the diagram. Note that
the smaller the approach, the smaller the area A-B-C-D and, consequently,
the higher the investment cost.
Cooling tower performance is largely affected by internal arrangements.
A large amount of information exists in the literature on the performance of
different types of packing and fills [5,6]. Modern diffusion calculations find
their roots from well-established absorption practices. Consequently, much of
the literature data are presented in the form of a plot of KGa versus G, where
the gas film is diffusion controlling. Such plots are presented on the basis of
pound-moles of water transferred with a driving potential expressed in
atmospheres. In humidification problems these units are not very useful.
Common practice has been to express pounds of water transferred and
driving potential as humidity units. The relation between Htu' and Ka is

Htu' = ~ y. (5.36)
Ka L

The relationship between K and KG for absorption theory was given in

Chapter 3 as


where the subscript B refers to the air.

Htu' or Ka represents the performance characteristics of a given fill or
packing material. Recall that Ntu' represents the degree of effort needed for
meeting the process conditions. For packed towers the performance of
packings over a wide range of conditions can be expressed by an equation
having the following form:

Ka =¢G'Y (5.38)

Table 5.2 gives some data for Raschig rings and Berl saddles. More data can
be found in the literature [7,8].
The Cooling Tower Institute has also recommended the following equation
for the performance of commercially used cooling tower packings.

KaV/L = ¢(L/Ga)-O.6 (5.39)

Note that Ga is the air mass-velocity in lb dry air/(hr) and ¢ is a function of

the type of packing and number of packing deck levels. This, in turn, fixes

Table 5.2 Humidification Characteristics of Packing Materials [8]

Size Depth L G (Ib)(hr)
Packing (in.) (ft) (Ib)/(hr)(ft') (lb)/(hr)(ft 2) 'Y (ft 3 )(lb lib) ¢

Raschig Rings 1 2 500 250 0.5 226 14.3

1500 250 0.5 468 29.6
3000 250 0.5 635 40.2
2 0.79 500 250 0.47 190 14.3
1500 250 0.54 301 15.3
3000 250 0.53 351 18.9
Berl Saddles 0.5 1.29 500 250 0.61 320 11.1
1500 250 0.61 468 16.3
3000 250 0.61 595 20.7
1.5 SOO 250 0.52 200 11.4
3000 250 0.52 383 21.8

Table 5.3 Guide to,Packing Height Specification

Cooling Range Approach Packing Height

("F) ("F) (ft)

25-35 15-20 15-20

25-35 8-15 25-30
25-35 4-8 35-40

the total height of the packing and, thus, the time of contact between the
two phases. Packing height is selected on the basis of desired approach. As a
rough guide, refer to Table 5.3.
The purpose of a cooling tower is strictly to produce cooling water. Next to
air itself, cooling water represents the cheapest utility. The major operating
cost consists of the fan power for circulating the air through the tower.
Standard practice dictates an allowable pressure drop of under 2 inches of
water. In most services, the water loading on droplet-forming fills ranges
from 1 to 4 gpm/ft 2, i.e., 500 to 2000 Ib/(hr)(fe)[4]. Gas loadings typically
range between 1300 and 1800 Ib/(hr)(ft2) or at gas velocities between 300
and 400 fpm.


In developing our major design expression (Equation 5.33), it was assumed

that the overall mass transfer coefficient and the gas side coefficient were the

same. This assumption automatically implies that the liquid film does not
offer any resistance to diffusion (i.e., the gas side controls). This is not
necessarily an accurate description, particularly if the humidifying liquid con-
sists of an aqueous solution.
In writing the energy balance (Equation 5.17) we slipped another "fast
one" by the reader by assuming h to be the same as hG, the heat transfer
coefficient from the liquid film-air film interface to the air. If a significant
resistance is associated with the liquid film, h is better expressed by the
overall heat transfer coefficient (U), which consists of both hG and h L. Note
that hL is the convection coefficient from the liqUid film to the interface [7].
When appreciable liquid film resistance exists, our energy balance should be
written as

LCpdT = hL(T - TUadV (5.40)

where Ti is the gas-liquid interface temperature. Equation 5.40 correctly

describes the rate of heat transfer from the liqUid body through the liquid
film to the interface. Similarly, we can write an expression for the rate of
sensible heat transfer from the gas-liquid interface through the gas film to
the gas body:


We can also write an expression for the material balance with interfacial

Gd.H = k (.Hi - .H) (5.42)

By applying the Lewis number prediction (hG/kC s = 1), where k is the

gas side mass transfer coefficient, and using Equation 5.29, we get

LCpdT = GdH = K (Hs - H) adV (5.43)

where the overall coefficient, K, is defined as h/Cs.


The number of diffusion units is computed from the relation f

dT/(Rs -
R). It is determined from process conditions imposed on the tower alone, not
by the tower's performance. Htu' is the only parameter determined

Unfortunately, temperature (TH 0) is not a simple function of Bair and

Bair-H.O' Hence, we must perform 2 the integration of Equation 5.33, either
graphically or numerically. The following example illustrates both approaches
to solving for Ntu'.

Example 3

A cooling tower operates in the countercurrent mode as illustrated by

Figure 5.13. Entering air has a 5% wet-bulb temperature of 65°F. Hot process
water enters the tower at IISoF and cold water leaves at a 15° approach to
the wet-bulb (i.e., at SO°F). The cross-sectional area of the tower is 676 ft2.
Determine the number of transfer units (Ntu') required to meet the process
requirements. Air is supplied to'the tower by a blower having a capacity
of 250,000 cfm and the water loading is 1500 lb/(hr)(ft2).


We first need to construct an enthalpy-temperature plot. The enthalpies of

saturated air can be computed from the following relation (see Chapter 3):

.H = :-P_H--=:2=----0_ MWH20
s Pt - PH 20 MW air

For T = 50°F, the partial pressure of water can be obtained from the Steam

0.17811 18 .
.Hs = 14.7 -0.17811 29 = 0.00761b-Hp/lb-dry au

The enthalpy of air above OaF can be obtained from the following relation:

Hs =.H s Tair +.Hs A. + 0.24 Tair

Again, making use of the Steam Tables for A we get

Hs = (0.0076)(50°F) + (0.0076)(1065.6) + 0.24 (50°F)

Hs = 20.5 Btu/lb-air

Following this procedure, enthalpy and humidity data at saturation condi-

tions can be computed for a range of temperatures. Table 5.4 gives the
reqUired data for this example.


I LIB 1500 LB/CHR)(FT 2)


GlIB 250,000 CFM
/(1 T2 IB BO°F
t I • 65 OF

Figure 5.13 Cooling tower operation for Example 3.

Table 5.4 Air-Water Mixtures-Enthalpies and Humidities

Temperature V(air) V(air + H.o) Pressure Enthalpy, lis Humidity, Jls
("F) (ft' jIb) (ft"/lb) (psia) (Btu/lb-air) (lb-H,O/lb-air)

50 12.84 13.00 0.1781 20.5 0.0076

60 13.10 13.33 0.2563 26.7 0.0110
70 13.35 13.69 0.36'31 34.5 0.0160
80 13.60 14.09 0.5069 44.1 0.0222
90 13.86 14.55 0.6982 56.7 0.0310
100 14.11 15.08 0.9492 72.7 0.0430
120 14.62 16.52 1.6924 121.5 0.0810
140 15.13 18.84 2.8886 208.6 0.1520
150 15.39 20.60 3.7180 286.0 0.2160

The equilib'rium (saturation) curve is constructed from the tabulated data

in Table 5 A and is shown in Figure 5.14. Next the operating line should be
Air saturated @65°F (65°F wet-bulb) has an enthalpy of Rls = 30A Btuflb
air at the outlet temperature of 80°F (value interpolated from Table SA).
This is the exit conditions of the tower and thus represents one endpoint on
the operating line (point C). The liquid and air loadings determine the slope
of the operating line starting at point C:


120 _!l~!_a~!i~!~,!~~L~!.!___ _
;;( 100
...... BO
:::t: 60 I
)0- I
..J I
.... 40 LINE, I
30 I
20 10:::
10 ....-I~Z
I -
50 70 90 110 130 150

Figure 5.14 Equilibrium curve and operating line for Example 3.

Density of air @65°F wet-bulb = l/vH,O = 1/13.51 = 0.0740 lb/ft'

G = 250,000 ft'/min X 0.0740 lb/ft' X 67~ ft' X 60 min/hr

G = 1642 Ib/Chr)(ft2)

Hence, L/G = 1500/1642 = 0.914

From Equation 5.34 (refer also to Figure 5.7),

- - L
H, =H, + GCT, -T,)

if, = 30.4 + 0.914 (118 - 80) = 65.1 Btu/lb-air


Hence we can locate the other endpoint of the operating line, point D (ll8°F,
65.1 Btu/lb-air).
The area bound between the saturation line and the operating line is
proportional to the potential for heat transfer. We now have two choices
on how to obtain the final solution (Ntu'): a graphical or numerical solution.
Each is outlined below:

Graphical Solution

Our expression for Ntu' is Equation 5.33 or

Ntu' = J-
. Hs-H
dT - =Ka V/L.

To evaluate the integral graphically, it is best to replot our data as l/(Rs - R)

versus T. Table 5.5 summarizes these data, and Figure 5.15 shows the plot.
We can now evaluate the area under the curve between the inlet and exit
water temperatures by counting squares in the shaded region. From this the
solution is

T 2 dT
Ntu' = f T
=---= = 1. 7

Numerical Solution

By numerical integration we can use Simpson's rule to evaluate the data in

columns land 5 of Table 5.5.

Table 5.5 Computations for Construction of Figure 5.15

TeF) lIs II lIs-II (Us - U)

80 44.1 30.4 l3.7 0.073

85 50.0 34.9 15.1 0.066
90 56.7 39.5 17.2 0.058
95 64.2 44.1 20.1 0.050
100 72.7 48.7 24.0 0.042
105 82.5 53.3 29.2 0.034
110 93.8 57.8 36.0 0.028
115 106.7 62.4 44.3 0.023
120 121.5 67.0 54.5 0.018

AREA- J _dT .. NTU'

~ 1.70


...... 0.05

_1 I::t:'7,. 0.02


o 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125


Figure 5.15 Evaluation of Ntu' for Example 3.

Simpson's rule is generally stated as follows: .

r Tn f(T)dT::-: 3""
[f(To) + 4f(T 1) + 2f(T,) + ... + 4f(T n -,) + 2f(T n_,)

n must be a positive integer.


Ntu ,= 1 480F
80 0 F Hs-H
= 1. 73

From the two solutions, we require a tower capable of performing approxi-

mately 1.7 transfer units.
Additional problems are given at the end of the chapter. The reader should
attempt them before studying the solutions given in Appendix C.


A = cross-sectional area, fe

a = effective surface of water per unit volume of tower, fe/ft 3

Cp = specific heat, Btu/(lb )CF)

CS = humid heat, Btu/(lb )CF)

G = gas-mass rate loading, lb/(hr)(ft 2)

g = acceleration of gravity, ft/hr 2

H = enthalpy, Btu/lb
Hdu = height of a diffusion unit, ft
Htu' = height of a transfer unit, ft
.N = humidity, lb water-vapor/lb-dry air

h = heat transfer coefficient in which one film controls, (hr)~g~)CF)

K = overall mass transfer coefficient, lb/(hr)(ftl)(lb/lb)

kG = gas film coefficient, lb/(hr)(ft 2 )(lb/lb)

L =liquid mass rate, loading, lb/(hr)(ft2)

MW = molecular weight, lb/lb-mole
Ndu = number of diffusion units
Ntu' = number of transfer units
p = pressure, psia

Q = heat load, Btu/hr

q = heat transfer per unit area, Btu/(hr)(ft 2)

T = temperature, OF

U = overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/(hr)(ft2)CF)

V = tower volume, ft3
Z = height, ft
I = exponent in Equation 5.38

e = time, sec

A =latent heat of vaporization, Btu/lb

v = specific volume, fe lIb
¢ = packing factor in Equation 5.38

A = diffusing component
A VG = average

B = the inert gas

C = convection
D = diffusion
G = gas

= interfacial value

1m = log mean value

= saturation conditions

= total


5.1 Determine the percent relative humidity and the wet-bulb temperature
before and after for each of the following conditions:

Dry-Bulb New Dry-Bulb

Temperature Temperature
('F) Percent Humidity ("F)

70 40 90
130 10 105
160 60 100
55 95 170

5.2 The following data have been obtained for a forced-draft cooling tower:
TCF) = 77 87 90 102
Saturated jJ = 0.0202 0.0254 0.032 0.0457
A = 1055 Btu/lb for all temperatures,
CPair = 0.24 and CPwater vapor = 0.45

Air enters the tower with a dry-bulb temperature of 87°F and has a wet-
bulb temperature (inlet condition) of nOF. The air leaves the tower
at 90°F and is saturated. Water enters the tower at a temperature of
102°F and exits at 85°F. Determine (1) the humidity of the entering air
stream, (2) the mass of dry air to the tower lib of water feed, and
(3) the fraction of water vaporized in the tower.
5.3 A small warehouse is to be provided with air conditioning service via
cooling and dehumidifying fresh air with cold water in a spray
chamber. The dimensions of the building are 150 feet long, 85 feet wide
and 25 feet tall. The average population in the building during normal
hours is 130 persons per hour. It is estimated that each individual emits
about 900 Btu/hr. The comfort range selected is 70°F and 55% humid-
ity. The basis for this condition is that sufficient total circulation be
provided to maintain the temperature rise of the air to 3°F. Determine
(1) the volume of recirculated air at the inlet conditions, (2) the
volume of the humidifier spray chamber (assume the air approaches
within 3°F of the water temperature, and (3) the tons of refrigeration
needed, where 1 ton refrigeration = 12,000 Btu/hr.
Note: Radiation from the building can be neglected.
5.4 For problem 5.3, estimate the volume of fresh air required for worst
case environmental conditions (lOI°F and 95% humidity).
5.5 A once-through cooling tower ope.ration (i.e., no recycle) is sche-
matically shown in Figure 5.16. Moist air is supplied to the cooling
tower by a blower having a capacity of 9.0 X 10 6 ft 3/hr. The dry- and
wet-bulb temperatures of the incoming air are 75°F and 60°F, respec-
tively. The air exits the tower at a dry-bulb temperature of 90° and a
wet-bulb temperature of 85°F. The hot process water enters the tower
at 130°F. The return water to the process operation must be at a
temperature of 90°F. Determine how much water (gal/hr) can be cooled
with this operation.
5.6 An air stream is cooled and humidified in a water spray chamber. The
air enters the chamber at a dry-bulb temperature of 110°F and has a
wet-bulb temperature of 80°F. The air exits at 95°F. Determine the
amount of moisture added per pound of air.
5.7 Resolve Example 3 via a log-mean enthalpy difference. Comment on the
accuracy of this method.
5.8 Determine the height of fill required for a tower operating with a liquid
loading of 1700 lb-HzO/(hr)(ftz) and an air loading of 1950 lb-airl
(hr)(ftz). Note that Ka is 132Ib/(hr)(ft3)(lb/lb) and Ntu' = 1.85.


AIR OUT 1 + - - - - AIR IN,

Tdb'" 90°F 9.0 X 106 ft'hr
Twb'"S5'!F Tdb'" 75°F
TWb'" GO°F

To'" 90°F

Figure 5.16 Cooling tower operation for problem 5.5.

S.9 For problem S.8 determine the Htu' if Ka is 12S (lb)/(hr)(ft 3 )(lb/lb).
S.lO A cooling tower 20 X 20 feet cross section was sized to cool 2300 gpm
of water from lIS to 82°F, when the S% wet-bulb temperature is 6SoF.
The maximum air rate that can be delivered is 400,000 cfm. Determine
the number of transfer units needed to meet process conditions.
S.ll For problem S.lO determine Ntu' if the S% wet-bulb temperature is

S.12 A cooling tower has a cross-sectional area of 8000 ft2. The unit is
designed to handle lS00 gpm of water from 112 to 92°F when the
S% wet-bulb temperature is 8SoF. The air rate is 310,000 cfm. At full
loadings, a test was run where it was observed that at a wet-bulb
temperature of 70°F the water range was from 72 to 83°F. Determine
whether the tower was fulfilling the conditions of the guarantee.
S.13 A tower operates during the summer months at a wet-bulb temperature
of 93°F with incoming water at 140°F and discharge at lOSoF. The L:G
ratio is fixed throughout the year at 0.72 (the load is also fixed).
Determine the tower's discharge temperature during the winter months,
when the wet-bulb temperature averages around SSOF.


1. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart and E. N. Lightfoot. Transport Phenomena

(New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1960).
2. Cheremisinoff, P. N., and R. A. Young. Pollution Engineering Practice
Handbook (Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., 1975).
3. Merkel, F. Forschungsarb. 275: 1-48 (1925).
4. Kern, D. Q. Process Heat Transfer (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
5. Simpson, W. M., and T. K. Sherwood. Refrig. Eng. 535 (1946).
6. Colburn, A. P. Trans. AIChE 29: 174 (1939).
7. McAdams, W. H. Heat Transmission, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Co., Inc., 1942), p. 290.
8. Parekh, M. Report, Chern. Eng. (1941).
This page intentionally left blank



Plant operations personnel generally purchase cooling towers rather than

construct them themselves. The philosophy behind this policy is that it makes
available to operators a wealth of practical knowledge directly applicable in
the field. The operator must specify the amount of water and the tempera·
ture range required to handle a specific set of process conditions. It is the
fabricator's responsibility to propose a system that will meet the operator-
furnished conditions for the 5% wet-bulb in the plant locality. This also
means that the fan power with which the operation will be accomplished
will be guaranteed. .
Although the operator does not construct the actual tower or even prepare
the details of the final tower design, his role in the designing stage is not pas-
sive. A thorough understanding of process system requirements and the
purpose for certain design details are essential on the part of the operator.
This defines the operational limitations of a particular cooling tower design
and provides better insight into field operations. In this chapter we will apply
the design principles of Chapter 5 in outlining specific criteria for process
conditions selection and identify problems in cooling tower operations.


The Ntu' corresponding to a set of hypothetical conditions is called the

required coefficient. When operational tests have been performed, the Ntu'
represents the available coefficient and is an evaluation of the equipment
The minimum required coefficient for a given temperature occurs at an
L:G ratio of zero. This situation corresponds to an infinite air rate. There is


no increase in enthalpy. Therefore, the maximum driving force exists with

least resistance to heat transfer.
If we decrease the air rate (i.e., increase L:G), then in effect the driving
force is decreased and a greater degree of difficulty is reflected in the form
of a larger value for Ntu'. This is illustrated by the enthalpy-temperature
diagram of Figure 6.1. The plot reflects a counterflow cooling tower at
constant conditions but variable L:G ratios.
The maximum L:G ratio corresponds to the case of minimum' air rate. For
a given temperature this occurs when the tower's operating line (line CA in
Figure 6.1) intersects the saturation curve. For this case the driving force is
zero and Ntu' becomes infinite. The point of zero driving force may occur
at the outlet point. Figure 6.2 shows the effect of varying L: G for a cross flow
At zero L:G ratio the operating area becomes a single horizontal line identi-
cal to the counterflow case, and both coefficients become equal. Increases in
L:G result in an increase in the height of the operating area. This continues
as the area extends to point A in Figure 6.2 as the limit.
Thus, both cross- and counterflow towers have the same minimum coeffi-
cient at an L:G ratio of zero and both increase to infinity at (L:G)max. A


I- 80
c( 40
1&.1 20

60 10 80 90 100 110 120 I!O

Figure 6.1 Countercurrent cooling diagram for constant conditions, variable L:G

110 -


90 III
50 c(
B I-
40 Z
10 80 90 100 110 120

Figure 6.2 Crossflow tower cooling diagram.

cooling tower can be designed to operate at any point within the two limits;
however, practical considerations limit the design to much narrower limits,
which are determined by the air velocity.
A low air rate requires a large tower, while a high air rate in a smaller tower
requires greater fan power. Limitations in air velocities are typically 300-500
fpm in counterflow towers, and 350--{)50 fpm in crossflow towers.
Higher velocities are obtainable in crossflow towers because of larger air
inlet and greater eliminator area. Also, the discharging air does not pass
through the water distribution system.
Cooling towers are capable of operating over a wide range of water rates,
air rates and heat loads. Variations are reflected in the approach of the cold
water to the' wet-bulb temperature. The available tower coefficient is not a
constant but varies with operating conditions.


Cooling tower characteristics can only be deduced from actual field tests.
Tower characteristics are generally presented in the form of an empirical
correlation. This correlation defines the relationship between the available

coefficient and the operating conditions. Variations in the available coeffi-

cient occur because the calculations consider temperature change per unit
driving force without regard to tower height or water rate. Since the
coefficients of mass and energy transfer increase with air velocity, this is
reflected in the available coefficient.
Cooling tower data are most often plotted in the form of KaV: L versus
L:G for various air wet-bulb temperatures and cooling ranges. This approach
allows us to avoid solving the Ntu' integral (Equation 5.33). These graphs
have been published by the Cooling Tower Institute (CTI) and are similar to
the one shown in Figure 6.3. Note that the validity of these graphs is good up
to 300 foot elevation above sea level.
Common practice is to neglect the effect of air velocity and develop the
tower correlation in the form of a power law relation:


where the exponent n can vary between -0.35 and -l.1. Average values of n
are between -0.55 and -0.65. A family of curves can also be generated with
the following formula format:


where m typically varies between 0.6 and 1.1.

Tower performance is specified in terms of the cooling tower's range,
approach, wet-bulb temperature and water rate. The rating of a tower is
established by developing a series of charts that relates these variables.
Rating factors correspond to tower units per gpm, which represents some
functions of tower area in ftljgpm. Hence,

Rating factor (RF) X gpm = tower units/area (6,3)

Rating charts are reported by McDowell [1] for different temperature

ranges. Figure 6.4 gives an example of a rating chart for one temperature
range. The use of this chart is illustrated in the following example.

Example 1

A cooling tower has been designed to handle 7650 gpm of hot water at a
15°F range and a lOoF approach to 70°F wet-bulb temperature. Determine
the tower units of rated area.

4 50 0 RANGE
II II I / I J 1/
I / / / / / J J 1,7
1/3 ~ V5 5 VB liIo 1r2 /r4/JS/rB 120,
t; 3 j / { I J J V 1/ V V I/APPRn~HEs
0::: I II V\ II I II / J / / j
) J ) V I V II V J )

V V V 1)( II / 1// / J
/ 1/ J ) V I V V V /
/ / )<
0::: 2 / '/ J /
V 25-
3: V / / 7; I r:t PLOT OF ./
.... V / / / / / // V EQN. (5.1) /' /'
..J V /
./ / '/ ~ / V
V ./V ~ / .....
>a ....". V --,;:;
"..,.. ~O
i--' V
. /~
~ /' , / i"'"
.- /
;::::::. V V ~
~ ~ -- -
I-- ~~

o 2

Figure 6.3 Generalized tower characteristic curves.


From the chart (Figure 6.4), the rating factor (RF) = 1.42. Hence,

RF X gpm = 1.42 X 7650 = 10,900 tower units of rated area

Performance curves are based on a constant air rate. The following equation
can be applied to such performance curves as the one given in Figure 6.4 by



I- 1.1


60 55 50

Figure 6.4 Countercurrent cooling tower rating chart for 15° range. McDowell [1]
provides a family of charts for different ranges.

computing an equivalent water loading corresponding to a variation in air


(6.4 )


The lowest possible temperature that water can be cooled to in a cooling

tower is the wet-bulb temperature of the air. However, this should not be
viewed as a practical temperature limit as the vapor pressure out of the water
and in the air is the same when the water reaches the wet-bulb temperature, a

condition that results in a zero diffusion potential for which an infinitely tall
tower would be needed. The approach in a cooling tower is the difference
between the water-exit temperature and the wet-bulb temperature. We can
think of the approach as an index or gauge of how difficult it will be to
perform a cooling operation.
Table 6.1 gives some climatological data for different parts of the country
in terms of maximum temperatures and wind velocities. In the northeastern
region of the U.S., the 5% wet-bulb temperature averages about 75°F. It is
common practice in this region to cool the water in a cooling tower to a 10°
approach, i.e., 85°F. The 5% wet-bulb temperature is about 80°F on the Gulf
Coast, where typically a 5° approach is used (but again to 85°F). Note that
when a cooling tower is designed for a definite approach to the 5% wet-bulb,
there will be some time periods where the water discharged from the cooling

Table 6.1 Maximum Temperatures and Maximum Wind Velocities for Different
Cities in the United States

Max. Temperature CF) Max. Wind

State City Dry Bulb Wet Bulb De\~Point
, (mph)

Alabama Mobile 95 82 80 87
Arizona Phoenix 113 78 74 40
California Fresno 110 75 66 41
San Diego 88 74 72 43
Colorado Denver 99 68 64 53
Connecticut Hartford 82 58
Florida Miami 92 81 79 87
Georgia Atlanta 101 82 79 51
Illinois Chicago 104 80 77 65
Indiana Evansville 102 82 79 60
Massachusetts Boston 90 78 76 60
Minnesota St. Paul 103 79 75 78
Montana Helena 97 70 60 54
Nevada Reno 102 66 56 46
New Jersey Newark 99 81 77
New Mexico Albuquerque 98 68 66 63
New York Albany 97 78 75 59
New York 100 81 78 73
Ohio Cincinnati 106 81 78 54
Oregon Portland 99 70 68 43
Pennsylvania Pittsburgh 98 79 74 56
Tennessee Memphis 103 83 80 58
Texas Houston 100 81 79 63
San Antonio 102 83 82 56
Washington Spokane 106 68 58 41

tower will be warmer than originally specified in the process conditions.

Cooling towers are normally designed to withstand wind speed of up to
100 mph (or about 30 lbrlftz).
A common fallacy arises that cooling towers cannot function when the
inlet air is at its wet-bulb temperature. To the contrary, when air at the
wet-bulb temperature enters the tower it acquires sensible heat from the hot
water, thereby raising its temperature so that it is no longer saturated. Con-
sequently, water evaporates continuously into the air phase as it ascends
through the tower and cooling takes place.
There are various process changes that can have a dramatic effect on the
height, cross section of the tower and/or the cost of its operation. Some of
these we have already discussed (the L:G ratio, for one); however, their
effects are best illustrated by studying how the enthalpy-temperature plot is
affected (specifically how the area between the saturation and operating
lines changes as this is a measure of the total potential). Recall that the
smaller this bound area the taller the tower needed to meet process condi-
tions. Chief process changes affecting designs are the L:G ratio, the degree
of unsaturation of the inlet air, close approach, staging and elevation.
There are many situations in which the tower's ground area may be too
limited, an example being when a cooling tower is erected atop a building. In
such a case, it ~,ay be necessary to utilize a high liquid loading without
increasing the air rate. The maximum economical air velocity is roughly
about 400 fpm. Looking back at Figure 6.1, we see that this will decrease
the tower cross section but increase the slope of the operating line. The net
result is a decreased potential and a taller tower. This is the simplest observa-
tion made by an operator that the smaller the amount of air sent to the
tower per pound of water, the smaller the extent of cooling.
In most of the situations described thus far it has been assumed that the
incoming air is adiabatically saturated. This causes the operating line to
drop from H.-H2 to H~-H~ in Figure 6.S(A). The shaded region on this plot
represents the increase in potential. By not correcting for the enthalpy of the
dry-bulb, we achieve results that are slightly conservative. For this reason it is
common practice to specify only the wet-bulb in preparing designs.
By using a close approach, we arrive at the situation shown in Figure 6.S(B).
Both operating lines have the same L:G ratios (i.e., the same slopes and the
same ranges for the removal of the same process load). The operating line
H'.-H~ attempts to perform the same cooling as HI -H 2 and with the same inlet
air but between two different temperatures (T;, T~). The area between the
saturation curve and the operating line is greatly reduced by H'I-H~; hence,
we obtain a lower potential.
Staging is a technique used for overcoming small L:G ratios. Staging in
effect involves the use of two or more towers in series. Water introduced to
the top of the first tower is hot and first contacts air of enthalpy, H 2 , along

H2 8 I
:t: _ - 8 -- - - - - - I



..J ..J
c( c( H I IH2
:t: ::t:
.... .... '8 I I
Z Z , I
'I I H 'I I

T' T T' T



:t: /

;t H3~/.


5 H, : H,


Figure 6.5 The effects of varying process conditions on a cooling tower's enthalpy
temperature diagram.

the operating line, HrH z (Figure 6.S(C)). The water exits from the bottom
at temperature, T3 , and is sent to the top of a second tower. The second
tower will operate between HI and H3 ethalpies. Both operating lines may
have large slopes and not intersect the equilibrium curve. Water produced
by a two-stage arrangement is generally regarded as chilled water. It is,
however, a considerably expensive approach to cooling water. Both water
costs and range are comparable to those of refrigerated water.
Elevation can also play a role, for at reduced atmospheric pressure the
saturation curve will be higher. This causes an increase in the potential and

reduces the required size of a tower if operating conditions are kept con-
stant. The reasons for this are that {he humidity of saturated air at higher
elevations is greater and although the partial pressure of the water is fixed,
by going to higher elevations the total pressure is reduced.
Since the atmosphere serves as the tower's cooling medium, operating
performance is also affected by variations in atmospheric conditions. When
we operate the tower at the design wet-bulb, water should be produced at
the range and temperature specified in the guarantee. If, however, the wet-
bulb temperature drops, in effect the potential in the tower increases. If L, G
and the heat load do not change, the water will still undergo the same num-
ber of degrees of cooling in; however, the inlet and outlet temperatures will
be lower than guaranteed. A tower can only continue removing the same
heat load by automatically reducing the potential difference (Le., the water
temperatures reduce accordingly with the wet-bulb).
If either the water or air loadings to a specific tower are changed, then the
number of diffusion units the system is capable of providing also changes. In
general, the loadings on a single unit do not change significantly. It is not un-
common for designs to anticipate a 25% deviation from the mean of the
design water loading (this is about the maximum variation that can be
handled). The ma~imum discharge capacity will be roughly 120-125% of the
design. When lesst.han 80% of the design water rate is used, the dispersion of
droplets is reduced along with the total quantity of water. Cooling tower
fabricators can specify the temperature range assumed by the cooling water
at 80% and 120% of its design loading when the operating wet-bulb is below
the design wet-bulb. Under this condition, it is desirable to use the increased
potential to generate more cooling water at the original design temperature
range. Problem 6.1 at the end of this chapter illustrates how much cold
water can be produced for a particular design by varying loading conditions.


The size of a cooling tower is primarily established by the water loading, L.

The air loading must be chosen on the basis of other considerations and
before the tower size is fixed. There are two extreme design cases. First, a
tower can be selected for a close approach to the wet-bulb temperature and
with a large range. The other extreme is a tower selected for a large approach
and small range.
In the first design, a small L:G ratio must be used. Since G cannot be
increased beyond certain limitations (because of economics), L should be
small. Experiments on cooling towers have indicated that their characteristics
break sharply when L approaches a critical point varying with design. The

critical L value is about 500 Ib/(ft2)(hr). The reason for this is that the
water is unable to spread sufficiently and evenly cover the entire available
fill surface. Designs using close approaches and large ranges typically require
tall towers, which have high pumping heads.
If the second design case is chosen (large approach and small range) the
L:G ratio must be large. Here the tower characteristic breaks because of
flooding, which occurs at a critical L. The critical L or flooding loading
condition is about 3000 Ib/(ft2)(hr). It is not advantageous from an eco-
nomic standpoint to reduce G greatly as a smaller L:G can remove this
break. These type of towers are generally small and have low pumping heads.
Average design requirements fall somewhere between these two extreme
cases. Theory establishes the L:G ratio for a fixed design. Even if a fixed
design is selected, there is still an infinite number of sizes possible, depending
on G. A small G means a small L with a large tower ground area, high first
cost, but low fan power requirements. The opposite is true when G is large.
Hence, the operator should select G so that the sum of the fan power costs,
pumping power costs and capital charges is at a minimum. As we will learn in
a later chapter, in the final analysis it is the economics that determine the
ultimate tower size.
What constitutes the ideal tower? To some, it is one that heats the air to
the inlet-water temperature, whereas to others, it is a Wwer that cools the
water to the wet-bulb temperature. The term effective'ness coefficient or
efficiency of the tower gives an indication of how close we are to the ideal
case. In cooling tower practice, such a coefficient can be meaningless as the
general attitude throughout industry is t'hat the most efficient tower is the
one that is simply the most economical.
The fixed conditions for the selection of a cooling tower, such as wet-bulb,
approach, range and capacity, should be determined from economic con-
siderations, which, in turn, are related to the application of the tower to a
particular problem. If range and wet-bulb are fixed, the engineer has to deter-
mine how the tower size is affected by different approaches to wet-bulb.
This is a difficult problem to address since the relationship between tower
size and approach depends on the value of the wet-bulb temperature itself.
In some cases we may have fixed the wet-bulb and the approach and wish to
evaluate size as a function of range. Performance curves help us to define
these functions. Figure 6.6 gives a set of performance curves for a typical ex-
ample (75°F wet-bulb, 25°F range, 10° approach).
In this plot, the size corresponding to the selected condition for a typical
tower design is called the 100% design. The curve shows percentage variation
of the tower size if any two of the conditions are kept constant and the
others varied.
In general, it is desirable to choose operating conditions requiring minimum
energy potential of the air utilized. However, in practice it is not possible to

.... 200 WET BULB 75°
w RANGE 25°
w RANGE 25°
til 50

o 5 10 15 20 APPROACH
15 20 25 30 35 COOLING RANGE
65 70 75 80 85 WET BULB

Figure 6.6 The effect of variations in performance requirements on tower ground area
for a fixed tower design with constant G.

attain such a condition. There are a number of reasons why a minimum air
rate should be targeted for in a design. The principal ones are:
1. Large volumes of excess air necessitate that large fan capability be utilized.
2. In natural-draft towers, excessive air flow means lower exhaust air temper-
atures resulting in larger stacks
3. The total volume of air required has a direct bearing on the required area of
drift eliminators. Thus, it is indirectly related to the tower size itself-

The required air rate will depend on the degree of effectiveness of the air-
water contact within the tower. Splash-type fill generally offers the best
contact as it relies on droplet formation.


There are several approaches to sizing cooling towers outlined in the litera-
ture. Most are empirical or semiempirical in nature. The following outlines

one procedure for obtaining a preliminary estimate of tower size for forced
draft systems. It is based on the principles outlined in Chapter 5:

1. Specify operating conditions, i.e., water inlet and outlet temperatures and
the inlet air wet-bulb temperature.
2. Prepare an enthalpy-temperature diagram. Select the exit air enthalpy so
that the slope of the line for the air enthalpy is equal to the slope of the
curve for the enthalpy of saturated air at the water outlet temperature.
3. Prepare a plot of [1/(H s - Hair)] versus water temperature. (Refer to Ex-
ample 2 in Chapter 5 for illustration.)
4. Using Simpson's rule or some other appropriate numerical integration
technique, determine the area under the curve obtained from step (3). From
the area, the required value for the tower characteristic (KaV/L) can be
5. Select a fill matrix geometry and obtain the data for its principal characteris-
tics. Figure 4.10 can be used as a guide for selecting the fill matrix geometry.
Table 6.2 gives data for fill at 120°F water temperature.
6. Estimate the effect on the tower characteristic KaV/L on the deviation of the
water inlet temperature from the 120° F for which the data of Table 6.2 were
7. Using the air enthalpy curve of step 2, determine the L:G ratio from a heat
8. The following equation can be used to estimate the number of decks of fill
required and the height of the packed portion of the tower:

KaV/L = 0.07 + ¢N(L/G)-11 (6.5)

where N is the number of decks, and ¢ and 1) are fill packing factors. Values
to be used in this expression should be corrected for temperature deviations
from the empirical constants in Table 6.2 (step 6).
9. For the L:G of step 6, determine the ai~ flowrate for a water flow of 2500
Ib/(hr)(ft 2). If the resulting air flow exceeds 1600 Ib/(hr)(ft 2), determine the
water flow that corresponds to an air flow of 1600 Ib/(hr)(ft2).
10. Determine the cross-sectional area of the tower using the water flowrate per
unit area given by step 8 and the total water flowrate established in step 1.

Table 6.2 Fill Packing Factors at 120°F

Deck cP 1)

A 0.060 0.62
B 0.070 0.62
C 0.092 0.60
D 0.119 0.58
E 0.110 0.46
F 0.100 0.51
G 0.104 0.57
H 0.127 0.4 7
I 0.135 0.57
J 0.103 0.54

11. Select the horizontal dimensions of the tower to give the area defined by
step 9, keeping the dimension in the direction of the prevailing wind to no
less than the packed height and no more than 40 feet, The overall height
should be packed height plus about one and one-half times the depth in the
direction of the prevailing wind.


With the exception of very small units, cooling towers are located outdoors,
and their placemenf has a significant bearing on the overall cost of the initial
installation and the effectiveness of the operation.
The location of the tower can create problems if it is not situated properly.
Its orientation must be considered with respect to the prevailing wind direc-
tion and to the plot plan of the plant. Although cooling towers usually are
installed with air inlets facing the direction of the prevailing wind, this may
be a disadvantage in sandy, high wind areas. Sand can enter into the circuit
creating problems connected with the suspension of solids in the water. Sand
and other materials (for example leaves) can also be a problem if open water
distribution basins are provided on top of the towers. Attention must be
given to the proximity of the unit to any heat source that could decrease the
tower's efficiency" Drift and fogging may be objectionable if the tower is
located too close to parking lots or streets.
Locating the tower away from possible noise complainants can often result
in a satisfactory installation that otherwise would have been a problem.
Towers should not be located upwind of any electrical equipment, and easy
access for working space should be provided on all sides around the tower to
perform maintenance operations (Figure 6.7). In chemical plants where acid
vapors occur, corrosion can be expected if these acid vapors contact the
humid air discharging from the cooling tower stack. Corrosive vapors also
may enter into solution in the circulating water, causing corrosion throughout
the entire system.
Interference is defined as an adulteration of the atmosphere entering the
tower by a portion of the atmosphere leaving another nearby cooling tower.
Recirculation is an adulteration of the atmosphere entering the tower by a
portion of the atmosphere leaving the tower. Both are illustrated in Fig-
ure 6.8.
This adulteration by the exhaust air raises the wet-bulb temperature of the
entering air above that of the ambient air, reducing the tower's overall per-
These problems are typical in mechanical-draft cooling towers and virtually
nonexistent in hyperbolic towers because of the height of vapor discharge.
The magnitudes of interference and recirculation depend primarily on wind

Figure 6.7 Catwalks are an essential part of the cooling tower pacl<;age. Shown here is a
small cooling tower with a walkway around the entire unit for,inspection and main-
tenance purposes (courtesy of the Marley Cooling Tower Company, Mission, KS).



I' ~ i ~ F:F"s"

Figure 6.8 Interference and recirculation problems.

direction and velocity, tower length and atmospheric conditions. Other fac-
tors are fan cylinder height and spacing, exit air velocity, tower height and
the density difference between exit air and ambient air.
Interference from industrial installations or multiple tower arrangements
can result from poor planning of plant additions. Careful planning will pro-
vide the most effective cooling results. In general, interference can be


c:::::J c:::::J / \/ / D

Figure 6.9 Proper tower orientation can avoid interference from multiple tower

avoided by studying multiple tower orientation, taking into account the pre-
vailing high wet-bulb temperatures at summer wind directions (Figure 6.9).
Recirculation generally becomes 'greater as tower length increases. A longi-
tudinal wind tends to carry discharge vapors along the tower, and the first
few cells will not be seriously affected. However, from the initial downwind
point of entry into the louver faces, the effect of recirculation becomes
increasingly severe'along the length of the tower. Therefore, as tower length
increases, the more damaging a longitudinal wind can become. From a
mathematical standpoint, recirculation can be expressed as the percentage of
the exhaust air that reenters the tower at the air inlet. Considering then a
heat balance on the air around the tower shown in Figure 6.10, we obtain the


Solving for the recirculation rate, Rc:


where HI = enthalpy of the discharging air

H2 = enthalpy of the inlet air stream
Ha = enthalpy of the ambient air
G = circulating air quantity

To measure the three enthalpies is a tedious job since atmospheric condi-

tions change from hour to hour. For testing of recirculation, the cn


Gx( 1- Rc"OO)
(at Ha)

Figure 6.10 Heat balance about a cooling tower.

developed a formula that gives the maximum recirculati,on as a function of

the tower length for mechanical-draft cooling towers: "i

0.073 X tower length

Rc =----------------
1 + 0.004 X tower length

where Rc is expressed as a percentage.

Equation 6.8 was obtained from mechanical-draft tower testing. The equa-
tion is shown to correlate the data in Figure 6.1l.
One of the more serious problems associated with outside installation is
winter operation.


As the ambient wet-bulb temperature falls during the winter months, the
operation of mechanical-draft cooling towers must take this effect into con-
sideration to avoid serious degradation of tower performance. If the heat load
is maintained constant throughout the year, it is clear that during winter the
cold water temperature leaving the tower will decrease significantly and,
therefore, the water flow through the tower should be decreased to maintain
the same heat load.
In large multi cell towers it is common practice to reduce or stop the water

o 15~--~----r----r----r----r----r---~--~
0:: 5
o 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Figure 6.11 Equation 6.8 correlates mechanical-draft performance data. (Data ob-
tained from Cooling Tower Institute Bulletin PFM-ll 0.)

flow to one or more cells to achieve the desired outlet water temperature.
Inspection and maintenance work can be performed on cells during this
downtime. Once ~ne cell has been inspected and cleaned, it can be placed
back into operation and the next one shut down following the same cycle.
Saving energy and cleaning the tower at the same time is a good practice to
avoid unpleasant surprises when the weather becomes warmer.
For one- or two-cell cooling towers the water flow is normally maintained,
and to limit the fall in water temperature the air flowrate is controlled
through the tower. The simplest method is an on/off control of the air fan
by means of a thermostat with a sensing element in the water leaving the
tower. Another relatively simple method of control is to use a two-speed
motor together with a two-step thermostat to have high-speed or low-speed
fan rpm, depending on the water temperature.
Towers that operate in freezing weather reqUired special consideration to
provide dependable service and to prevent damage from freezing and ice
accumulation. The most prevalent winter operating problem of water cooling
towers is the formation of ice on the louvers to the extent of seriously, or
even totally, restricting the air flow.
There are various precautions that minimize the danger of icing. Firstly,
and obviously, the fan should not be run if there is no cooling load. Sec-
ondly, if there is no cooling load, it is better to shut off the water flow
completely or, if that is not possible or desirable, keep the water flowrate at
maximum. The danger of icing is increased if very small water flowrates are
maintained. In fact, if this occurs while the fan is running, severe icing is

virtually certain, even at air temperatures only slightly below the freezing
In packaged towers, an immersion heater, usually electric, is almost always
fitted in the base tank, close to the water outlet to prevent icing-up. Electric
immersion heaters are fitted with a thermostat, which switches on the heater
just above the freezing point. With induced-draft towers there is a possibility
of icicles forming from the top of the air inlets. In some large towers, piping
arrangement have been fitted to bypass the tower packing and thus distribute
warm water over the inside face of the air inlets.
A fan operating in a forced-draft tower is subject to the risk of freezing.
Icing is a particular danger as this can form not only on the fan blades, but
also the inlet guard. Ice particles can be thrown off outside the casing, and,
under extreme conditions, cause severe damage to environment or personnel
outside the plant. The fan casing should be designed so that any water enter-
ing it (either from the tower or external sources) can drain away. If water is
allowed to collect in the fan casing, the fan could be frozen into place. This
could result in damage to the drive system if starting were attempted.
If, under the most severe conditions, ice does accumulate on the louvers to
a detrimental degree, operation of the fans in reverse will force warm air out
through the louvers, melting the accumulated ice. Reverse operation of fans
is used only to eliminate ice, not prevent it. Unfortunai~ly, most fan drive
units are not designed for continuous reverse operation. (See Chapter 9 for a
discussion of ice prevention systems for cooling towers.)


The major environmental effects of atmospheric emissions from evaporative

heat dissipative systems are associated with the potential of visible plumes,
ground level fog and icing. The tower exhaust (a saturated air-water vapor
mixture) is warmer than outside ambient air and heat transfers from the
plumes to the atmosphere. At relatively high humidities, the surrounding air
is too moisture laden to absorb the cooling tower vapor and the plume be-
comes super,saturated. Part of the water vapor condenses into small droplets
to form ground fog, which limits visibility and, in extremely cold weather,
causes icing on nearby highways. If the ambient temperature is high and the
relative humidity is low, water vapor is absorbed rapidly by the surrounding
air and the plume extends only a very short distance from the tower outlet or
does not form at all.
The interaction between the plume and atmospheric air is represented on
the psychrometric chart in Figure 6.12. The saturation line (100% relative
humidity) is the focus for saturation of air at various temperatures. At points
above this line, the air is supersaturated and a plume is visible.

RELATIVE 0.030 0
PERCENT \ .....
0.025 0:::
0.020 3:

0.015 >-
0.010 ::Ii:
0.005 (.)

o ~
20 30 40 50 60 10 80· 90 100 til


Figure 6.12 .. Portion of psychrometric chart illustrating fog formation.

Point A in Figure 6.12 represents the saturated cooling tower exhaust air.
Point B represents a corresponding ambient atmospheric condition. The
mixture of cooling tower effluent and atmospheric air follows the line from
point A to point B if the mixing process is thorough.
The line from point A toward point B represents increased dilution of
exhaust air. Fog will exist as long as the mixture of exhaust and ambient air
is supersaturated (the region along line AC). In the unsaturated region (from
point C to point B), the water droplets have evaporated and the plume is no
longer visible. The formation of ground fog from a supersaturated plume
depends on the cooling tower configuration and orientation, exhaust-air flow
and temperature, and prevailing meteorological conditions (i.e., wind speed
and direction, atmospheric temperature, humidity and air stability).
Air approaching the tower is displaced, resulting in flow separation and
wake formation. A strong negative pressure and secondary flow patterns in
the wake are created, the naturally buoyant exhaust plume is drawn down
and ground fog forms. This is illustrated in Figure 6.13(A).
Relative humidity tends to be much higher at night than during the day.
Consequently, the critical period for the formation of cooling tower-induced

FLOW ~--=---


~ ~ __ L-~~~~~ __ ~ __-L__- L__ ~ __ ~~~ __ ~

2 4 6 B 10 NOON 2

Figure 6.13 Fog formation is assisted by wake formation and hourly variations in the
ambient air humidity.

ground fog is between 3 and 7 AM, especially during the fall and winter when
ambient temperatures are lower. Typical hourly variations in humidity are
illustrated in Figure 6.13(B).
For multicell mechanical-draft towers, the longitudinal axis must be ori-
ented in the' direction of the winter prevailing winds. This reduces the air
pressure and individual stack exhausts combined together to form a large
plume. The positive buoyant force of the individual plumes is combined and
magnified, improving the plume rise and therefore diminishing the possibility
of ground fog formation.
In places in which ground fog is undesirable, the dry-wet mechanical-draft
cooling tower is the best solution. It will have its wet peaking tower out of
service during the cooler months of the year, thereby substantially eliminating
the fog problem and totally eliminating the icing problems of wet towers.


Blowdown is defined as the amount of water discharged from the system

to control the concentration of salts or other impurities in the circulating
water. Solids from dissolved chemicals and minerals in the source water
accumulate in the circulating water, making blowdown a necessity. Blow-
down depends on the allowable concentration of water constituents to meet
water quality restrictions or for nonscaling requirements in the circulating
water system. Blowdown can be treated prior to discharging into a receiving
water body. Varying the "bleed-off' controls the degree of concentration in
the tower. This is measured in terms of cycles of concentration, 7r c:

Dissolved solids in the cooling tower water

1Tc Dissolved solids in the cooling tower makeup supply

For example, a cooling tower with water containing four times as much
total dissolved solids as its makeup, supply would be operating at four cycles
of concentration. The cycles of concentration are determined by the cooling
tower design, water characteristics, operating conditions and the type of
treatment system employed (cooling tower water treatment is discussed in
detail in Chapter 8).
We can develop some simple material balances to define blowdown quanti-
tatively. Blowdown can be expressed as a percentage of the circulation rate:

M=E+W+B (6.10)

where M = makeup water rate as a percentage of the circulation rate

E = evaporative water losses as a percentage of the circulation rate
W = windage and drift water losses as a percentage of the circulation rate
B = blowdown as a percentage of the circulation rate

Evaporation losses, E, are fairly well predicted. The evaporation of 1 lb of

water requires approximately 1000 Btu. This heat will cool 200 lb of water
by 10°F. Therefore, the evaporation losses are approximately 1% of the cir-
culation water rates for each 10°F of cooling range:

Cooling Duty (Btu/lb)

E = Evaporation Losses = - - - - - - - - (6.11)

Windage losses or drift vary with the type of tower and local conditions.
Average estimates for normal tower operations are 0.3-1 % of circulation for
natural-draft towers and 0.1-0.3% of circulation for mechanical-draft towers.

Cycles of concentration compare the concentration of the dissolved salts in

the circulating water with that of the makeup water. Usually, the circulating
water salt content is limited to 3-7 times the makeup salt content (this is
referred to the number of concentrations of 3-7).
The number of concentration is conveniently expressed as the ratio of the
chlorides in the circulating water to chlorides in the makeup water. Chloride
salts are soluble and will remain in solution; consequently, their concentra-
tion increases during the evaporative cooling process.
The basic items normally considered in a material balance of a cooling
tower are the range, T, circulating water rate, C (in U.S. gpm), the ppm
(parts per million of any soluble salts in C (Xc), and M, B, E and W. Xc is
normally expressed in terms of equivalent chlorides.
It must be noted that concentration of soluble salts in blowdown and
windage losses equals that in circulating water. Thus, Xm = ppm of any
soluble salts in M and

7Tc =xm
= cycle of concentration

The overall balance is given by Equation 6.10 and the s,.~luble salts balance

MX m = BXc + WXc (6.12)

or we can rewrite this as

MX m = Xc(B + W)


B + W = M/7Tc (6.13)

Substituting Equation 6.13 into 6.10 we obtain

M=E+M (6.14 )

but M(n c - 1) = ncE, but E = 0.1 AT. Hence,


M=--- (6.15)
7Tc -1

and from Equation 6.13,

and for W ==' 0.3%,

B = O.I.1..T -0.3 (6.16)

<7Tc -1

Equations 6.15 and 6.16 are plotted in Figures 6.14 and 6.15. These plots
can be used to obtain estimates of required water makeup and blowdown as
functions of the number of concentration, 7r c, respectively.
One parameter not considered thus far is retention time. Retention time, r,
is defined as the theoretical length of time for a single water droplet to
remain in the system:

z 9
0:: 8
:::> 6
lLI 5
::Ii: 4

2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Figure 6.14 Chart for estimating cooling tower makeup requirements.


where V is the total volume of the cooling tower.

Retention time is important as it affects the time a slug treatment will
remain in the system. Lower bleed-off causes longer retention times.
The chemical composition of the cooling water makeup supply used in the
plant determines the choice of the cycles of concentration. Some of the
important constituents that must be controlled in the tower are calcium,
magnesium, silica, carbonate, bicarbonate and sulfate ions. Alkalinity levels
are regulated by the addition of acid or alkali to achieve the desired pH.
When adding H 2S0 4 (sulfuric acid) for pH control, it should be assured that
calcium sulfate solubility limits are not exceeded (see Chapter 8).


The water consumption of a cooling tower depends not only on the heat
load but also on the ratio of the amounts of heat carried off by increasing the
temperature of the air through evaporation of the water. The amount of

6T=35 6T=30 6T='25 6T=20

Z 9
0:: 8
~ 1
3: 6
~ 5
lID 4
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Figure 6.15 Chart for estimating cooling tower blowdown.


water lost in the form of suspended droplets in the exit air stream is usually
less than 1% of the water consumption. Thus, the water consumption, L, of a
cooling tower can be related to the air flowrate and the air inlet and outlet
water vapor contents, Xl and x 2 , as follows:

L = Wa(x, - XI) (6.18)

If the air entering the tower is saturated, as much as one-third of the heat
removed from the water may go into heating the air, while the balance will go
into evaporating the water. Thus the water consumption will be only about
two-thirds of what would be required if the entire heat load went into evapo-
ration of the water. On the other hand, under unusual conditions at light
loads, with a low temperature range and very dry air, evaporation of the
water may actually reduce the air dry-bulb temperature so that heat is
removed from, rather than added to, the air, and the amount of heat going
to evaporate the water actually exceeds the heat load on the tower.
Under some wind conditions, a portion of the warm moist air leaving the
tower may recirculate back through the tower inlet and thus degrade per-
formance. Forced-draft towers have recirculation rates that are about double
those of induced-draft towers. Both water loading and tower height play the
dominant role in', ,recirculation. Correlations exist in the literature for de-
fining the effects of these parameters, and corrections can be applied to the
wet-bulb temperature [2,3]. Cooling tower fabricators can supply data to
estimate the severity of the problem.


Our discussion up to now has concerned the cooling of hot process waters
exclusively. However, we insisted back in Chapter 1 that a cooling tower is
nothing more than a device that transfers heat from one mass to another.
Therefore, gas coolers are governed by the same theory of operation and
design principles as are water cooling towers.
, In developing our generalized expression for the number of transfer units
(Ntu') in Chapter 5 we assumed that the Lewis number prediction (Le = 1)
for the air-water diffusion system was strictly true. However, there is experi-
mental evidence that Le is less than unity, in which case the basic design
theory developed could have built-in errors (although for most cooling tower
operations the error is small). Figure 6.16 shows the Lewis number relation-
ship for air-water. Correcting our generalized design expression (Equation


Ntu' =Ka YL =11(H s - H) + Cp(THdT0 - Tair)(Le - I) (6.19)


This correction becomes important in gas cooling operations. Unfortu-

nately, we cannot evaluate Equation 6_19 in a straightforward manner.
For the gas cooling case in which Le =1= 1, we must redefine our basic equa-
tions for humidification and dehumidification developed back in Chapter 5_

dqc'" hdV(T - t) '" CpGdT (CONVECTION EQUATION) (6.20)

dqD '" KadV(.H - .H s) = AdL (DIFFUSION EQUATION) (6.21)


In the above equations we have redefined our temperatures so that T refers to

the hot gas and t to the cold water.
To evaluate Ntu', we must simultaneously integrate all three equations.
This means a trial-and-error approach to the solution.
Consider a countercurrent operation in which cold water contacts hot air.
There are two unknowns: the outlet air humidity and the water loading to
the tower, Even though the outlet-air temperature may be ~nown, we cannot
determine its enthalpy unless its humidity is known. Also,\'vithout the outlet
humidity, the total heat load, qt, cannot be determined as well as the water,


::Ii: 1.0

3: 0:8
w h [ _ _.;..:.k_ _ ] 2/8
....J La = -
K)(C'" pkd c
....J 0.6

0 1200

Figure 6.16 Lewis number correlation for the air-water system [4].

L, from Equation 6.22. Hence, for a gas-cooling problem the evaluation of

process conditions depends entirely on the value of the outlet air humidity.
If, however, we assume a humidity for the exit air for a specified discharge
temperature, we can complete the heat balance and determine a value for the
L:G ratio.
The tower's required height is related to the needed Ntu'. By assuming
exit gas humidity, L is evaluated, and the amount of water d~ffused in the
tower and the quantity of heat transferred can be determined through the
definitions KaV/L or haV/L. Both these definitions are related through the
Lewis number. K~rn [5] outlines the trial-and-error solution in detail. By
starting at the bottom of the tower (the gas inlet) an increment of Kab.V/L
is assumed and the amounts of heat and mass transfer over the increment are
computed (L is known and Kab. V represents the actual number of pounds of
mass transfer over the increment). A height should be reached in the tower in
which all the heat transferred matches Equation 6.22. If the initial value of
the enthalpy of the outlet gas and inlet water temperature does not occur at
the same height, then a new outl~t enthalpy is chosen and the procedure re-
peated until agreement is reached. Problem 6.3 illustrates the method and
Kern [5] gives other examples, Sherwood and Reed [6] also give the solution
of the three differential equations (Equations 6.20,6.21 and 6.22). This is
not a trial-and-ertor solution; however, it is a rather tedious calculation meth-
There is a special case sometimes encountered with gas coolers, which leads
to a simplified calculation procedure. This is the case in which hot gas con-
tacts a nonvolatile cooling liquid. In such a situation the mass transfer can be
negligible, and for some systems the latent heat of vaporization may be so
small that the diffusion heat load can be neglected. It is possible then to
neglect mass transfer altogether in this type of gas cooling operation.
Convection alone can be estimated from mass transfer data in packed
towers through the relationship developed in Chapter 5.

haV/L = (Le)Cp(KaV/L) (6.23 )

If there is no mass transfer occurring, then the enthalpy of the gas is directly
proportional to the difference in temperatures between the gas and cooling
medium. We know that

haV/L = jdt/AT (6.24 )

where b. T = T - t. And, since only sensible heat changes occur, we can write

haY =f~ (6.25)

L ",,-TIm

where ATlm is the log-mean temperature difference.

This equation can be rearranged to give the number of transfer units (see
Kern [5] for details):

Ntu I =Le -dt-


I haY (6.27b)
Ntu = L(Le)C



Tower interiors, except those having special nozzles, cahsist of "fill" ma-
terial designed to break up the falling water and permit upward air flow. This
"fill" material may be of wood or plastic slats or treated paper honeycomb.
Most of these materials are combustible and, when dry, create an unusually
hazardous arrangement difficult to extingliish promptly and effectively with
hose streams.
Induced- or forced-draft towers usually have a shell of wood or cement
asbestos, a framework of wood and wooden slat filL Some towers are en-
tirely noncombustible, with a shell of galvanized sheet steel or cement
asbestos, a framework of steel and with either spray nozzles or fill materials
proven by appropriate fire tests to be nonhazardous.
A natural-draft tower has no fans but usually has completely louvered sides
and ends to allow wind to pass horizontally through the dripping water.
These towers usually have wooden framing, wooden louvered sides and
wooden fill or spray nozzles to break up the flow of water. Their framing
and louvers may be of noncombustible material.
Cooling towers of combustible construction pose a fire hazard to nearby
structures. Conversely, combustible cooling towers exposed to incinerators or
process or cupola stacks that produce sparks are equally dangerous. The fol-
lowing safety gUidelines should be applied to locating and operating cooling
1. If towers must be located within 40 feet of each other, within 40 feet of

a building or on the roof of a building of combustible construction, use

noncombustible construction for forced- and natural-draft towers.
2. If possible, locate combustible cooling towers at a safe distance from
ignition sources such as incinerators or stacks. Towers that must be near
such hazards should be constructed entirely of noncombustible material, or
at least the shell should be made from noncombustible materials. Fan open-
ings should be protected with ~-in corrosion-proof wire mesh.
3. Locate any unsprinklered combustible building at least 40 feet from a
combustible tower. Where unsprinklered cooling towers expose adjacent
buildings, protection is needed because of the exposure. Such protection
may be by sprinklers for the tower or protection for the exposed building.
4. Provide automatic sprinkler protection for induced-draft water-cooling
towers where property damage and business interruption could result. In

estimating the extent of possible damage, it should be remembered that the

exterior and certain interior portions of the towers are normally dry and
that whole towers as well as single cells of multi cell towers may be taken
out of service for repairs.
5. Post "No Smoking" rules at the tower and strictly enforce them.
6. Interlock all tower fans with the sprinkler system so that the fans will
be shut off if sprinklers operate.
7. Do not loca# electric light or power circuits above cooling towers.


Studies have shown that the atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of

natural-draft cooling towers can increase significantly due to the influence of
plumes. Stack flue gases entering this turbulent region are more rapidly
diluted. Unfortunately, this can lead to appreciable changes in the ground
concentration of precipitated pollutants. As such, impairment is generally
greater in the immediate vicinity of the plant and significantly lower at
greater distances from the source. Perrinjaquet et al. [7] have studied the
extent to which cooling tower plumes increase vertical diffusion to better
estimate the environmental impacts of stack discharges.
In recent years, acute air pollution problems have been associated with
large power plants. Stack discharges depend on the type of power plant. In
oil-fired power plants, the emissions are mainly S02 and NO x ' In coal-fired
operations, emissions include S02, NO x and a variety of radioactive nu-
clides derived from coal. In nuclear power plants, emissions are limited to
small amounts of radioactive fission products.
Ground-level concentrations of pollutants in the vicinity of discharge
sources can be estimated from diffusion models, which attempt to quantita-

tively describe the turbulent characteristics of the atmosphere [8]. If operable

cooling towers are located in the immediate vicinity of stacks, the large heat
discharge from them can greatly intensify the turbulence within a fairly
large volume. Under certain environmental conditions, this can result in
dramatic increases in pollutant ground-level concentrations.
The study by Perrinjaquet et al. and others [7,9] showed that cooling tower
plumes do not disperse in accordance with the prediction of common diffu-
sion equations. Plumes were observed to consist of a thoroughly well-mixed
core, which was screened from the undisturbed surrounding atmosphere by a
band of relatively calm air. The mean square fluctuations of the vertical
speed of the air inside and outside the plume centers have been estimated for
different distances from the cooling towers and for different altitudes. Vogt
and Geiss [9] have developed an empirical expression for determining the
vertical turbulence intensity, iu, which is applicable to the region between
200 and 500 meters above ground.

. = -T
IU U g( dT17.3
- ) (6.28)
dZ + 3.0

where iu = square root of the mean square tluctutation (turbulen1:e intensity)

U = mean wind speed, m/sec '
:~ =vertical temperature gradient, DC/I 00 meters

Vogt et al. [9] developed Equation 6.28 from diffusion experiments using
radioactive tracers between 20 and 120 meters above ground. Also the follow-
ing relation holds:

·2.2 .2
IS = Itotal- lu (6.29)

where iiotal is the square of the fluctuations of the vertical speed of air at the
center of the plume. Note that i~ represents the inherent turbulence of
the plume. It is found to decrease with increasing distance from the cooling
tower. The fnherent turbulence has a strong dependence on the thermal
emission and the type of cooling tower. Equations 6.28 and 6.29 best repre-
sent natural-draft, wet cooling towers with a thermal output in the range of
1500 to 2000 MW [7].
The increase in vertical turbulence intensity caused by cooling tower plumes
can be estimated for each temperature gradient and increment of distance
from the tower. This can be represented by well-known turbulence param-
eters developed for Gaussian plume models:

.2) =i3lu
.2 '2 .2
= IU + IS = IU (1 +~

In this expression, (3 represents the increase factor of vertical diffusion due

to the plume. Gaussian plume or dispersion models are based on standard
deviations of the plume dimensions (u x , u y , u z ). These represent a measure
of the diffusive capacity of the atmosphere. They are dependent on the
turbulence conditions of the atmosphere, the vertical temperature gradient
(which helps to establish atmospheric turbulence in the vertical direction) and
the transporting distance.
Classical theory of turbulent diffusion assumes some sort of constant mix-
ing length, whereby


And the effective vertical dispersion coefficient in the plume is defined as


where uz, in meters, is the vertical dispersion coefficient and is dependent on

climatic conditions. If stable weather conditions exist with a temperature
gradient of +2°C/100 meters and wind speeds are mild (at or below 1
meter/sec), then (3 has a value between 30 (for l-km distance from the
tower) and 20 (for 6-km distance). This correction factor is much smaller if
unstable weather conditions and high wind speeds exist. An advantage to
using (3 is that it can be related to different meteorological classifications (or
stability classes) once values for the vertical temperature gradients are known.
A stability class comprises atmospheric conditions that possess approximately
equal diluting characteristics.
When a stack is situated near the cooling tower, stack gases are very likely
to enter the turbulent plume zone. Average yearly concentrations, which are
normally computed from the frequency of various atmospheric stability
classes at ground level, will not provide good estimates. The reason for these
poor estimates is that for average situations stability class estimates assume
conditions that are too stable and too low in turbulence. By employing the
increase factor, (3, in Gaussian dispersion models, it is possible to correctly
estimate the extent to which ground level concentrations averaged over the
year can change due to the influence of cooling tower discharges. Ground-
level concentration predictions are best illustrated by a plot similar to
Figure 6.17.





Figure 6.17 Typical plot comparing relative ground concentrati,o,n in the cooling tower
stack direction. Ground-level concentrations are normally aver,aged over the year.

Worst-case environmental conditions occur when an inversion exists and

there is no wind. An inversion is defined as an atmospheric stratification in
which a warmer air layer overlies a colder air mass. This situation typically
occurs in the center of a zone of high pressure after a clear night in a bowl-
shaped valley. The layer of air immediately above the ground is essentially
stagnant under these conditions so that smoke ascends vertically from the
stacks and tends to spread out in all directions at a certain altitude. In an
extremely bad case, a cooling tower below the inversion would likely establish
a small circulatory system. Because of the inherent turbulence of the plume,
this would,probably lead to greater turbulence in this region. The air in our
enclosed bowl of the valley would warm up by several degrees in a matter of
a few hours until the inversion is broken down from below sufficiently for
the cooling tower plume to break through. The cooling tower plume would
maintain an exchange between the valley bowl air surroundings from this
point onwards.
Similar effects would be exerted by a tower during the existence of fog in a
town. That is, the plume would help to ventilate the town. Note, however,
that this positive effect is likely to be minimal under most conditions.


With the exception of small compact units, cooling towers are purchased on
competitive bids. The purchaser is responsible for providing all the specifica-
tions pertaining to the working conditions of the future installation. As a
general rule, large units require more detailed specifications.
Purchasing specifications include not only performance data, materials,
structural details, plot plan considerations, guarantees, etc., but 'also methods
of bid evaluation, applicable unit costs, energy costs and amortization period.
A good group of specifications will permit a true cost comparison of com-
petitive towers on an installed, as well as on an operating, basis. Table 6.3
summarizes the normal specifications that should be considered.

Table 6.3 Specification List for Cooling Towers

1. Service
2. Heat load, Btu/In
3. Flow to be cooled, gpm
4. Hot water temperature, OF
5. Cold water temperature, OF
6. Ambient wet-bulb tempera ture, OF
7. Pumping head, ft
8. Prevailing wind direction and average velocity
9. Type of tower
10. Winter operation provisions
11. Plot plan
12. Water analysis
13. Sound intensity
14. Design wind and earthquake loads
15. Materials of construction (structure, casing, fill)
16. Wood treatment
17. Basin type and capacity
18. Piping and valves
19. Fan type and materials
20. Drive shaft and reducing gear
21. Stack heigh t
22. Motor characteristics (single speed or two-speed)
23. Mechanical associated equipment
24. Safety proviSions
25. Amortization period
26. Evaluation costs
27. Performance test
28. Work and facilities supplied by purchaser
29. Installation date
30. Terms and conditions of sale
31. Any other applicable documents (shipping, tagging, etc.)


a = effective surface of water per unit volume of tower, ft 2/ft 3

B = blowdown, 0/0
Cs = humid heat, Btu/(lb )('F)
C = circulating water rate, lbjhr

E = evaporation losses, 0/0

G = gas mass rate or loading, lbj(hr)(ft2)

gpm = gallons per minute

H = enthalpy, Btu/lb

h = heat transfer coefficient in which one film controls, Btuj(hr)(ft2)(F)

.JI = humidity, lb water vaporjlb dry air
iu = square root of mean square fluctuation, turbulence intensity

K = overall mass transfer coefficient, lbj(hr )(ft2)(lb/lb)

L = liquid mass rate, loading, lb/(hr)(ft2)
Le = Lewis number

M = makeup water rate, 0/0

m = exponent in Equation 6.2
N = number of decks, see Equation 6.5

Ntu' = number of transfer units

n = exponent in Equation 6.1

q = heat transferred per unit area, Btu/(hr ) (ft2)

Rc = recirculation rate, 0/0
RF = rating factor defined by Equation 6.3
T = temperature, of
= cold water temperature, of
u = average wind speed, meter/sec

V = tower volume, ft3

W = windage or drift losses, 0/0

x = concentration, ppm

(3 = increase factor of vertical dispersion, see Equation 6.30

77 = fill packing parameters in Equation 6.S
A = latent heat of vaporization, Btuflb

1T c = cycles of concentration, see Equation 6.9

a = dispersion coefficient, meters

r = residence time, hr
¢ = fill packing parameter in Equation 6.S


a = ambient air

c = convection

D = diffusion

eff = effective
1m = log mean value

= saturation conditions

= total
x,y,z = axes


6.1 A cooling tower has a cross-sectional area of 2S X 2S ft. The total heat
load to the unit is 27 ,SOO ,000 Btufhr. The locality has a S% wet-bulb
temperature of 7 SOF. Water exits the tower with a 12° approach to the
wet·bulb temperature (Le., 87°F). The hot process water enters the tower
at a temperature of 12SoF, and the water equivalent to this range is
1800 gpm. The systems fan capacity is lS0,000 cfm: (a) Determine the
number of diffusion units that the tower must be capable of performing
to meet process requirements; (b) the tower manufacturer provided the
following data for overload and underload conditions for the tower:

Liquid Loading Temperature Range

(%) CF)

122 123.1-87.2
102 120.1-85.0
80 117.6-83.9

Determine how much water the tower can provide from 115°F to 85°F
when the wet bulb is only 70°F. (Hint: a trial-and -error solution must be
used to match conditions on a plot of KaV:L versus L:G).

6.2 A 4.0-ft-diameter (inside diameter) tower has a packed section 15 ft tall.

The packing material is 3-inch Berl saddles. Water (50 gpm feed to the
tower) is to be cooled from 128°F to 87°F. Approximately 4000 cfm of
air is used to cool the water. The air has a dry bulb of 83°F and a wet
bulb of 77°F.
In a field test at a gas loading of 1500 Ib/(hr)(ft 2 ), a diffusion coeffi-
cient of 380 lb/(hr) (ft2) (lb/lb ) was obtained. Determine the temperature
to which the same tower could cool 7500 cfm to gas if the packing
height were increased to 20 f1. Repeat the problem for 30 ft of packing

6.3 A direct-contact gas cooler system operates as follows: Approximately

35,000 lb /hr of bone-dry air is passed over hot trays. The air is heated
from 150°F to 325°F as it passes over the trays. It exits from the unit
with a due point of 105°F. The hot air is sent to a direct-contact cooler,
where its temperature is reduced back to 150°F. During the cooling stage,
the air is dehumidified with water that is heated from 75°F to 105°F.
The unit is rated at 3.5 inches of water pressure drop : (a) Determine the
number of diffusion units needed for this operation; and (b) Establish
the required dimensions for the direct-contact cooling tower (Hint: Use
standard low-pressure-drop data from the literature. Some of the older
literature give pressure drop data for simple fill. See Sherwood, T. K. and
C. E. Reed [6].

6.4 For problem 6.3, determine how many diffusion units are needed to
cool the gas from 700°F to 150°F. Assume same operating conditions.

1. McDowell, D. W., II. "The Corrosion Engineer Looks at the Cooling Tow-
er," Cooling Tower Institute, Houston, TX (June 1964).
2. Lichtenstein, J. "Performance and Selection of Mechanical Draft Cooling
Towers," Trans. ASME 779 (1943).
3. Strauss, S. "Guide to Evaluate Cooling Tower Performance," Power (Oct-
tober 1975).
4. Hilpert, R. Forschungsheft 3:355 (1932).
5. Kern, D. Q. Process Heat Transfer (New York:McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
6. Sherwood, T. K., and C. E. Reed. Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engi-
neering (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939).

7. Perrinjaquet, M., A. Baden, F. Gassmann and D. Haschke. "Increase in the

Turbulent Diffusion of Pollutants by Cooling Towers," Combustion 51
(11) (May 1980).
8. Cheremisinoff, P. N., and R. A. Young. Air Pollution Control and Design
Handbook (New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1977).
9. Vogt, K. J., and H. Geiss. "Tracer Experiments on the Dispersion of
Plumes over Terrain of Major Surface Roughness," KFA-lulich Jul-
113l-ST(October 1974).


l. Bauer, R. O. "Industrial Cooling Tower Systems," Plant Eng. (June 14,

1979 ).
2. Cabral, B. F. A. "Winter Operation of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers,"
Heat Transfer Survey (1974).
3. Dolar, N. E. "Understanding Cooling Tower Fog," Plant Eng. (Dec. 8,
4. Troscinski, E. S., and R. G. Watson, "Controlling Deposits in Cooling
Water Systems," Chemical Eng. (March 9,1970).



There is a variety of mechanical equipment crucial to cooling tower

operation. They consist of pumps, fans, geared fan drive units, control
valves and drive shafts or V-belts. These components undergo severe service,
which is normally continuous and in a corrosive, hurn;,d environment. It
is critical that careful consideration be given to equipment selection and
specifications for service in such damaging environments. Proper equipment
specification and material selection can greatly minimize maintenance and
replacement costs, as well as costly downtimes. This chapter presents a
detailed account of factors to consider in requisitioning cooling towers,
along with some basics on cost analysis.


Pumps can be either the horizontal or the vertical type. The selection of
pump type depends on the water basin, which can be underground or
aboveground. An economic evaluation should be made to ascertain which
is the more ,convenient solution-aboveground basins with horizontal pumps
or underground basins with vertical pumps.
Pump installation is an important point to be carefully considered. In
the case of vertical pumps, pump submergence should comply with the
vendor's specifications. In the case of horizontal pumps, the designer should
control the following points:
1. It is good practice to provide separate suction lines for each pump.
In fact, when using a common manifold, the operation of one pump can
interfere with the operation of the other. If a common manifold is used,


it must be carefully designed with respect to velocity and geometrical

2. The submergence of suction line water intakes in the basin should be
such as to avoid vortex formation and, consequently, air entrainments.
Figure 7.1 provides recommended minimum submergence depths for dif-
ferent fluid velocities. In some cases it may be impractical to adhere to
these velocity limitations, and higher suction velocities must be accepted.
In such cases, a vortex breaker can be employed (Figure 7.2).

~ 16
~ 14

~ 12 V
z 10 /
8 I
;:'I; 6
;:'I; 2 L
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 SUCTION

Figure 7.1 Recommended minimum submergence depths versus velocity.


(Si~~r /LIP_E-====I



Figure 7.2 Various methods to prevent vortex formation.


3. Normal water level in the basin must be at least 6 inches above the
top of the pump casing.
4. Water velocity in the pump suction line should not exceed 8.5 ft/sec.
In the discharge line, the water velocity should not be greater than 12 ft/sec
to avoid excessive erosion of piping (especially where water containing grit
is used).
5. Each pump should be isolated with suction and discharge valves.
6. Pumps should be provided with strainers at their suction inlet,
normally with 3/8-inch screen openings to avoid leaves, pieces of wood
and other foreign material from getting into the pump impeller.
7. The design capacity of the pumps should be 110-115% of normal
capacity. Pumps should have suitable spares, depending on the number of
pumps provided; for example, two 100% capacity or three 50% capacity
pumps. For a large installation, where more than two pumps are required
to operate simultaneously, one spare machine every two pumps should be
8. The circulating pumps should be specified on the basis of the bubble
point liquid at the net positive suction head (NPSH).


Cooling tower fans move large volumes of air; therefore, they must be
designed to do it economically. In addition, fan operation must be smooth.
Vibration and air pulsation can be detrimental to mechanical equipment
and tower structures. The materials of construction not only must be
compatible with their design, but also capable of withstanding the corrosive
effects of their environmental.
Both propeller- and centrifugal-type fans are in general use on cooling
towers, with propeller-type fan installations dominating the industry.
Propeller fans have the ability to deliver large volumes of air at low
static heads and are used almost exclusively on towers for outdoor
installations. They are relatively inexpensive, can be used on any size
tower and are particularly suited to cooling tower usage where low draft
losses prevail. In properly designed fan cylinders, propeller fans operate at
efficiencies as high as 80%. They are currently produced in volume in sizes
up to 30 inches in diameter. Centrifugal fans operate effectively against
high static heads and are used for most indoor installations; sizes generally
range up to 36 inches in diameter.
An important characteristic of propeller fans is that their operating
smoothness is directly proportional to the number of blades loading and
unloading as they pass over the mechanical equipment supports and tower

framework, but also to the basic blade load. As a design requirement, for
the same air flow and blade tip speed, a fan with a few blades requires
wider blades than a fan with a larger number of blades. The resulting
higher blade with the wide blade fan produces much greater pulsation of
air flow with proportionate increases in fan cylinder and tower vibration.
This can definitely reduce the effective service life of the tower.
Four blades are ordinarily considered a desirable minimum for medium-
sized fans, with eight blades a minimum for large diameters. Twelve blades
are a practical maximum. Fan diameters are basically determined by the
volume of air to ,be handled. Air velocities through the fan range from
1200 to 2500 fpm. An economic design value is about 1800 fpm. Acceptable
fan blade tip speeds, with low noise as the criterion, vary with the type
tower, the type of fan cylinder and the blade tip clearance.
On industrial installations where noise is not a major consideration,
tip speeds as high as 15,000 fpm are acceptable on fans 10 feet in diameter
and larger. However, tip speeds seldom exceed 12,000 fpm. Designs for
office building installations provide for tip speeds on the order of 8000-
12,000 fpm, with fan diameters varying from 3 to 8 feet. Small packaged
towers for residential air conditioning duty usually employ sheet metal fan
blades 10-24 inches in diameter, with tip speeds seldom exceeding 5000 fpm.
In the larger diameters, a properly designed propeller fan will be
proportioned so that a uniform air velocity will be produced from hub to
blade tip. Aluminum alloys provide excellent materials for production of
this type of fan blade. Aluminum blades produced as castings are relatively
inexpensive, have desirable internal vibration damping properties and are
highly corrosion resistant in most cooling tower applications. Another
material that has great potential for cooling tower fan blades is reinforced
plastic resin. (The reader is referred to the literature [1] for a discussion
of fiberglass fans and fan reconditioning.)
Blade castings can also be produced from brass and stainless steel, but
their Use is generally limited because of their relatively high cost and weight.
If the blade shanks and hub are of dissimilar metals, they should be
insulated from each other to prevent galvanic corrosion from occurring.
Centrifugal fans of the double inlet type are used predominantly on
cooling towers for indoor installations. Their inherent characteristics of high
static capability and qUiet operation make them particularly suitable for
this type of tower installation. Centrifugal fans are available in three types:
(1) forward curve blade fans, (2) radial blade fans, and (3) backward curve
blade fans (Figure 7.3). The characteristics of the forward curve blade fan
make it the most appropriate type for cooling tower applications. Centrifugal
fans are usually of sheet metal construction. The most popular protective
coating is hot dipped galvanizing.



Figure 7.3 Centrifugal fan configurations: (a) forward curve blade; (b) radial blade fan;
(c) backward curve blade.


The primary design requirements for cooling tower gear reducers (speed
reducers) are long life and minimum maintenance. To attain this, they must
be ruggedly constructed so they can withstand the continuous service and
severe environment in which they operate. The gear components may be
of different types. Helical, spiral bevel and worm gear are the most
common. Depending on the reduction ratio, they may,,~be single-stage or
two-stage reducer~.
The required service factor is an important specification. The service
factor is defined as the ratio of calculated basic horsepower to the applied
horsepower. The service factor can be as high as 2 for spiral-bevel reducers,
but with continuous service this factor could be as low as 1.25 to have a
good reducer life.
Gear reducer life is also dependent on bearing life. Bearings are normally
selected for a calculated life compatible with the type of service. Bearings
for industrial cooling tower gear reducers, considered for continuous duty,
are selected by quality manufacturers on the basis of a 100,000 hour
B-lO life. B-lO life is defined as the life expectancy in hours during which
90% or more of a given group of bearings under a specific loading condition
will still be in service.
Lubrication is highly important to assure long trouble-free service life.
The lubrication system should be capable of providing lubrication for short
periods of time and for reverse rotation operation.


The function of the drive shaft is to transmit power from the prime
mover to the gear reducer. It operates in the humid air stream so it must

be durable. It is a high speed unit so its design must include balancing

facilities. Since tower structures are not completely rigid, the drive shaft
must be able to operate with a limited degree of misalignment.
Drive shafts are described as floating shafts equipped with flexible couplings
at both ends. They must be constructed from corrosion-resistant materials
because of the humid environment in which they operate. The floating
shaft is usually fabricated from carbon steel tubing furnished with a
protective coating (hot dipped galvanized being preferred). Stainless steel
tubing is used quite frequently because it is more durable although it is
more expensive.
It is important that drive shafts be properly balanced. Imbalance not only
causes tower vibration but also induces higher loads and excessive wear on
the mechanical equipment coupled to the shaft. With drive shafts approaching
speeds of 1800 rpm in most cooling tower applications, it is necessary
that the shafts be dynamically balanced to reduce vibrational forces to a


The instrument~ usually provided for cooling towers and circulating

pumps include:

.. LlC (Level Indicator Control) with low-level alarm on the cooling tower
basin and an actuating valve on the water makeup line;
.. PIC (Pressure Indicator Control) with low-pressure alarm on the cooling
water supply header and an automatic cut-in device to start spare pumps
when supply pressure falls below a certain level;
.. a vibration cut-out switch with alarm to stop the electric motors of fans in
the event of high vibration. This switch must be provided with a reset
device to set its action at the desired level of vibration above the normal. A
vibration switch is used to trip the motor at the startup of fans; and
.. a pH analyzer with high and low pH alarms to actuate a sulfuric acid pump

Valves are used to control the water flow through the water lines of the
cooling tower distribution system. Valves used for this type application
include stop valves, flow control valves and float control valves. The types
of valves, quantity required and complexity of design are dictated by the
type and size of tower.
Stop valves are used on both counterflow and crossflow towers to
regulate the water flow, particularly between cells on multicell towers, and
to shut off the water for maintenance or other purposes. In regions
in which freezing temperatures are not encountered, conventional stop
valves may be replaced on crossflow towers with flow control valves that

are adaptable for this purpose. On multicell towers, this can represent con-
siderable cost savings.
Flow control valves are used on cross flow towers to equalize water
flow between tower cells and cell basins. Flow control valves, if properly
designed, may also be used as stop valves under certain climatic conditions.
Float valves are required on all cooling tower systems. Their purpose is to
supply makeup water to replace that lost by evaporation, blowdown, drift
and system leakage. They are usually installed in the cold water basin and
function to maintain a preestablished water level. A typical flowsheet
showing the recommended arrangements for instrumentation and valves
is given in Figure 7.4.
The specifier must have a good understanding of instrumentation and
support machinery. Any process instrumentation book will acquaint the
newcomer to this area with the criteria for proper instrumentation selection.
To illustrate the process involved in specifying the entire cooling tower
system package, the following example has been prepared.



A. Intent
Design, supply all materials for delivery to site and supervise erection
on prepared foundations, testing and commissioning one mechanical-
induced draft cooling tower in accordance with the requirements of
this requisition.
Manufacturer also should supply the following:
1. tower outline dimensions, including stairways, ladders and location
of water connections,
2. water basin outline and loads on foundations and for all other
concrete works,
3. fill rack and drift eliminator details,
4. tower sheeting arrangement, and
5. detailed instructions and drawings to permit field assembly by others.

B. Work by Others
The following shall be provided by others:
1. construction of all concrete work,
2. field assembly,
3. tower circulating pumps and chemical treatment equipment,
4. all piping, valves and fittings to the cooling tower inlet connections,
5. all lighting,
6. all electric wiring and controls (or steam piping and controls), and
7. free use of station facilities, such as power, water and sanitary






I CORROSION INHIBITOR L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .L ____ ..J' :

I __________________________________
66°Be Hil 0 4

Figure 7.4 Typical flowsheet for a cooling tower system.


C. Quality of Materials
All materials shall be of first-class quality and free from all defects
that would cause unworkmanlike appearance. All materials used shall
be suitable for the service under which they will operate.

D. Performance Tests
The cooling tower manufacturer shall conduct the acceptance
performance test and shall supply the necessary instruments to
conduct the test in accordance with the requirements of the
cn Test Procedure ATP-10S, latest revision.
The manufacturer's proposal shall include performance curves of
the tower, based on design fan horsepower, showing cold water
temperature versus air wet-bulb temperature for 90%, 100% and
110% of design water flow. The curves shall cover cooling ranges of
lSoF, 20°F, 2SoF, 30°F and design range.


The cooling tower shall meet the following requirements:
A. Design Conditions
• water flow over cooling water, U.S. GPM
• Inlet water temperature, of
• Outlet water temperature. of
• Wet-bulb temperature, of
• Relative humidity, %
• Altitude above sea level, ft
• Pumping head limitations, ft
• Maximum drift losses
B. Physical Data
• Maximum width, ft
• Maximum length, ft
• Maximum height, ft
• Location of nearby heat sources, ft
• Direction and intensity of prevailing winds
• Orientation of longitudinal axis of tower
• Live wind load, Ib/ft
• Earthquake load, g
• Available power-V/phase/cycles
Motors up to
Motors above
• Preferred arrangement (number of cells)
• Preferred volume of tower basin (standard, 2-ft, 6-inch water
level), fe


A. Framework
The supporting structure will be an independent structure in rein-
forced concrete and so calculated to be able to carry the static loads
as well as the mechanical equipment. The construction will be
properly reinforced and braced to transfer directly to the foundations
all loads and tresses.
The anchor bolts will be included in the supply.
The structural frame of the tower also shall be designed to withstand
the wind pressure in any horizontal direction or earthquake loading,
as specified in the section of the requisition entitled Requirements-
Size, Capacity and Operation.
B. Sheeting
The external wall shall be single-wall construction (watertight de-
sign) using i-inch flat or corrugated cement asbestos board according
to CTI Std. 127 (Philip Carey Industrial AC Board, Johns-Manville
Transite or equal) or glass-reinforced polyester, fire-retardant opaque
type. Utility boards or similar grades of cement asbestos board are
NOT acceptable. Vertical joints shall have an adequately sealed
overlap or ;be covered with a batten. Horizontal joints shall have an
adequate overlap. Fasteners shall be of stainless steel to prevent
staining. Nails shall not be used for attachments.
C. Filling
Individual fill assemblies shall be designed to be removable. Fill shall
be properly supported and fastened to prevent warping or buckling
under all expected operating or icing conditions.
Tower fill material is to be of impregnated fir, polypropylene or
polyethylene and other approved plastic materials.
Manufacturer shall quote wood filling as an alternative to plastic
Fill racks used in the counterflow design shall be capable of
supporting a man or 25 Ib/ft 2 10ading.
To prevent biological attack, one of the following preservatives may
be selected to impregnate lumber for tower fill and other wood parts:
1. Erdalith Preservative shall be used to treat redwood lumber by the
pressure treating process. The waterborne salts are, by weight, 33%
copper sulfate, 56% potassium dichromate and 11% arsenic pen-
toxide. Lumber treatment shall be to an average retention at
shipment of 0.75 lb/ft'.
2. Creosote Preservative shall be used to treat redwood lumber by the
pressure treating process. Lumber treatment shall be to an average
retention at shipment of 10 lb/ft'.

Treatment of the lumber by either of the above preservatives shall

be in accordance with the American-Wood Preservers' Association
Standards CI and C2 for Pacific Coast Douglas Fir, except that the
lumber shall not be incised. The empty- and full-cell process shall
be used for the Creosote and waterborne preservative treatments,
respectively. Treatment shall be guaranteed to the extent that the
average chemical retention will be as stated above.
D. Distribution System
The distribution system shall be designed to permit flexible opera-
tion of the tower and permit each cell to be taken out of the service
The nozzle shall be a self-draining, nonclogging-type nonferrous
material. All internal piping or header for multicells, if employed,
shall be galvanized steel or cast iron.
Impregnated wood, glass-reinforced polyester or precast concrete are
acceptable materials for water basin.

E. Drift Eliminators
Eliminators shall be fabricated in easily removable panel sections
and so designed to limit the drift loss to less than 0.2% of the
water flow: 1,.\,

1. In the counterflow design, where eliminators are subject to live loads,

the racks shall be capable of supporting the weight of a man or
25 lb/ft'. The minimum thickness of wood slats shall be t inch.
2. In the crossflow design, where eliminators are not subject to live
loads, the minimum dimension of each board shall be t inch.

F. Louvers
Air inlet louver boards shall be easily removed to permit access to
the tower and designed for an even air distribution into the tower.
Minimum thickness of louver board shall be I-inch nominal for wood
and i-inch nominal for corrugated asbestos cement. Glass-reinforced
polyester louvers may be employed.

G. Partitions
Partition and air baffle walls shall be constructed of ~-inch net
wood or other approved material.
In multicell towers, the transverse internal partition walls shall
extend to the full height of the tower. The longitudinal partition
wall in "back-to-back" cell arrangements shall extend from the fan
deck to the elevation of the distribution system and, in addition, an
air baffle shall be provided to at least the height of the air inlet

louvers to prevent air from blowing through the louvered portion of

the tower. The longitudinal partition wall in "in-line" cell arrangement
shall consist only of an air baffle to the height of the air inlet.

H. Decks and Stacks

Fan and water distribution decks are to be of precast concrete and
designed for a live load of 60 Ib/ft2 plus any conc~ntrated or
distributed dead loads, such as fans, motors and maintenance
Stacks shall extend to a height of at least four feet above the fan
deck, not only to provide protection for operating personnel, but
to properly direct the discharge air upward and away from the
cooling tower.

I. Hardware
Bolts, nuts, washers and timber connectors shall be (galvanized steel)
(yellow brass) (Silicon bronze) (stainless steel). Anchor castings shall
be cast iron unless nonferrous fasteners are specified, then anchor
castings shall be red brass. Nails shall be copper or bronze.

1. Mechanical 4:quipment
l. Fans shall be of a design that has operated satisfactorily in
cooling tower service for at least five years. The fans shall have
a minimum of four blades of aluminum alloy, stainless steel,
monel or equivalent. Plastic blades are not acceptable. Blades shall
be adjustable for degree of pitch and shall be individually
fastened to a hub of welded steel or cast iron (stainless steel
optional at extra cost).
The fans shall be designed with a tip speed less than 12,000 ft/
The noise level of the fans when measured on ground level 50 feet
from the cooling tower shall not exceed 75 decibels on the
International B Scale.
2. Gear Reducers shall be of the spiral bevel type or its equivalent.
The speed reducers shall be especially designed for cooling tower
service and rated in accordance with the standard practices of the
American Gear Manufacturers' Association. A service factor of at
least 2.0 shall be applied to the basic AGMA rating to correspond
to continuous moderate-shock operation. Gears must conform to
cooling tower Institute Standard STD-III, latest revision.
3. Motors shall be sqUirrel cage induction type with (totally enclosed,
fan-cooled) (encapsulated) (splashproof) enclosure and roller-type
bearings with NEMA Class A insulation. Motors shall be (single

speed) (two speed, one winding, variable torque) designed to

operate on 400-V, 3-phase, 60-cycle current and designed for
across-the-line starting.
4. Turbines shall be sllitable and guaranteed for continuous duty at
the conditions of service specified by the purchaser. Turbines shall
also be suitable and guaranteed for outdoor installation in cooling
tower service. Materials of constructions shall be manufacturer's
standard for the service conditions specified. Turbine accessories
shall include a mechanical flyweight constant-speed governor,
emergency-overspeed governor operating separate trip valve, a
hand-speed changer, a corrosion-resistant steam strainer and a
sentinel casing warning valve. All turbine pressure parts shall be
hydro tested to 11- times the manufacturer's design pressure.
Turbine rotor shall be statistically and dynamically balanced.
5. Flexible Coupled Shaft shall be provided to connect each motor
and speed reducer assembly. The coupling flanges shall be (zinc-
plated steel) (stainless steel) of the nonlubricated type with
stainless-steel flexing disc rings. The shaft shall be hollow tube
(stainless steel) (zinc-plated steel) of a sufficient size to adequately
transmit the full rated motor horsepower. The shaft and coupling
assembly shall be dynamically balanced.
6. Vibration cut-out switches shall be supplied and installed outside
the fan ring for wiring by the purchaser to the motor energizing
7. Mechanical equipment supports 'of galvanized structural steel shall
be supplied to properly mount the fan, gear and motor assemblies.
Each framework shall form an integral unit and be laterally
supported by galvanized steel members bolted to the tower posts.

K. Access
A sufficient number of access doors, ladders and walkways shall
be provided for safe and easy accessibility to internals and mechanical
equipment of the tower for inspection and maintenance. Access doors
shall be tight, resistant and easy to operate. Access ladders from the
ground should be located in such a position to permit future cell

A. Performance
The cooling tower must be guaranteed to perform as specified
herein when tested in accordance with the Cooling Tower Institute
Acceptance Test Procedure ATP-l 05, latest revision. Should the

apparatus fail to meet the specified conditions after fair test run
immediately following a thorough cleaning, and made in the presence
of the manufacturer's representatives, the manufacturer must make
such alterations or fUrnish such additional equipment as may be
necessary to meet these specifications free of cost to the user. The
scope of services and equipment supplied as guarantee remedy are
limited in kind to the services and equipment supplie~ under the
The equipment shall be considered as accepted if tests show that
the guarantees have been fulfilled (or if no test is performed)
within one year after completion of erection.

B. Materials
The manufacturer shall repair or replace without charge, f.o.b. point
of shipment, any material which, within one year from date of
delivery, is proven defective in materials or workmanship, provided
that the purchaser shall have given the manufacturer written notice
of such defect and that such defects are exclusive of corrosion,
erosion or normal wear, and provided that the equipment has been
operated in accordance with generally approved practice.


A. Cooling Tower
1. Number of cells
2. Cell dimensions, ft, in.
3. Tower length, ft, in.
4. Tower width, ft, in.
5. Tower height, ft, in.
6. Casing, material and dimensions
7. Structure, material and
8. Fill decks, material and
9. Partitions and baffles,
materials and dimensions
10. Drift eliminators, material
and dimensions
11. Fan stacks, material and
12. Fan deck, material and

13. Louvers, material and

14. Board feet of fill
IS. Board feet total tower
16. Height of fan stacks, ft, in.
17. Post extension below curb,
ft, in.
18. Total shipping weight, Ib
19. Total operating weight, lb

B. Fans
1. Number of units
2. Type and manufacturer
3. Diameter, ft, in.
4. Number of blades per fan
S. Blade material
6. Hub material
7. rpm
8. Tip speed, fpm
9. Mechanical efficiency, 0/0
10. Static efficiency, 0/0
11. Weight, lb

C. Motors
1. Number of units
2. Size, hp
3. Type and manufacturer
4. Full load speed, rpm
S. Frame size
6. Full load current, amps
7. Locked rotor current amps
8. Weight, lb

D. Turbines
1. Number of units
2. Size, hp
3. Type and manufacturer
4. Full load speed, rpm
S. Steam rate, bhp/hr
6. Maximum horsepower renozzled
7. Weight, Ibs

E. Gear Reducers
1. Number of units
2. Type and manufacturer
3. Rating, hpa
4. Shafts, material
5. Coupling flanges, material
6. Flexing elements, material

F. Drive Shafts and Couplings

1. Number of units
2. Type and manufacturer
3. Rating, hpa
4. Shafts, material
5. Coupling flanges, material
6. Flexing elements, material

G. Miscellaneous Equipment
1. Mechanical equipment
supports, material
2. Vibration cut-out switches,
3. Derrick [Sr handling mechanical
equipment, included

H. Distribution System
1. Number and size of inlet flanges
2. Height of water inlet above curb,
ft, in.
3. Header material
4. Lateral material
5. Nozzle, or dowl)spout material

1. Design Performance
1. Pumping head from top of
basin curb, ft
2. Spray loss, max. %
3. Evaporation loss, max. %
4. Fill wetted surface, ft2
5. Total wetted surface, ft 2
6. Effective splash surface, ft2
7. Effective cooling volume, ft3
(from eliminators to water

8. Air volume per fan, cfm

9. Static pressure, inches of water
10. Output horsepower/motor/
11. Tower loading, gpm/ft2

K. Drawings and Performance Curves

1. Tower outline elevation
2. Foundation outline
3. Fill rack details
4. Drift eliminator details
5. Tower sheeting arrangement
6. A series of guaranteed performance curves within limits of
CTI Test Procedure ATP-lOS, latest revision


There is only one method of determining whether the performance of a

cooling tower is in conformance with the guarantee, thCl,t is by thermally
testing the unit. The accuracy of testing is influenced by many variables,
some controllable, some not. Because of this, variables are seldom possible
to test at the design conditions. Tower testing is conducted following the
recommendations of The Cooling Tower Institute.
Cooling tower performance must be guaranteed as specified under
process data; drift losses also must be guaranteed. Since the performance
test is run under conditions that will be different from those specified, the
manufacturer must supply sets of performance curves based on design
fan horsepower, showing cold water temperature versus air wet-bulb
temperature for 90%, 100% and 110% of design water circulating flow and
covering cooling ranges of 20°F, 25°F and 30°F. Examples of these curves
are given in Figure 7.5.


The total cost is the economic factor that normally decides the final
cooling tower design; however, the optimum selection must include not
only the capital investment, but also all operating costs based on the
period of amortization. Other factors to be considered are general design,
manufacturer, replacement parts, flexibility of operation, etc. Costs include
capital investment and operating costs.

95 95 , 95
"- "- ~
° ~ j- 90% WATER FLOW ~

IX: 90 ::> 90 ::> 90 J..-
<t V_
IX: ~
IX: V t:/ V
V ~~
./. ~ /.~ V
a.. a..
::E 85 85 85
~ I"-

l-::::: ~

r::::: ~ V ~
~ ./ ./ t.T=25°F_


t;:: V ""\ V V V V
l--::: ~ ~ t. T=20°F
IX: LLJ t.T= 30°F
~ 80
~ l't.T = 30°F ~
<t 80
V ./ t.T=25°F
;;: 80
V VL---- ~ V ;;: V 1--....
<t t.T=25°F- t.T=20°F -
t.T=20°F 0
V V 0
0 ...J
V I 0 V 0

0 U
u u
75 75 75

60 65 70 75 80 60 65 70 75 80 60 65 70 75 80

Figure 7.S Typical cooling tower performance curves for different water loadings.

Capital investment must include:

II total erected cost of the cooling tower,
II cost of cold water basin, including sump,
II installed cost of pumps, motors, drives, speed reducers,
II installed cost of controls, wiring, starters, etc., and
II installed cost of all piping, including overflow, drain, inlet and return
and makeup lines, as well as shutoff and control valves.

Operating costs to be evaluated include:

II maintenance costs,
II energy cost for pump and fans, and
II investment amortization costs.

Table 7.1 Economic Considerations of Wet Cooling Systems

Cooling System Costs Cooling System Performance

Capital Cost Cooling Capacity

Costs of basic system, condenser, System sizing, air-to-water
circulating water piping, makeup surface contact, dry- and
pumps and blowdown facilities, wet-bulb temperatures for
and intake and discharge systems. rela tive huml'dity, wind
speed and direction, range
and approach.

Annual Fixed Charges Overall Performance

Interest, amortization of the Accounting for condenser
system capital costs, interim and turbine characteristics.
replacement, insurance and taxes.

Annual Operation and Maintenance Reliability

Amount of generation, fuel Performance of cooling
consumption, payroll, labor, systems under various
overhaul and parts replacement. operations and climatic

Capability Penalties
The amount paid for each
kilowatt of additional capacity
when 'the unit is unable to
produce its required capability
(measured at the maximum
summer wet-bulb temperature
and peak demand periods).

Energy Penalties Miscellaneous Factors

The amount paid for each kilowatt- Fire, risks, wind, loads,
hour of additional energy when the seismic risks.
unit is unable to produce its required

Table 7.2 Procedure for Estimating Potential Water Cost and Sewer Taxes Savings
(courtesy of Delta Cooling Towers, Carborundum Corp., Fairfield, NJ)

Data Required Example

I. Flowrate of city water used _ _ _ _ gpm (75)
2. Hours of heat load operation -
_ _ _ _ hr/day X _____ day/wk X (24 X 5 X 50
_ _ _ _ wks/yr = hr/yr = 6000)
3. City water cost $ /1000 gal ($0.50)
4. City sewer cost $ /1000 gal ($0.5(l)
5. Electrical cost $ /kWh ($0.045)
Calculation of City Water/Sewer Tax Costs
I. Current volume of city water used -
_ _ _ _ gpm X 60 min/hr X _ _ _ _ hr/yr = (75 X 60 X 6000
_ _ _ _ gal/yr = 27,000,000)
2. Cost of city water used -
Fresh: _ _ _ gal/yrX $ _ _ _ _ (27,000,000
cost/IOOO gal = $ _ _ _ _ /yr X $0.50
Sewer: gal/yr X $ _ _ __ = $13,500)
cost/IOOO gal = $ _ _ _ _ /yr
Total city water/sewer tax cost = $ ____ /yr ($27,000)
Capital Cost of Cooling Tower Installation
1. Cooling tower system material cost $ _ _ _ __ ($ 5,000)
2. Cooling tower system installation cost $ _ _ _ __ ($ 5,000)
3. Total installed ~osta $ _ _ _ __ ($10,000)
Operating Cost of Co\~ling Tower System
1. Power consumption b
Blower motor hp - - - - (15)
Pump motor hp (10)
Total hp (25)
Total _____ hp X 0.746 kWh/hp X $ _ _ __ (25 X 0.746 X 0.045
Cost/kWh X hr/yr = $ cost/yr X 6000 = $5,040)
2. Water makeup
Volume of city water used gal/yr X 0.03 (27,000 X 0.03
X$ Total cost/IOOO gal = $ /yr X $1 = $810)
3. Maintenance cost $ /y r ($450)
4. Total operating costs (1 + 2 + 3) $ _____ /yr ($6300)
Evaluation of Operating Costs
I. Total city water/sewer tax cost (II) $ ____ /yr ($ 27,000)
Total cooling tower operation cost (IV) $ /yr ($6300)
Savings (II-IV) $ /yr ($20,700)
or $ /month ($1720)
2. Considering savings of $ /montl1 and the ($1720)
initial capital cost of the cooling tower ($10,000)
installation (Ill) of$ , the return (5.8)
on investment will be months.

aRulc of thumb for evaluation purposes: installation cost will not ordinarily exceed
materials cost, so total installed cost may be calculated at approximately two times the
materials cost.
bPower consumption is computed on total hours of heat load operation. Total cost may
be less, considering actual BHP used and cold weather operation during which the
cooling tower will function with blower motor off.


The cost of cooling tower systems can be divided into five general
categories, namely, capital cost, annual fixed charges, annual operation
and maintenance, capability penalties, and replacement energy costs. Selec-
tion of the optimum tower is based on a proper balance among capital
investment, operating costs, performance, and potential environmental and
social impacts. Table 7.1 summarizes the major economic considerations
for evaluating wet cooling systems.
An important factor that should be considered in the economic analysis
is the potential savings of water costs and sewer taxes that could be
realized by choosing one system over another. Table 7.2 outlines a good
procedure for estimating potential water cost savings.


l. Cheremisinoff, N. P., and P. N. Cheremisinoff. Fiberglass-Reinforced

Plastics Deskbook (Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.,


I. Cheremisinoff, N. P. Applied Fluid FlolV Measurement-Fundamentals and

Technology (New York: Marcel Dekker; Inc., 1979).
2. Cheremisinoff, P. N., and R. A. Young. Pollution Engineering Practice
Handbook (Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., 1975).
3. Monroe, R. C. "Fans-Key to Optimum Cooling Tower Design," Oil
Gas J., (May 27,1974).
4. Strauss, S. "Guide to Evaluate Cooling Tower Performance," Power
(October 1975).
This page intentionally left blank



Water has experienced extensive use in cooling operations, both because

it is an excellent cooling medium and because it is relatively inexpensive.
All natural waters do, however, contain dissolved solids, gases and a variety
of suspended matter in different amounts. These contaminants can be the
source of varying operating problems. Bicarbonates and sulfates of calcium,
sodium and iron are the most common dissolved solids. The amount of each
will depend on their abundance in the earth at the source of the water.
Carbon dioxide is the most common of the dissolved gases found in water
and the highest concentrations exist in waters from shallow wells and lakes
due to decay processes. Suspended solids may consist of silt and a variety
of organic constituents. All water systems are capable of developing algae and
slimes in varying degrees if environmental conditions are proper.
The presence of suspended and dissolved matter can lead to precipitation
under the proper conditions causing severe scaling or fouling problems in
process equipment and distribution systems. High concentrations of sus-
pended matter can result in erosion. Both problems can be translated into
lost dollars because of costly maintenance and downtimes for equipment
replacement. In the case of organic constituents, the ideal environment for
microorganisms to grow can exist, posing serious health hazards in certain
Because of the inherent problems of scale formation and potential health
hazards in some applications, cooling tower water treatment must be care-
fully considered in the overall cooling system design.



In addition to the common minerals absorbed from the soil, natural waters
can also be affected by industrial drainage, often resulting in acidic condi-
tions. Faulty processing equipment may introduce a variety of contaminants
such as oils, fats, acids, alkalies and hydrocarbons directly into the cooling
system. Undesirable airborne contaminants, such as hydrogen sulfide and
acid vapors released by processing equipment and fly ash from' coal-burning
furnaces, may be drawn into the tower and dissolved in the circulating water.
Without proper co'ntrol, the presence of any of these materials may cause
corrosion of metal parts, wood deterioration or loss in thermal performance
throughout the entire cooling system.
There are five types of cooling water problems encountered in cooling
tower systems. These are: scale formation, corrosion, organic (algae and
bacteria slime) growths, suspended (sand, mud, silt, etc.) matter and oil
leakage. With the exception of oil leakage, these problems can be controlled
to a certain extent by standard water treatment techniques. Different types
of treatment have been employed with various degrees of success. Treatments
employed include using a circulating system with a small quantity of treated
makeup water, with or without the addition of chemical inhibitors to the
circulating water..:Another
method of controlling contaminations and scale
formation is the use of alloy tubes. Unfortunately, this is an expensive
solution and often one that is difficult to justify economically.
In addition to the first four problems, which are of water origin, oil leakage
into the water also causes problems. Oil will interfere with other treatments
employed. It is therefore desirable to eliminate oil leakage as much as possible
by repairing leaks as soon as they develop.
Due to evaporation, salts contained in the water tend to concentrate and
could precipitate, causing scale in the system. The scaling tendency of the
circulating water can be controlled by an appropriate blowdown to lower the
salt content, and by the addition of treating chemicals. These chemicals are
inhibitors that prevent precipitation from occurring. The corrosion problems
encountered in evaporative cooling water systems concern the cooling circuit
(i.e., exchangers, piping, etc.) and the cooling tower itself.
Oxygen, carbon dioxide and various chemicals used to reduce scaling can
cause corrosion. Corrosion control is provided largely by the use of inhibitors
such as chromates, polyphosphates, silicates and alkalies.
Corrosion within the tower itself is due mainly to the particular conditions
existing therein (air, humidity and temperature) and also to the chemical
treatment of the water. All construction materials exposed to these condi-
tions must be selected carefully. Hardware and piping for distribution headers
have been successfully made with hot-dipped galvanized steel, cadmium-
coated steel, stainless steel and silicon bronze.

Scaling and corrosion are related phenomena. The properties of water

influencing both are the calcium hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids,
pH and temperature. Theoretically, the above conditions can be controlled
so that the water is in equilibrium and neither corrosion nor scaling results.
In practice, however, this equilibrium is difficult to achieve since it is a border
condition, and a delicate balance must be maintained.
Water corrosion of iron and steel is simply oxidation of the metal forming
iron oxide by galvanic action. The rate of oxidation is faster at higher oxygen
concentrations. This is why corrosion is more of a problem in recirculating
cooling water systems than in once-through systems. Likewise, the rate
of attack is higher for waters of higher acidity because a low-pH water is a
better electrolyte. Therefore, increasing the pH up to the equilibrium point
decreases corrosion. However, increasing the pH further causes scale forma-
The principal scale-forming material in cooling systems is calcium car-
bonate, which has a solubility of about 15 ppm and is formed by the
decom position of calcium bicarbonate.
Scaling results when the solubility limit of calcium carbonate is reached,
at which point precipitation onto tube surfaces occurs. The extent of calcium
carbonate precipitation is a function of the composition of the water and
the temperature. The alkalinity, dissolved solids and pH determine the
scaling characteristics. Decreasing the pH by the direct audition of acid or
by carbonization will decrease the scaling tendencies of the water within
limits. If a water is on the scaling side of equilibrium, increasing the tem-
perature will increase the scale deposition ..
Calcium carbonate scale is objectionable because of the resistance offered
to heat transfer in heat exchanger equipment. It is of interest to point out
that increasing the temperature will increase the rates of scaling and corro-
sion. Scaling and corrosion are not likely to ocCUr simultaneously, although
it is possible owing to temperature differences in the system. The water
could be on the corrosive side at the inlet and on the scaling side at the
outlet. If water is close to this equilibrium condition, the rates of corrosion
and scaling would exist, but are likely to be very small.
Corrosion is less of a problem in once-through cooling water systems,
where the oxygen content is relatively low. Likewise, scaling is less of a
problem in once-through systems than in recirculating systems because the
water has not been concentrated, as in the recirculating case. In recirculating
systems, the water is reaerated in cooling towers, which makes it more
aggressive from the standpoint of corrosion. The purpose in using circulating
cooling systems is to conserve makeup water; however, this is difficult to
achieve because of the dissolved solids concentrate buildup from evaporation
losses. .

Summarizing the above discussion, the dissolved mineral matter in most

natural waters consists mainly of calcium in the form of bicarbonate or
temporary hardness and chlorides and sulfates as permanent hardness. The
tendency of the water to deposit scale when made alkaline by heating or
to attack metals corrosively depends on the balance of these various con-
The scale formed under moderate temperatures is usually due to temporary
(bicarbonate) hardness being converted into calcium carbonate, which occurs
on heating or increase in alkalinity sufficient to result in calcium carbonate
saturation. The soI'ubility of calcium carbonate also affects corrosion since
the alkalinity of dissolved carbon dioxide in the water is greatly reduced as
the saturation equilibrium is approached. Ideally, at equilibrium the various
forms of carbon dioxide (free CO 2 , bicarbonate and carbonate) are so bal-
anced that they cause neither scale nor corrosion.


The prevention of scale formation and corrosion is common to all heat

transfer equipmen,t, not just cooling towers. The need for protecting metal
surfaces against cqrrosion in cooling water systems is essential to achieving
maximum system efficiency and equipment life. Corrosion that is inade-
quately controlled can lead to irreversible equipment damage and costly
unscheduled unit outages for cleaning operations or equipment replacement.
Unscheduled shutdowns can seriously undermine plant efficiency and produc-
Effective corrosion control programs are essential in reducing unit down-
times. To be effective, the program must address not only specific corrosion
problems, but anticipate and prevent them as well. Consequently, effective
pretreatment in addition to other corrosion control measures is important.
Corrosion control of metal surfaces depends on the formation and main-
tenance of a protective corrosion inhibitor film on the exposed metal surface.
This protective film may be established during normal application of a
corrosion inhibitor program; however, there will be some lag time before the
film is completely built up. Metal surfaces that are exposed to the cooling
water before the film is completed may become candidates for accelerated
corrosion during the initial system operation. Normally, localized corrosion
or pitting is common during these early stages of operation.
Allowing a unit to undergo no treatment for periods of time before being
placed into operation can result in severe damage to exposed metal surfaces.
In addition to the loss of the metal and shortened equipment life, voluminous
and porous corrosion by-products may form and actually act as a barrier to
the formation of the protective inhibitor film.

In dealing with metal water cooling systems, today's trend is toward the
use of nonchromate-based treatment chemicals. Nonchromate applications
rely on less tenacious films for corrosion protection, rather than conventional
chromate systems. As such, it is extremely important that the corrosion
protection film be established very early in the operation.
We can define pretreatment as the initial conditioning period whereby a
corrosion inhibitor is applied to the metal surfaces of the cooling system.
Pretreatment conditions must be conducive to the rapid formation of the
protective barrier. The conditioning procedure should involve (1) the cleaning
and preparation of metal surfaces, and (2) the actual application of higher
than normal inhibitor concentrations.
The cleaning and passivation can be done separately or in a combined step.
There are several procedures that can be employed to clean metal surfaces.
Common techniques include hydroblasting, treatment with a mild inhibited
acid cleaner and/or alkaline cleaner, and the use of special surfactants during
cleansing. The system must be flushed thoroughly after the cleaning stage
to minimize undue metal attack by residual concentrations of cleaning
Chemical passivation should be started as soon as possible after the cleaning
of metal surfaces. Accumulation of new corrosion products can occur if it
is not initiated soon after cleaning. It may be achieved by 'treating equipment
either on- or offline.
Online passivation involves elevating the corrosion inhibitor concentration
as high as three times normal maintenance levels. At higher concentrations,
the rate at which the protective film forms is accelerated. This, in turn,
reduces the degree of initial corrosion on clean but unprotected metal sur-
faces. The rate at which corrosion protection takes place depends on the
temperature, pH and inhibitor used.
Offline passivation involves treatment of equipment currently out of
service. Treatment levels are typically higher; consequently, passivation is
completed more quickly. Passivation of nonchromate treatment generally
uses either a polyphosphate, zinc, molybdate or other nonchromate-based
inhibitor in combination with various surface-active cleaning agents. The
passivation solution should be disposed of after the pretreatment stage,
rather than' dumped back into the cooling system where the potential for
fouling can exist due to the precipitation of pretreatment compounds such as
zinc or phosphate. Table 8.1 outlines both online and offline pretreatment
The first methods of cooling tower corrosion control involved adding
several hundred parts per million of sodium chromate, as chromate is capable
of excellent anodic corrosion control at these dosages. However, these early
programs were both inefficient and expensive. The advent of synergized zinc
chromate-polyphosphate treatments not only made corrosion control more

Table 8.1 Pretreatment Procedures

Online Pretreatment Procedures

I. Increase inhibitor concentration to 2-3 times its normal level.

2. Circulate the high inhibitor concentration slurry for 4-12 hours. Maintain pH between
6 and 7 and temperatures between 49 and 60°C. If ambient temperatures must be
used, increase the pretreatment period to 24-48 hours.
3. After passivation, the system should be deconcentrated. Reduce the inhibitor concen-
tration to normal maintenance levels.
4. Initiate normal treatment program.

Offline Passiva tion Procedures

1. Thoroughly clean system of all dirt, oil, scale, organics and corrosion by-products.
2. After system cleaning, refill with fresh water. Add the pretreatment formulation to
the required concentration level.
3. Circulate the solution throughout the unit, maintaining pH levels between 6 and 7.
Circulation should continue for 2-12 hours at temperatures between 49 and 60°C.
4. After passivation, remove the pretreatment solution and replace it with normally
treated cooling water.
5. Place unit back online and resume normal service.

effective, but also lowered its cost. Excellent corrosion control requires only
30-60 ppm of inhibitor, instead of a concentration one to two orders of
magnitude higher.
Polyphosphates are also used in cooling systems to attain sufficient
corrosion control. Cooling towers are operated in a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5 to
provide optimum stability for the polyphosphate. The feasibility of cooling
tower operation at higher pH levels, in which the potential for corrosion is
decreased, has increased the popularity oflow-chromate programs.


Corrosion detection plays an important role in any corrosion control

program. Most of the methods employ nondestructive test methods and
include: hydrogen evaluation, radiography, dynamic pressure, corrosion
probes, strain gauges and eddy current measurements. Of these, the methods
employed in cooling tower practice are hydrogen evaluation and corrosion
Hydrogen evaluation is used to detect corrosion in closed systems at low
or slightly elevated temperatures in aqueous environments. Sensitive detectors


are available to detect the presence of hydrogen, which is a by-product of

most aqueous corrosion processes. This method cannot locate the corrosion
but can predict the approximate total corrosion rate.
Corrosion probes detect and measure the amount of corrosion occurring
at a given point in a system and can be used to estimate the total amount of
corrosion and the type of corrosion anticipated. Probes are available for use
in a wide variety of temperature and pressure conditions.


There are three methods available for evaluating cooling water inhibitors.
These are laboratory methods, service exposure and sample exposure.

Laboratory Methods

In general, these methods are unreliable and often give misleading results.

Actual Service Exposure

The most reliable evaluation can be obtained by this m,ethod; however, it

can be very expensive and usually only few materials can be evaluated.

Exposing Sample Materials

This method involves the assembly of several specimens in the form of a

corrosion test spool. Test specimens are weighed before and after exposure in
the actual service where data are urgently needed.
Unfortunately, there are no commonly accepted standard procedures for
securing reliable corrosion data. Any data collected from any test methods
will have value only if they can be interpreted properly. Many corrosion
environments can vary widely from day to day and even from hour to hour.
Even slight variations in operating procedures can drastically affect the
corrosion characteristics of the cooling tower. Therefore, it is important to
establish methods on how the corrosion data are to be accumulated, evalu-
ated and put to use.



A convenient method of interpreting water analysis for the purpose of

determining the calcium carbonate solubility equilibrium conditions is
embodied in the Langelier equation. The Langelier equation can be used to

detennine the carbonate stability or corrosive properties of a cooling water

for a specific temperature when the contents of dissolved solids, total cal-
cium, total alkalinity and pH values are known.
The Saturation Index is the difference between the actual measured pH and
the calculated pH's at saturation with calcium carbonate:

Saturation Index I = pH (actual) - pH's (Langelier equation) , (8.1)


pH = (9.3 + A + B) - (C + D) (8.2)

where A= total solids, ppm

B= temperature, 0 F
C= calcium hardness, expressed as ppm CaCO,
D= alkalinity, expressed as ppm CaCO,

If the Saturation Index is 0, water is said to be in chemical balance. If the

Saturation Index is positive, scale-forming tendencies are indicated. Finally,
if the Saturation Index is negative, corrosive tendencies are indicated.
The Ryznar equ(ition was developed to provide a closer correlation between
the calculated prediction and the quantitative results obtained in the field.

Stability Index = 2 pH's - pH (actual) (Ryznor equation) (8.3)

For Equation 8.3:

I. If the Stability Index is 6.5, the water is scale formi11g.
2. If the Stability Index ranges from 6.5 to 7.0, the water is in a good range.
3. If the Stability Index is 7.0, the water is corrosive.

The optimum value for the Stability Index is 6.6.

However, these convenient indexes must serve strictly as guides rather than
as absolute control methods, the reason being that uneven temperatures exist
throughout a cooling system. Because of this, some exchangers will scale,
some will be protected, while still others will corrode.
Note that the pH (actual) is the Log of the hydrogen ion concentration.


Organic matter also aggravates scaling and fouling conditions in cooling

systems by combining with silt and/or calcium carbonate to plug up or scale

up equipment, thus reducing the effectiveness of the heat transfer surface.

Microbiological growths on heat exchangers retard cooling, cut plant effi-
ciency and increase maintenance cost. Iron- and sulfur-reducing bacteria are
often a direct cause of corrosion. Algae growths can occur in all types of
heat exchangers. Chlorine and chlorinated organic compounds are the most
commonly used chemicals to prevent attack from bacteria and algae. Fungus
and other forms of microorganisms can biologically attack the wood inside
the cooling tower. This problem can be minimized by the use of impregnated
cooling tower lumber.
Undissolved solids or suspended matter plug up cooling and condensing
equipment, as well as fill up the cooling tower with silt and mud, which can
lead to pumping problems. In addition, suspended matter aggravates scaling
conditions in cooling water because silt and mud combine physically with the
calcium carbonate to produce a thicker and softer scale than would be
formed by calcium carbonate alone. This interferes with heat transfer and
water flow. Normally, these are eliminated by continuous filtration.


Following the American Legion Convention at a Philadelphia hotel in July

1976, the public first became aware of a new type of disease (Legionnaires'
Disease). Of the 221 cases of Legionnaires' Disease, 34 resulted in death.
Since that date, the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia has
isolated and confirmed that a bacteriuni microorganism had produced the
illness in Philadelphia and at least eleven other locations.
The Legionnaires' Disease organism was discovered breeding in cooling
water at several locations where the disease broke out. The conditions for
this bacteria to turn lethal were created when the energy crisis of 1973
imposed conservation measures on water usage.
More and more water is now being recycled. Reducing cooling tower
blowdown increases the volume of suspended solids, mineral and salts, and
as the cycles of concentration become higher, the pH and nutrient levels for
biological growth increases. The temperature of hot water return to the
tower, normally around 120-130°F, creates an ideal condition for the breed-
ing and rapid reproduction of different organisms.
Legionnaires' Disease organism may exist in the ground water and even
in the air. The bacterium is in a dormant state until ideal life conditions
appear. Once the bacterium enters the environment of the cooling tower,
it can reproduce very rapidly by binary fission, creating a potential disease
outbreak. It can be carried away by blowdown or windage droplets, and
unless the water treatment expert develops a comprehensive program to
minimize the possibility of the bacterium breeding in the cooling system,

another outbreak is inevitable. Biocides are required and must be monitored

continually to ensure that the proper rate is maintained in the cooling water.


For control of scaling, corrosion, and algae and bacterial growth, the
cooling tower water supply must be analyzed and properly treated. Water
analysis covers three areas: water hardness, alkalinity and detection of inerts.
Hardness can be distinguished in the following:
" Carbonate Hardness. This is the presence of calcium (Ca) and magnesium
(Mg) carbonate and bicarbonate.
" Noncarbonate Hardness. This is the presence of other salts of C'a and Mg.
" Total Hardness. This is the sum of the carbonate and noncarbonate hardness.
" Temporary Hardness. This is the presence of C'a and Mg bicarbonate and can
be eliminated by boiling the water to transform bicarbonate into insoluble
carbonate. Temporary hardness is slightly different from carbonate hardness
because it does not take into account the presence of carbonate, which is
only slightly soluble.
" Permanent Hardness. This is Ca and Mg residue in the water after boiling
and differs from noncarbonate hardness because it also measures the car-
bonate remaining in solution.

The normal units,:used to measure water hardness are:

" French degrees = g CaCO,/100 I water
" German degrees = g CaO/100 I water
" English degrees = g CaCO,/l imp. gal water

The value of the different degrees are:

" 1° French = 10 ppm CaCO,
" 1° German = 1.78° French = 17.8 ppm CaCO,
" 1° English = 1.43 French 14.3 ppm CaCO,

With respect to total hardness, makeup water can be classified as follows:

Total Hardness
(ppm CaCO,)

Very Soft 15
Soft 15-50
Medium Hard 50-100
Hard 100-200
Very Hard 200

Alkalinity is a measure of the concentration of all electrolytes that give

basic reaction when hydrolyzed in water, i.e., salts of strong bases and weak
acids (hydrates, carbonates, bicarbonates, phosphates, silicates, borates,
sulfites, etc.). Chlorides and sulfates do not contribute to alkalinity. The

evaluation of alkalinity is made by titration, and the results are reported in

ppm of CaC0 3 .
Sometimes the alkalinity is reported as cc of the acid (HCl or H 2S0 4)
used for the titration of 100 cc of water. To convert to ppm of CaC0 3 , use
the following relationship:

cc of 0.1 N acid X 50 = ppm of CaCO, (8.4)

cc ofO.02N acid X 10 = ppm ofCaC0 3 (8.5)

The number of cc's of 0.1 N acid used for titration of 100 cc of water is
frequently referred to as millivalents.
Other analysis data needed for the makeup water are pH, suspended
solids (ppm), chlorides (ppm Cl), sulfates (ppm S04) and silica (ppm Si0 2).
It is interesting to note that when the total alkalinity is less than the total
hardness, then calcium and magnesium are present in compounds other
than carbonates, bicarbonates and hydrates. In this case, the amount of
hardness equivalent to total alkalinity is the carbonate hardness; the re-
mainder is the noncarbonate hardness.
The solubilities of the more common salts at approximately 120°F are:

Chloride Carbonate Sulfate

(ppm) (ppm) (ppm)

Sodium (Na) 270,000 290,000 310,000

Magnesium (Mg) 270,000 125 330,000
Calcium (Ca) 520,000 17 2,200

When the number of concentrations of the circulating water is in the order

of 3-7, some of the salts dissolved can exceed their solubility limits and
precipitate, causing scale formation in pipes and coolers. The purpose of the
treatment of the cooling water is to avoid scale formation. This is achieved
by the injection of sulfuric acid to convert Ca and Mg carbonates (carbonate
hardness) into more soluble sulfates. The amount of acid used must be
limited to maintain some residual alkalinity in the system. If the system pH
is reduced to far below 7.0, it would result in an accelerated corrosion within
the system. As stated earlier, scale formation and/or corrosion tendency
is defined by the Saturation Index (Langelier Index) and Stability Index
(Ryznar equation).
If the Saturation Index is positive (which implies that the Stability Index
is less than 6.5), then the water has scale tendency and the addition of
sulfuric acid in appropriate quantities would be required to prevent scaling
formation. The following example illustrates the estimation of the required
amount of acid.

Example 1

A cooling tower is operating with the following makeup water composition:

Ca Hardness, ppm CaCO" 85

Mg Hardness, ppm CaCO" 33
Total Hardness, ppm CaCO" 118
Total Alkalinity, ppm CaC0 3 , 90
Sulfates, ppm S04' 20
Chlorides, ppm Cl, 19
Sili~a, ppm SiO" 2

It is clear that the total hardness is greater than the total alkalinity. Assume,
for instance, that the number of concentration in the circulating water to
reduce blowdown is maintained at 5. Also, assume that the temperature of
the hot water entering the tower is 120°F.

Sulfates in circulating water are 5 X 20 = 100 ppm S04

, 136
or 100 X % = 142 ppm CaSO,

CaS0 4 solubility limit = 2200 ppm CaS0 4

Additional sulfates formation permissible 2200 - 142 = 2058 ppm CaS0 4
or 2058 X 136 = 142 ppm as S04

The alkalinity in the circulation water, if not converted into sulfates, is

5 X 90 = 450 ppm CaC0 3 .
Assume that 10% of the alkalinity is left unconverted to avoid corrosion,
then 450 X 0.9 = 450 ppm CaC0 3 -+ CaS04

Sulfate formed 405 100 = 388 ppm as S04

where 136 = molecular weight ofCaSO.

96 = molecular weight of SO.
100 = molecular weight of H,S04

Thus, the sulfuric acid concentration required is 405 :~ = 397 ppm.

The composition of blow down water in this case will be:

Hardness, ppm CaCO" 5 X 118 = 590

Alkalinity, ppm CaCO" 0.1 X 5 X 90 = 45
Sulfates, ppm S04' 5 X 20 + 388 = 488
Chlorides, ppm Cl, 5 X 19 = 95
Silica, ppm SiO" 5 X2 = 10

In this example, the cycles could have been carried much higher because we
have 488 ppm of S04 versus 1450 allowed.
F or sulfuric acid injection, a storage drum and a proportioning pump must
be provided. Carbon steel is a suitable material for the concentrated sulfuric
acid drum, providing that moisture does not enter the drum. For safety
purposes, it is suggested to avoid glass level gauges. It is best to install a
floating-type level gauge.
The injection point of the sulfuric acid is in the pump bay, or as near as
possible to water intake. The sulfuric acid pump is normally a motor-driven
proportioning pump, and an electric motor is connected to a pH analyzer
installed on the cooling water supply header so that the pump starts and
stops, depending on the pH in the circulating water. Table 8.2 summarizes
various chemical treating agents for cooling water towers.
An example for estimating the required amount of different chemicals

Example 2

Calculate the chlorine and phosphates requirements for a tower operation:

1. Chlorine. As stated in Table 8.2, for algae and bacteriatcontrol the normal
quantity of chlorine needed is 1 ppm every 4 hours daily, which represents

Table 8.2 Chemical Treating Agents for Cooling Water Towers

Chemical and Quantity

Common Name Water Treatment Use (ppm in circulating water)

Inorganic Chromate SaIts Corrosion control 300 + 500 ppm orCr0 4

Inorganic and Organic Scale and corrosion control 2 + 10 ppm of PO.
Phosphates and
Chromate and Phosphate Corrosion control Cr0 4 10 + 40 P0 4 20 + 50
Combination Treatment
Lignin and Tannin Organic Scale and corrosion control 20 + 50 ppm
Organic Chromates 5 + 20 ppm
Chlorine and Chlorinated Algae and bacterial slime 1 ppm 4 In/day
Quaternary Ammonium Algae and bacterial control 200 ppm intermittent
Copper Complexes
Sulfuric Acid Solubility control As necessary to maintain
same residual alkalinity

4 hr/day
] ppm X 24 hr/day ~ 0.2 ppm

Suppose a tower operates with 100,000 gpm of circulating flow:

. 100,000 gal/min X 1440 min/day

Chlonne (lb/day) ~ 7.48 gal/ft 3 X ft3/62.4 Ib

0.21b CI 2
X 1,000,000]b H 0 ~ 240 Ib/day

2. Phosphate. From the table, the requirements of phosphate are 2-10 ppm
of P0 4 . The loss of phosphates will be due only to slowdown and windage.
To calculate the phosphate requirements:

10 Ib PO, X (W + B) gal/min X 1440 min/day

Phosphate (lb/ day)
1,000,000]b H 2 0 X 7.48 gal/ft' X ft3/62.4lb

where W ~ windag~ losses

B ~ blowduwn losses

All other chemicals can be calculated in the same way.


Corrosion problems and costly water treatment can be minimized in

many applications through the use of plastics. Since about 1970 the use of
industrial-grade plastics has become widely accepted in prepackaged, factory-
assembled cooling tower units. There are numerous advantages to component
construction, including polyethylene shell, ABS wet decking and drift elim-
inator system, and PVC distribution assembly, which have proven superior
to steel and wood construction in many applications. There are several
advantages of plastics construction over wood or steel. Plastics are non-
corrosive, have a seamless, leakproof one-piece shell, are nonbrittle, non-
porous/one-piece when wet and are lighter. Further, they require less
maintenance and give longer service.
Figure 8.1 shows one manufacturer's unit constructed from plastic. Each
tower consists of a seamless tubular shell, which houses a specially designed
wet decking. The decking, of angled baffle construction, and wound in a

Figure 8.1 Modular constructed plastic cooling towers (courtesy of Delta Cooling
Towers, Carborundum Corp., Fairfield, NJ).

continuous spiral, provides good air/water contact. These are counterflow

operating towers. The wet decking and shells are constructed of noncorrosive
plastics, which are impervious to industrial smoke, chemical fumes, salt,
heavy dust, and alkaline, chlorinated or acid water. In addition, these
materials resist algae growth, which greatly reduces water treatment chemical
costs and maintenance.
The shells of the cooling towers shown in Figure 8.1 are constructed of
polyethylene. Table 8.3 summarizes some of the properties of high-impact
polyethylene. This plastic is also employed in constructing fill packing.
Table 8.4 also gives chemical resistance information on various plastic resins.


l. Lee, J. W. "Pretreatment of Cooling Water Systems," Chem. Eng. Prog.,

76(7) (1980).
2. Puckorius, P. R. "Pretreatment-The Key to Effective Protection of
Cooling Water Systems," paper presented at the 21st Annual Water Con-
ference, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 1960.
3. Pludek, V. R. Design and Corrosion Control (New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1977).

Table 8.3 High-Impact Polyethylene Properties

(courtesy of Delta Cooling Towers, Carborundum Corp., Fairfield, NJ)

Test Method Properties

A. Permanence Tests
1. Ou tdoor wea thering ASTM D-1435-65T Complete protection
2. Accelerated wea thering ASTM E-42 Very resistant
3. Normal exposure to sunlight Complete protection
4. Accelerated exposure to sunlight Fadeometer Complete protection
5. Resistance to heat continuous 250°F
6. Vicat softening point ASTM D-1525 255°F
7. Deflection temperature at 66 psi ASTM D-648 172°F

B. Mechanical Properties
1. Tensile strength ASTM D-638 3100-5500 psi
2. Flexural modulus ASTM D-790 2.35 X 10' psi
3. Stiffness modulus ASTM D-747 1.4 X 10' psi
4. lzod impact notched ASTM D-256 1.0 ft lb./in.
5. Tensile impact ASTM D-1822 110 ft Ib./in. 2

C. Chemical Properties
I. Weak acids ASTM D-543 Very resistant
2. Strong acids ASTM D-543 Attacked slowly by
oxidizing agents
3. Weak alkali ASTM D-543 Very resistant
4. Strong alkali ASTM D-543 Very resistant
5. Organic solvent{;, ASTM 0-543 Resistant
6. Salts ASTM D-543 Resistant
7. Sea water ASTM D-543 Resistant


A. Permanence Tests
1. Ou tdoor weathering ASTM D-1435-65T Excellent
2. Accelerated weathering ASTM E-42 Very resistan t
3. Normal exposure to sunlight Complete protection
4. Accelerated exposure to sunlight Fadeometer Complete protection
5. Resistance to heat continuous 180°F
6. Deflection temperature at 66 psi ASTM D-648 210-220°F

B. Mechanical Properties
1. Tensile strength ASTM D-638 5100 psi
2. Flexural modulus ASTM D-790 4.2 X 10' psi
3. lzod impact notched ASTM D-256 2.4 ft lb./in.
4. Izod impact at -20°F ASTM 0-256 0.9 ft lb./in.

C. Chemical Properties
1. Weak acids ASTM D-543 No effect
2. Strong acids ASTM D-543 Slight effect
3. Weak alkali ASTM D-543 No effect
4. Strong alkali ASTM D-543 No effect
5. Organic solvents ASTM D-543 Soluble in ketones, esters
and some chlorinated
6. Salts ASTM D-543 No effect
7. Sea water ASTM 0-543 No effect

Table 8.3, continued

Test Method Properties


A. Permanence Tests
1. Ou tdoor wea thering ASTM D-1435-65T Good
2. Accelerated weathering ASTM E-42 Good
3. Normal exposure to sunlight Good
4. Accelerated exposure to sunlight Fadeometer Good
5. Resistance to heat continuous 160°F
6. Deflection temperature at 66 psi ASTM D-648 169°F

B. Mechanical Properties
1. Tensile strength ASTM 0-638 6200 psi
2. Flexural modulus ASTM 0-790 5.6 X 10' psi
3. lzod impact notched ASTM 0-256 2.5 ft lb./in.
4. lzod impact at -20°F ASTM 0-256 0.7 ft lb./in. notch

C. Chem ical Properties

1. Weak acids ASTM 0-543 No effect
2. Strong acids ASTM 0-543 None to slight
3. Weak alkali ASTM 0-543 No effect
4. Strong alkali ASTM 0-543 No effect
5. Organic solvents ASTM 0-543 Swells in aromatic hy-
drocarbons, soluble
""in ketones and esters
6. Salts ASTM 0-543 No effect
7. Sea water ASTM 0-543 No effect

Table 8.4 Plastics Chemical Resistance Chart

(courtesy of Oelta Cooling Towers, Carborundum Corp., Fairfield, NJ)
1st letter: at 20°C --+ EG <--"2nd letter: at 50°C



Acetaldehyde GN GF GN GN EE FN GN
Acetamide, Sat. EE EE EE EE EE NN NN
Acetic Acid, 5% EE EE EE EE EE EG EE
Acetic Acid, 50% EE EE EE EE EE EG EG
Adipic Acid EG EE EE EE EE EE EG
Allyl Alcohol EE EE EE EG EE EG GF
Aluminum Hydroxide EG EE EG EG EE FN EG
Aluminum 'Salts EE EE EE EE EE EG EE

Table 8.4, continued


Amino Acids EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Ammonium Acetate, Sat. EE EE EE EE EE 'EE EE
Ammonium Glycolate EG EE EG EG EE GF EE
Ammonium Hydroxide" 5% EE EE EE EE EE FN EE
Ammonium Hydroxide EG EE EG EG EE NN EG
Ammonium Oxalate EG EE EG EG EE EE EE
Ammonium Salts EE EE EE EE EE EG EG
n-Amyl Acetate GF EG GF GF EE NN FN
Amyl Chloride NN FN ·NN NN EE NN NN
Antimony Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Arsenic Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Barium Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EG
Benzaldehyde EG EE EG EG EE 1'N NN
Benzene FN GG G1' GF EE NN NN
Benzoic Acid, Sat. EE EE EG EG EE EG EG
Benzyl Acetate EG EE EG EG EE FN FN
Benzyl Alcohol NN FN NN NN EE GF GF
Bismuth Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Boron Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Bromobenzene NN FN NN NN EE NN NN
Bromoform NN NN NN NN EE NN NN
Butadiene NN FN NN NN EE NN FN
n-Butyl Acetate GF EG GF GF EE NN NN
n-Butyl Alcohol EE EE EE EG EE GF GF
sec-Butyl Alcohol EG EE EG EG EE GF GG
tert-Butyl Alcohol EG EE EG EG EE GF EG
Butyric Acid NN FN NN NN EE FN GN
Cadmium Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Calcium Hydroxide, Conc. EE EE EE EE EE NN EE
Calcium Hypochlorite, Sat. EE EE EE EG EE FN GF
Carbazole EE EE EE EE EE NN NN
Carbon Disulfide NN NN EG FN EE NN NN
Carbon Tetrachloride FN GF GF NN EE NN GF
Cedarwood Oil NN FN NN NN EE GF FN
Cellosolve Acetate EG EE EG EG EE FN FN
Cesium Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Chlorine, 10% in Air GN E1' GN GN EE EG EE
Chlorine, 10% (Moist) GN GF GN GN EE G1' EG
Chloroacetic Acid EE EE EG EG EE FN FN

Table 8.4, continued



p-Chloroacetophenone EE EE EE EE EE NN NN
Chloroform FN GF GF FN EE NN NN
Chromic Acid, 10% EE EE EE EE EE EG EG
Chromic Acid, 50% EE EE EG EG EE EG EF
Cinnamon Oil NN FN NN NN EE GF NN
Citric Acid, 10% EE EE EE EE EE EG GG
Citric Acid, Crystals EE EE EE EE EE EE EG
Coconut Oil EE EE EE EG EE EE GF
Cydohexane GF EG GF NN EE EG GF
o-Dichlorobenzene FN FF FN FN EE NN GN
p-Dichlorobcnzene FN GF EF GF EE NN NN
Diethyl Benzene NN FN NN NN EE FN NN
Diethyl Ether NN FN NN NN EE NN FN
Diethyl Ketone GF GG GG GF EE NN NN
Diethyl Malonate EE EE EE EG EE FN GN
Diethylene Glycol EE EE EE EE EE GF FN
Diethylene Glycol Ethyl Ether EE EE EE EE EE FN FN
Dimethyl Formamide EE EE EE EE EE NN FN
Dimethylsulfoxide EE EE EE EE EE NN NN
1 A-Dioxane GF GG GF GF EE GF FN
Dipropylene Glycol EE EE EE EE EE GF GF
Ethyl Acetate EE EE EE EG EE NN FN
Ethyl Alcohol EG EE EG EG EE EG EG
Ethyl Alcohol, 40% EG EE EG EG EE EG EE
Ethyl Benzene FN GF FN FN EE NN NN
Ethyl Benzoate FF GG· GF GF EE NN NN
Ethyl Butyrate GN GF GN FN EE NN NN
Ethyl Chloride, Liquid FN FF FN FN EE NN NN
Ethyl Cyanoacetate EE EE EE EE EE FN FN
Ethyl Lactate EE EE EE EE EE FN FN
Ethylene Chloride GN GF FN NN EE NN NN
Ethylene Glycol EE EE EE EE EE GF EE
Ethylene Glycol Methyl Ether EE EE EE EE EE FN FN
Ethylene Oxide FF GF FF FN EE FN FN
Fluorides EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Formaldehyde, 10% EE EE EE EG EE EG GF
Formaldehyde, 40% EG EE EG EG EE EG GF
Formic Acid, 3% EG EE EG EG EE EG GF
Pormic Acid, 50% EG EE EG EG EE EG GP
Formic Acid, 98-100% EG EE EG EF EE EF FN

Table 8.4, continued



Glacial Acetic Acid EG EE EG EG EE GF EG
Glycerine EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
n-Heptane FN GF FF FF EE EG FN
Hydrochloric Acid, 1-5% EE EE EE EG EE EE EE
Hydrochloric Acid, 20% EE EE EE EG EE EG EG
Hydrochloric Acid, 35% EE EE EG EG EE GF GF
Hydrofluoric Acid, 4% EG EE EG EG EE GF GF
Hydrofluoric Acid, 48% EE EE EE EE EE NN GF
Hydrogen Peroxide, 3% EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Hydrogen Peroxide, 30% EG EE EG EG EE EE EE
Hydrogen Peroxide, 90% EG EE EG EG EE EE EG
Isobutyl Alcohol EE EE EE EG EE EG EG
Isopropyl Acetate GF EG GF GF EE NN NN
Isopropyl Alcohol EE EE EE EE EE EE EG
Isopropyl Benzene FN GF FN NN EE NN NN
Kerosene \'./ FN GG GF GF EE GF EE
Lactic Acid, 3% EG EE EG EG EE EG GF
Lactic Acid, 85% EE EE EG EG EE EG GF
Lithium Salts EE EE EE EE EE GF EE
Magnesium Salts EE EE EE EE EE EG EE
Mercuric Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Mercurous Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
MethoxyethylOieate EG EE EG EG EE FN NN
Methyl Alcohol EE EE EE EE EE FN EF
Methyl Ethyl Ketone EG EE EG EF EE NN NN
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone GP EG GF FF EE NN NN
Methyl Propyl Ketone GF EG GF FlO EE NN NN
Methylene Chloride FN GF FN FN EE NN NN
Mineral Oil GN EE EE EG EE EG EG
Nickel Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Nitric Acid, 1-10% EE EE EE EE EE EG EG
Nitric Acid, 50% EG GN GN GN EE GF GF
Nitric Acid, 70% EN GN GN GN EE FN FN
Nitrobenzene NN FN NN NN EE NN NN
Perchloric Acid GN GN GN GN GF NN GN
Perchloroethylene NN NN NN NN EE NN NN
Phenol, Crystals GN GF GN FG EE EN FN
Phosphoric Acid, 1-5% EE EE EE EE EE EE EE

Table 8.4, continued



Phosphoric Acid, 85% EE EE EG EG EE EG EG

Phosphorous Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Potassium Hydroxide, 1% EE EE EE EE EE FN EE
Potassium Hydroxide, Conc. EE EE EE EE EE NN EG
Propane Gas NN FN NN NN EE FN EG
Propylene Glycol EE EE EE EE EE GF FN
Propylene Oxide EG EE EG EG EE GF FN
Resorcinol, Sat. EE EE EE EE EE GF FN
Resorcinol, 5% EE EE EE EE EE GF GN
Salicylaldehyde EG EE EG EG EE GF FN
Salicylic Acid, Powder EE EE EE EG EE EG GF
Salicylic Acid, Sat. EE EE EE EE EE EG GF
Salt Solu tions EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Silver Acetate EE EE EE EE EE EG GG
Silver Salts EG EE EG EE EE EE EG
Sodium Acetate, Sat. EE EE EE EE EE EG GF
Sodium Benzoate, Sat. EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Sodium Hydroxide, 1% EE EE EE EE ",EE FN EE
Sodium Hydroxide, 50% to Sat. EE EE EE EE ' EE NN EG
Sodium Hypochlorite, 15% EE EE EE EE EE GF EE
Stearic Acid, Crystals EE EE EE EE EE EG EG
Sulfuric Acid, 1-6% EE EE EE EE EE EE EG
Sulfuric Acid, 20% EE EE EG EG EE EG EG
Sulfuric Acid, 60% EG EE EG EG EE GF EG
Sulfuric Acid, 98% EG EE EE EE EE NN NN
Sulfur Dioxide, Liq., 46 psi NN FN NN NN EE GN FN
Sulfur Dioxide, Wet or Dry EE EE EE EE EE EG EG
Sulfur Salts FN GF FN FN EE FN NN
Tartaric Acid EE EE EE EE EE EG EG
Tetrahydrofuran FN GF GF FF EE NN NN
Thionyl Chloride NN NN NN NN EE NN NN
Titanium Salts EE EE EE EE EE EE EE
Tributyl Citra\e GF EG GF GF EE NN FN
Trichloroethane NN FN NN NN EE NN NN
Trichloroethylene NN FN NN NN EE NN NN
Triethylene Glycol EE EE EE EE EE EG GF
Tripropylene Glycol EE EE EE EE EE EG GF
Turkey Red Oil EE EE EE EE EE EG EG
Turpentine FN GG GF FF EE FN GF
Undecyl Alcohol EF EG EG EG EE GF EF
Vinylidene Chloride NN FN NN NN EE NN NN

Table 8.4, continued



Zinc Stearate EE EE EE EE EE EE EG

Key to Classification Code

E - 30 days of constant exposure cause no damage. Plastic may even tolerate exposure
for years. .
G- Little or no damage after 30 days of constant e."posure to the reagent.
F -Some signs of attack after 7 days of constant exposure to the reagent.
N-Not recommended; noticeable signs of attack occur within minutes to hours after
exposure. (However, actual failure might take years.)
Resins (Code)
CPE: Conventional (Low Density) Polyethylene
LPE: Linear (High Density) Polyethylene
PP: Polypropylene
PMP: Polymethylpentene
FEP: Tet10nt FEP (t1uorinated ethylene' propylene)
ETFE: "Tefzel"t ethylene-tetrat1uorethylene copolymer (For chemical resistance, see
FEP ratings)
PC: Polycarbonate
PYC: Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride

t Du Pont registered trademark.




In an earlier chapter we briefly examined some of the problems en-

countered during the winter operation of cooling towers. Although advanced
designs for ice prevention systems have been developed, ice-related structural
damage continues to plague cooling tower systems, particularly hyperbolic
natural-draft towers. Ice damage is often a severe problem, with the potential
for structural damage. Because of the grave operating 'problems and their
frequency of occurrence, a separate chapter is devoted to this subject.
Today's trend is moving away from constructing natural-draft towers in
geographical regions where winter climates are severe. Counterflow natural-
draft towers are generally less susceptible to ice damage. In these systems, the
fill is sheltered within the tower shell and the air inlet design usually does not
include louvers. Advanced designs and new guidelines have resulted in a
significant reduction in the frequency and extent of ice damage in counter-
flow natural-draft cooling towers.


There are basically three phases or subsystems currently used for ice
prevention in natural-draft cooling towers:
I. Pill bypass systems, which are capable of diverting the entire hot water flow
directly into the tower basin, comprise the first.
2. The second comprises designs that include an ice prevention ring that
distributes a portion of the total hot water flow across the cooling tower air
inlet as a veil of falling water.
3. A fill zoning subsystem designed to divert the water flow away from the
center of the tower fill is the third system. This creates an annular flow
operating configuration with a zone of high-density water loading about the
outer region of tower fill.


Each of these subsystems can be controlled by adjusting the water flow.

This action can limit ice formation over a wide range of heat loads and
ambient environmental conditions. Each subsystem is independently con-
trolled and altogether they represent the best technology presently available
for ice prevention. Cooper and Vodicka [1] developed an empirical model for
describing these subsystems, specifically their thermal characteristics. We will
use some of the qualitative predictions of their model to d~scribe each
process in detail. Before beginning, there are three new terms we must
introduce to our cooling tower vocabulary, namely, ring water temperature,
fill water temperature and basin water temperature.
Ring water temperature is defined as the average temperature of the water
discharged from the ice prevention ring after cooling by the inlet air. Fill
water temperature is the average temperature of the cold water exiting the
tower fIll system. Finally, the basin water temperature is the average
temperature of the water discharging from the tower's collection basin. In
normal tower operation there is no water flow through the ice prevention ring
and fill bypass, in which case the basin water temperature and fill water
temperature are the same. '
For counterflow natural-draft towers under normal operating heat loads
and water loading~, minimal ice formation can be expected in moderately
cold environments.", Figure 9.1 illustrates the variation in basin water temper-
ature with inlet air wet-bulb temperature at different heat loads and water

t 70
0:: 100% HEAT LOAD;
i=<I: 60 100%FLOW

a. 50
~ 20"--........---'-----''-----'-----''---
-20 -10 0 10 20 30

Figure 9.1 Illustrates the danger of freezing for normal cooling tOlVer operation (based
on data of Cooper and Vodicka [lj).


loadings. The plot illustrates that at conditions of full water flow and heat
load, the potential for freezing does not occur until very low wet-bulb
temperatures are reached. (Note that since water temperature gradients
exist between the central and peripheral regions of large cooling towers, a
basin or fill water temperature of 40°F or less constitutes a condition of
high freezing potential in a cooling tower [1].) A more subtle observation
that can be made from Figure 9.1 is that a reduction in water loading signif-
icantly increases the tower's susceptibility to localized freezing. By reducing
the water loading to the fill, the tower impedence of air flow is reduced.
This results in an increase in the air mass flowrate through the tower. High
water loading over the fill is most often recommended for winter operation.



In the normal operating mode, the entire water loading is distributed over
the heat exchange surface (fill material). In the fill bypass operating mode,
a portion of the hot water loading is diverted directly to the cooling tower
basin. This results in an increase in the overall average water basin temper-
ature. Fill bypass operation is an essential step when placing cooling towers
onstream during cold weather.
In the northeastern region of the U.S., a great many natural-draft cooling
towers are operated in a fill bypass mode and, in many cases, this represents
the only means of controlling tower water temperatures in cold weather.
Cooper and Vodicka [1] examined the thermal performance capabilities and
limitations of fill bypass systems and presented their observations in the form
of a plot of the fill water temperature as a function of basin water tem-
perature for ambient wet-bulb temperatures and bypass flows. They found
for a typical operation that at 0% bypass flow and -9.0°F (-22. 7°C)
ambient wet-bulb temperature, the basin water temperature and fill water
temperature approached an operating minimum of 40°F .. At a given wet-bulb
temperature, as more water was made to bypass the fill, the basin water
temperature was observed to increase, while the fill water temperature de-
creased. TIle decrease in fill water temperature can be attributed to the
decrease in the fill water loading and, thus, the subsequent reduction in
total thermal energy available to the fill. Under steady-state conditions, the
bypass operating arrangement can maintain elevated basin water temperatures
in moderately cold weather.
There is, however, a danger for ice formation in the fill if too much water
is bypassed. In the majority of cooling tower operations, standard practice
is to open and close the bypass valves in a cyclic fashion to maintain a de-
sired average basin water temperature while minimizing fill ice formation.

The main disadvantage with bypass cycling is that continual operator

attention is generally required.
The portion of the tower most susceptible to icing is at the air inlet, which
includes the diagonal structural supports and peripheral fill sections. This
is especially true with counterflow natural-draft towers. In recent years,
the so-called "ice prevention ring" has been incorporated into cooling
tower designs operating in colder climates. The basis for its design is that
for any given wet-bulb temperature, as the ring water flow is i~creased, the
fill water, ring water and basin water temperatures increase. Modern ice
prevention rings operate typically with ring flows of 20-40% of the total
water loading to the tower.
In general, the thermal effects ,of the ice prevention ring water on the
average fill water temperature is small. The role of the ice prevention ring is
to preheat the air entering the fill and thus prevent the formation of ice in
the peripheral fill sections of the tower. The falling veil of water is densest
at the upper regions of the air inlet. This characteristic causes a constriction
at the air inlet and causes the air stream to change its direction toward the
lower portion of the air inlet. The' peripheral sections of the fill thus become
effectively shielded from direct exposure to the incoming cold air. When the
ice prevention ring and bypass system are operated simultaneously, a wide
range of ice-free :.operations can be achieved by proportioning the proper
water flows to each subsystem. Also, by increasing the bypass flowrate,
increases in the ring water and basin water temperatures are achieved, ac-
companied by a decrease in the fill water temperature.
Another operating mode for the fill bypass and ice prevention ring is
illustrated in Figure 9.2. In this case, the hot water loading over the fill is



Figure 9.2 Diagram showing the proper flow allocations during low heat load opera-
tion, with water flow diverted from the fill section.

totally diverted to the ice prevention ring and fill bypass subsystems. In
normal operation this is accomplished by opening the bypass valves to the
point that the water level in the distribution flumes falls below the inverts
of the fill water distribution piping (see Chapter 4 for a discussion on the
distribution pipes). At this lower flume water depth, no water reaches the
fill section, causing a substantial head to exist over the open valves con-
necting the flumes to the ice prevention ring subsystem. This is a preferred
operating mode in extremely cold weather as it provides steady-state, low-
heat loading operation. This mode essentially short circuits the fill section,
causing all heat rejection to take place in the descending water in the ice
prevention ring.
There is one final ice prevention configuration worth noting, only because
it is still utilized in older installations. In tins design, a circumferential hot
water distribution pipe is positioned above, and adjacent to, the inside face
of the tower air inlet. Tins subsystem is referred to as a deicing ring and
consists of multiple-pipe sections that are perforated or stalled on the under-
side. The design includes valve-controlled flow connections to the main fill
hot water distribution system. Typical diameters for the deicing ring pipe
section are between 6 and 12 inches, with maximum design flow about 10%
of the total water loading.
The deicing ring was designed to distribute a small amount of hot water
over the air inlet opening, thus causing ice accumulatioris on the air inlet
structures to melt. In general, industry has complained that the deicing ring
does not effectively mininlize peripheral ice accumulations. In fact, numerous
installations have been reported to freeze and rupture, and motor-operated
deicing flow control valves have been proven to be unreliable because of
freezing and corrosion. This approach is no longer applied to new natural-
draft towers but can be found on installations that have been in service more
than 10 years.


The fill zoning subsystem is another supplemental approach for ice for-
mation control. In this operating mode, the hot water loading over the center
region of the tower fill is diverted to the peripheral fill sections. This increase
in the peripheral fill region water loading causes a dramatic reduction of
the effective interfacial contact area between the air and water. Figure 9.3
illustrates a typical fill water distribution pattern in the zoned mode of oper-
ation. The annular airflow formed results in an increase in the air flow
impedance of the tower, thus reducing its air loading through the fill section.
Fill zoning alone unfortunately is not enough to protect the peripheral fill


Figure 9.3 Typical fill water distribution pattern in the zoned mode of operation.

sections from ice damage. The best available technology recommends oper-
ating counterflow systems with the zoning subsystem in conjunction with the
ice prevention ring.


There are many applications in which it is important to maintain an average

basin water temperature at an optimum value. One example is a utility
cooling tower application in which an optimum average basin water tem-
perature is required to ensure efficient turbine operation. In this example,
the optimum temperature falls between 60° and 75°F. Ice prevention systems
should be designed to provide sufficient flexibility to control the basin water
temperature between specified limits without significant ice formation for a
wide range of heat load and ambient environmental conditions.
This flexibility can be achieved through the use of three operating nobs,
that is, by proper adjustment of water flow allocations to the three ice pre-
vention subsystems. We can summarize everything in this chapter into four
operating modes.

1. Mode I Operation is the normal cooling tower operating fashion in which hot
water is distributed evenly over the entire fill plan area. In this operation,
all the valves to the ice prevention ring are in the closed position. The fill
bypass can be operated if needed to maintain an optimum basin water
2. Mode II Operation comprises full operation of the ice prevention ring to
prevent icing on the peripheral fill sections. The fill bypass subsystem can
be operated to provide a specified temperature range for the basin water.

I- 60
0 20 40 60 80 100

Figure 9.4 Operating regions for the win ter operating modes for ice prevention [1].

3. Mode III Operation is the one in which the tower is ZOlWd and the ice pre-
vention ring fully activated. Again, the fill bypass can ,be operated within
specified limits.
4. Mode IV Operation functions with the hot water flow to the tower entirely
diverted to the fill bypass and ice prevention ring. Figure 9.4 summarizes
the thermal performances of the four ioe prevention operating modes.


Principles of cooling tower design and operation have been presented. Our
discussions will enable a starting basis for designs and the selection of tower
specifics. However, the detailed design basis requires more in-depth coverage
than we have allowed for. To meet the objective of detailed designs to
include materials selection, site location, environmental impacts, etc., Appen-
dix D-Source Listing and Abstracts of the Cooling Tower Literature-has
been prepared. This is a compilation of nearly 400 references of the most re-
cent research papers and articles in the field of cooling tower technology.
More than half these references are accompanied by a short abstract, out-
lining major conclusions and work presented by the various authors. We urge
the reader to use this index liberally as many of these papers contain de-
tailed calculation procedures and examples directly applicable to design


1. Cooper, J. W., and V. Vodicka. "Cooling Tower Ice Prevention Systems:

State-of-the-Art-Designs," Combustion 51 (11) (1980).


1. Roffman, A., et al. "The State of the Art of Saltwater Cooling Towers for
Steam Electric Generating Plants," WASH 1244, Appendix C (1973).


(Ste am Properties courte sy of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers)

Table 1. Saturated Steam: Pressure Table
Specific Volume Enthalpy Entropy

Abs. Press Temp Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Abs. Press 0
Lb/Sq. In. Fahr Liquid Evap Vapor Liquid Evap Vapor Liquid Evap Vapor Lb/Sq In. 0
p v h t""'
v v h h sf s P
f fg g f fg g Sfg g Z
0.08865 32.018 0.016022 3302.4 3302.4 0.0003 ~ 1075.5 1075.5 0.0000 2.1872 2.1872 0.08865
0.25 59.323 0.016032 1235.5 1235.5 27.382 1060.1 1087.4 0.0542 2.0'425 2.0967 0.25 0
0.50 79.586 0.016071 641.5 641.5 47.623 1048.6 1096.3 0.0925 1.9446 2.0370 0.50 :;:
1.0 101.74 0.016136 333.59 333.60 69.73 1036.1 1105.8 0.1326 1.8455 1.9781 l.0 ::c
5.0 162.24 0.016407 73.515 73.532 130.20 1000.9 1131.1 0.2349 1.6094 1.8443 5.0
10.0 193.21 0.016592 38.404 38.420 161.26 982.1 1143.3 0.2836 1.5043 1.7879 10.0
14.696 212.00 0.016719 26.782 26.799 180.17 970.3 1150.5 0.3121 1.4447 1.7568 14.696
15.0 213.03 0.016726 26.274 26.290 18l.21 969.7 . 1150.9 0.3137 1.4415 1.7552 15.0
20.0 227.96 0.016834 20.070 20.087 196.27 960.1 1156.3 0.3358 1.3962 1.7320 20.0
30.0 250.34 0.017009 13.7266 13.7436 218.9 945.2 1164.1 0.3682 1.3313 1.6995 30.0
40.0 267.25 0.017151 10.4794 10.4965 236.1 933.6 1169.8 0.3921 1.2844 1.6765 40.0
50.0 28l.02 0.017274 8.4967 8.5140 250.2 923.9 1174.1 0.4112 1.2474 1.6586 50.0
60.0 292.71 0.017383 7.1562 7.1736 262.2 915.4 1177.6 0.4273 1.2167 l.6440 60.0
70.0 302.93 0.017482 6.1875 6.2050 272.7 907.8 1180.6 0.4411 1.1905 l.6316 70.0
80.0 312.04 0.017573 5.4536 5.4711 282.1 900.9 1183.1 0.4534 1.1675 l.6208 80.0
90.0 320.28 0.017659 4.8779 4.8953 290.7 894.6 1185.3 0.4643 1.1470 1.6113 90.0
100.0 327.82 0.017740 4.4133 4.4310 298.5 888.6 1187.2 0.4743 1.1284 l.6027 100.0
120.0 341.27 0.01789 3.7097 3.7275 312.6 877.8 1190.4 0.4919 1.0960 1.5879 120.0
140.0 353.04 0.01803 3.2010 3.2190 325.0 868.0 1193.0 0.5071 1.0681 "1.5752 140.0
160.0 363.55 0.01815 2.8155 2.8336 336.1 859.0 1195.1 0.5206 1.0435 1.5641 160.0
180.0 373.08 0.01827 2.5129 2.5312 346.2 850.7 1196.9 0.5328 1.0215 1.5543 180.0
200.0 381.80 0.01839 2.2689 2.2873 355.5 842.8 1198.3 0.5438 1.0016 1.5454 200.0
220.0 389.88 0.01850 2.06779 2.08629 364.2 835.4 1199.6 0.5540 0.9834 1.5374 220.0
240.0 397.39 0.01860 1.89909 1.91769 372.3 828.4 1200.6 0.5634 0.9665 l.5299 240.0
260.0 404.44 0.01870 1.75548 1.77418 379.9 821.6 1201.5 0.5722 0.9508 1.5230 260.0
280.0 411.07 0.01880 1.63169 1.65049 387.1 815.1 1202.3 0.5805 0.9361 1.5166 280.0
300.0 417.35 0.01889 1.52384 1.54274 394.0 808.9 1202.9 0.5882 0.9223 1.5105 300.0
350.0 431.73 0.01912 1.30642 1.32554 409.8 794.2 1204.0 0.6059 0.8909 1.4968 350.0
400.0 444.60 ,0.01934 1.14162 1.16095 424.2 780.4 1204.6 0.6217 0.8630 1.4847 400.0
450.0 456.28 0.01954 1.01224 1.03179 437.3 767.5 1204.8 0.6360 0.8378 1.4738 450.0
500.0 467.01 0.01975 0.90787 0.92762 449.5 755.1 1204.7 0.6490 0.8148 1.4639 500.0
550.0 476.94 0.01994 0.82183 0.84177 460.9 743.3 1204.3 0.6611 0.7936 1.4547 550.0
600.0 486.20 0.02013 0.74962 0.76975 471.7 732.0 1203.7 0.6723 0.7738 1.4461 600.0
650.0 494.89 0.02032 0.68811 0.70843 481.9 720.9 1202.8 0.6828 0.7552 1.4381 650.0
700.0 503.08 0.02050 0.63505 0.65556 491.6 710.2 1201.8 0.6928 0.7377 1.4304 700.0
800.0 518.21 0.02087 0.54809 0.56896 509.8 689.6 1199.4 0.7111 0.7051 1.4163 800.0
900.0 531.95 0.02123 0.47968 0.50091 526.7 669.7 1196.4 0.7279 0.6753 1.4032 900.0
1000.0 544.58 0.02159 0.42436 0.44596 542.6 650.4 1192.9 0.7434 0.6476 1.3910 1000.0
1200.0 567.19 0.02232 0.340l3 0.36245 571.9 6l3.0 1184.8 0.7714 0.5969 1.3683 1200.0
1400.0 587.07 0.02307 0.27871 0.30178 598.8 576.5 1175.3 0.7966 0.5507 1.3474 1400.0
1600.0 604.87 0.02387 0.23159 0.25545 624.2 540.3 1164.5 0.8199 0.5076 1.3274 1600.0
1800.0 621.02 0.02472 0.19390 0.21861 648.5 503.8 1152.3 0.8417 0.4662 1.3079 1800.0
2000.0 635.80 0.02565 0.16266 0.18831 672.1 466.2 1138.3 0.8625 0.4256 1.2881 2000.0
2200.0 649.45 0.02669 0.l3603 0.16272 695.5 426.7 1122.2 0.8828 0.3848 1.2676 2200.0
2400.0 662.11 0.02790 0.11287 0.14076 719.0 384.8 1103.7 0.9031 0.3430 1.2460 2400.0
2600.0 673.91 0.02938 0.09172 0.12110 744.5 337.6 1082.0 0.9247 0.2977 1.2225 2600.0 CIl
2800.0 684.96 0.03l34 0.07171 0.10305 770.7 285.1 1055.8 0.9468 0.2491 1.1958 2800.0 i:"l
3000.0 695.33 0.03428 0.05073 0.08500 80 1.8 ~ 218.4 1020.3 0.9728 0.1891 1.1619 3000.0 >
3200.0 705.08 0.04472 0.01191 0.05663 875.5 56.1 931.6 1.0351 0.0482 1.0832 3200.0
3208.2 * 705.47 0.05078 0.00000 0.05078 906.0 0.0 906.0 1.0612 0.0000 1.0612 3208.2* >
*Critical pressure. t""'

- ..l
Table 2. Saturated Steam: Temperature Table .....
Abs. Press Specific Volume Enthalpy Entropy
Temp Lb per Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Sat. Temp ("J

Pahr Sq In. Liquid Evap Vapor Liquid Evap Vapor Liquid Evap Vapor Pahr 0
t P vf vfg Vg hf hfg hg Sf Sfg Sg
32.0 0.08859 0.016022 3304.7 3304.7 0.0179 1075.5 1075.5 0.0000 2.1873 2.1873 32.0 C"l
36.0 0.10395 0.016020 2839.0 2839.0 4.008·· 1073.2 1077.2 0.0081 2.1651 2.1732 36.0 >-3
40.0 1.12163 0.016019 2445.8 2445.8 8.027 1071.0 1079.0 0.0162 2.1432 2.1594 40.0 ~
44.0 0.14192 0.016019 2112.8 2112.8 12.041 1068.7 1080.7 0.0242 2.1217 2.1459 44.0 i:"l
48.0 0.16514 0.016021 1830.0 1830.0 16.051 1066.4 1082.5 0.0321 2.1006 2.1327 48.0 ~
50.0 0.17796 0.016023 1704.8 1704.8 18.054 1065.3 1083.4 0.0361 2.0901 2.1262 50.0
54.0 0.20625 0.016026 1482.4 1482.4 22.058 1063.1 1085.1 0.0439 2.0695 2.1134 54.0
58.0 0.23843 0.016031 1292.2 1292.2 26.060 1060.8 1086.9 0.0516 2.0491 2.1008 58.0
60.0 025611 0.016033 1207.6 1207.8 28.060 1059.7 1087.7 0.0555 2.0391 2.0946 60.0
64.0 0.29497 0.016039 1056.5 1056.5 32.058 1057.4 1089.5 0.0632 2.0192 2.0824 64.0
68.0 0.33889 0.016046 926.5 926.5 36.054 1055.2 1091.2 0.0708 1.9996 2.0704 68.0
70.0 0.36292 0.016050 868.3 868.4· 38.052 1054.0 1092.1 0.0745 1.9900 2.0645 70.0
74.0 0.41550 0.016058 764.1 764.1 42.046 1051.8 1093.8 0.0821 1.9708 2.0529 74.0
78.0 0.47461 0.016067 673.8 673.9 46.040 1049.5 1095.6 0.0895 1.9520 2.0415 78.0
80.0 0.50683 0.016072 633.3 633.3 48.037 1048.4 1096.4 0.0932 1.9426 2.0959 80.0
84.0 0.57702 0.016082 560.3 560.3 52.029 1046.1 1098.2 0.1006 1.9242 2.0248 84.0
88.0 0.65551 0.016093 496.8 496.8 56.022 1043.9 1099.9 0.1079 1.9060 2.0139 88.0
90.0 0.69813 0.016099 468.1 468.1 58.018 1042.7 1100.8 0.1115 1.8970 2.0086 90.0
94.0 0.79062 0.016111 416.3 416.3 62.010 1040.5 1102.5 0.1188 1.8792 1.9980 94.0
98.0 0.89356 0.016123 370.9 370.9 66.003 1038.2 1104.2 0.1260 1.8617 1.9876 98.0
100.0 0.94924 0.016130 350.4 350.4 67.999 1037.1 1105.1 0.1295 1.8530 1.9825 100.0
104.0 1.06965 0.016144 313.1 313.1 71.992 1034.8 1106.8 0.1366 1.8358 1.9725 104.0
108.0 1.2030 0.016158 280.28 280.30 75.98 1032.5 1108.5 0.1437 1.8188 1.9626 108.0
110.0 1.2750 0.016165 265.37 265.39 77.98 1031.4 1109.3 0.1472 1.8105 1.9577 110.0
114.0 1.4299 0.016180 238.21 238.22 81.97 1029.1 1111.0 0.1542 1.7938 1.9480 114.0
118.0 1.6009 0.016196 214.20 214.21 85.97 1026.8 1112.7 0.1611 1.7774 1.9386 118.0
120.0 1.6927 0.016204 203.25 203.26 87.97 1025.6 1113.6 0.1646 1.7693 1.9339 120.0
124.0 1.8901 0.016221 183.23 183.24 91.96 1023.3 1115.3 0.1715 1.7533 1.9247 124.0
128.0 2.1068 0.016238 165.45 165.4 7 95.96 1021.0 1117.0 0.1783 1.7374 1.9157 128.0
130.0 2.2230 Q.016247 157.32 157.33 97.96 1019.8 1117.8 0.1817 1.7295 1.9112 130.0
134.0 2.4717 0.016265 142.40 142.41 101.95 1017.5 1119.5 0.1884 1.7140 1.9024 134.0
138.0 2.7438 0.016284 129.09 129.11 105.95 1015.2 1121.1 0.1951 1.6986 1.8937 138.0
140.0 2.8892 0.016293 122.98 123.00 107.95 1014.0 1122.0 0.1985 1.6910 1.8895 140.0
144.0 3.1997 0.016312 111.74 111.76 111.95 1011.7 1123.6 0.2051 1.6759 1.8810 144.0
148.0 3.5381 0.016332 101.68 101.70 115.95 1009.3 1125.3 0.2117 1.6610 1.8727 148.0
150.0 3.7184 0.016343 97.05 97.07 117.95 1008.2 1126.1 0.2150 1.6536 1.8686 150.0
154.0 4.0125 0.016363 88.50 88.52 121.95 1005.8 1127.7 0.2216 1.6390 1.8606 154.0
158.0 4.5197 0.016384 80.82 80.83 125.96 1003.4 1129.4 0.2281 1.6245 1.8526 158.0
160.0 4.7414 0.016395 77.27 77.29 127.96 1002.2 1130.2 0.2313 1.6174 1.8487 160.0
164.0 5.2124 0.016417 70.70 70.72 131.96 999.8 1131.8 0.2377 1.6032 1.8409 164.0
168.0 5.7223 0.016440 64.78 64.80 135.97 997.4 1133.4 0.2441 1.5892 1.8333 168.0
170.0 5.9926 0.016451 62.04 62.06 137.97 996.2 1134.2 0.2473 1.5822 1.8295 170.0
174.0 6.5656 0.016474 56.95 56.97 141.98 993.8 1135.8 0.2537 1.5684 1.8221 174.0
178.0 7.1840 0.016498 52.35 52.36 145.99 991.4 1137.4 0.2600 1.5548 1.8147 178.0
180.0 7.5110 0.016510 50.21 50.22 148.00 990.2 1138.2 0.2631 1.5480 1.8111 180.0
190,O 9.340 0.016572 40.941 40.957 158.04 984.1 1142.1 0.2787 1.5148 1.7934 190.0
200.0 11.526 0.016637 33.622 33.639 168.09 977.9 1146.0 0.2940 1.4824 1.7764 200.0 --l
220.0 17.186 0.016775 23.131 23.148 188.23 965.2 1153.4 0.3241 1.4201 1.7442 220.0 i:'1
240.0 24.968 0.016926 16.304 16.321 208.45 952.1 1160.6 0.3533 1.3609 1.7142 240.0 >
260.0 35.427 0.017089 11.745 11.762 228.76 938.6 1167.4 0.3819 1.3043 1.6862 260.0 --l
280.0 49.200 0.017264 8.627 8.644 249.17 924.6 1173.8 0.4098 1.2501 1.6599 280.0 >
- 0.4640
340.0 117.992 0.D1787 3.7699 3.7878 311.3 878.8 1190.1 0.4902 1.0990 1.5892 340.0
380.0 -
Table 2 (continued) N
Abs. Press Specific Volume Enthalpy Entropy
Temp Lb per Sat. Sat. Sat. Temp ("J
Sat. Sat. Sat.
Fahr Sq In. Liquid Evap Liquid
Vapor Evap Vapor Liquid Evap Vapor Fahr




420.0 308.780 0.01894 1.4808 1.4997 39d 806.2 1203.1 0.5915 '0.9165 1.5080 420.0
440.0 381.54 0.01926 1.19761 1.21687 419.0 785.4 1204.4 0.6161 0.8729 1.4890 440.0 ~
460.0 466.87 0.01961 0.97463 0.99424 441.5 763.2 1204.8 0.6405 0.8299 1.4704 460.0 i:'1
480.0 566.15 0.02000 0.79716 0.81717 464.5 739.6 1204.1 0.6648 0.7871 1.4518 480.0
500.0 680.86 0.02043 0.65448 0.67492 487.9 714.3 1202.2 0.6890 0.7443 1.4333 500.0
520.0 812.53 0.02091 0.53864 0.55956 512.0 687.0 1199.0 0.7133 0.7013 1.4146 520.0
540.0 962.79 0.02146 0.44367 0.46513 536.8 657.5 1194.3 0.7378 0.6577 1.3954 540.0
560.0 1133.38 0.02207 0.36507 0.38714 562.4 625.3 1187.7 0.7625 0.6132 1.3757 560.0
580.0 1326.17 0.02279 0.29937 0.32216 589.1 589.9 1179.0 0.7876 0.5673 1.3550 580.0
600.0 1543.2 0.02364 0.24384 0.26747 617.1 550.6 1167.7 0.8134 0.5196 1.3330 600.0
620.0 1786.9 0.02466 0.19615 0.22081 646.9 506.3 1153.2 0.8403 0.4689 1.3092 620.0
640.0 2059.9 0.02595 0.15427 0.18021 679.1 454.6 113 3.7 0.8686 0.4134 1.2821 640.0
660.0 2365.7 0.02768 0.11663 0.14431 714.9 392.1 1107.0 0.8995 0.3502 1.2498 660.0
680.0 2708.6 0.03037 0.08080 0.11117 758.5 310.1 1068.5 0.9365 0.2720 1.2086 680.0
700.0 3094.3 0.03662 0.03857 0.07519 822.4 172.7 995.2 0.9901 0.1490 1.1390 700.0
702.0 3135.5 0.03824 0.03173 0.06997 835.0 144.7 979.7 1.0006 0.1246 1.1252 702.0
704.0 3177.2 0.04108 0.02192 0.06300 854.2 102.0 956.2 1.0169 0.0876 1.1046 704.0
705.0 3198.3 0.04427 0.01304 0.05730 873.0 61.4 934.4 1.0329 0.0527 1.0856 705.0
705.47* 3208.2 0.05078 0.00000 0.05078 906.0 0.0 906.0 1.0612 0.0000. 1.0612 705.47*
*Critica\ temperature.
Table 3. Superheated Stearn
Abs. Press
LbjSqIn. Sat. Sat. Temperature-Degrees Fahrenheit
(Sat. Temp) Water Stearn 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
Sh 98.26 148.26 198.26 248.26 298.26 348.26 398.26 498.26 598.26 698.26 798.26 898.26 998.26 1098.26
1 v 0.01614 333.6 392.5 422.4 452.3 482.1 511.9 541.7 571.5 631.1 690.7 750.2 809.8 869.4 929.1 988.7
(101.74) h 69.73 1105.8 1150.2 1172.9 1195.7 1218.7 1241.8 1265.1 1288.6 1336.1 1284.5 1431.0 1480.8 1531.4 1583.0 1635.4
0.1326 1.9781 2.0509 2.0841 2.1152 2.1445 2.1722 2.1985 2.2237 2.2708 2.3144 2.3512 2.3892 2.4251 2.4592 2.4918
Sh 37.76 87.76 137.76 187.76 237.76 287.76 337.76 437.76 537.76 637.76 737.76 837.76 937.76 1037.76
5 v 0.01641 73.53 78.14 84.21 90.24 96.25 102.24 108.23 114.21 126.15 138.08 150.01 161.94 173.86 185.78 197.70
(162.24) h 130.20 1131.1 1148.6 1171.7 1194.8 1218.0 1241.3 1264.7 1288.2 1335.9 1384.3 1433.6 1483.7 1534.7 1586.7 1639.6
0.2349 1.8443 1.8716 1.9054 1.9369 1.9664 1.9943 2.0208 20460 2.0932 2.1369 2.1776 2.2159 2.2521 2.2866 2.3194
Sh 6.79 56.79 106.79 156.79· 206.79 256.79 306.79 406.79 506.79 606.79 706.79 806.79 906.79 1006.79
10 v 0.01659 38.42 38.84 41.93 44.98 48.02 51.03 54.04 57.04 63.03 69.00 74.98 80.94 86.91 92.87 98.84
(193.21) h 161.26 1143.3 1146.6 1170.2 1193.7 1217.1 1240.6 1264.1 1287.8 1335.5 1384.0 1433.3 1483.5 1534.6 1586.6 1639.5
0.2836 1.7879 1.7928 1.8273 1.8593 1.8892 1.9l73 1.9439 1.9692 2.0166 2.0603 2.1011 2.1394 2.1757 2.2101 2.2430
Sh 38.00 88.00 138.00 188.00 238.00 288.00 388.00 448.00 588.00 688.00 788.00 888.00 988.00
14.696* v 0.0167 26.828 28.44 30.52 32.61 34.65 36.73 38.75 42.83 46.91 50.97 55.03 59.09 63.19 67.25 CIl
(212.00) h 180.07 1150.4 1169.2 1192.0 1215.4 1238.9 1262.1 1285.4 1333.0 1381.4 1430.5 1480.4 1531.1 1582.7 1635.1 --l
0.3120 1.7566 1.7838 1.8148 1.8446 1.8727 ~ 1.;8989 1.9238 1.9709 2.0145 2.0551 2.0932 2.1292 2.1634 2.1960 >
Sh 36.97 86.97 136.97 186.97 236.97 286.97 386.97 486.97 586.97 686.97 786.97 886.97 986.97 :::::
15 v 0.01673 26.290 27.837 29.899 31.939 33.963 35.977 37.985 41.986 45.978 49.964 53.946 57.926 61.905 65.882 --l
(213.03) h 181.21 1150.9 1168.7 1192.5 1216.2 1239.9 1263.6 1287.3 1335.2 1383.8 1433.2 1483.4 1534.5 1586.5 1639.4 >
0.3137 1.7552 1.7809 1.8134 1.8437 1.8720 1.8988 1.9242 1.9717 2.0155 2.0563 2.0946 2.1309 2.1653 2.1982 t'"'
Sh 22.04 72.04 122.04 172.04 222.04 272.04 372.04 472.04 572.04 672.04 772.04 872.04 972.04 CIl
20 v 0.01683 20.087 20.788 22.356 23.900 25.428 26.946 28.457 31.466 34.465 37.458 40.447 43.435 46.420 49.405

(227.96) h 196.27 1156.3 1167.1 1191.4 1215.4 1239.2 1263.0 1286.9 1334.9 1383.5 1432.9 1483.2 1534.3 1586.3 1639.3 N
0.3358 1.7320 1.7475 1.7805 1.8111 1.8397 1.8666 1.8921 1.9397 1.9836 2.0244 2.0628 2.0991 2.1336 2.1665
Table 3 (continued) N

Abs. Press ("')

Lb/Sq In. Sat. Sat. Temperature-Degrees Fahrenheit 0
(Sat. Temp) Water Stearn 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 0
v 0.01693 16.30.1
9.93 59.93 109.93 159.93
16.558 17.829 19.076 20.307
(240.07) h 208.52 1160.6 1165.6 1190.2 1214.5 1238.5 l;262.5 1286.4 1334.6 1383.3 1432.7 1483.0 1534.2 1586.2 1639.2
0.3535 1.7141 1.7212 1.7547 1.7856 1.8145 1.8415 1.8672 1.9149 1.9588 1.9997 2.0381 2.0744 2.1089 2.1418 0

v 0.01701 13.744
49.66 99.66 149.66
14.810 15.859 16.892
(250.34) h 218.93 1164.1 1189.0 1213.6 1237.8 1261.9 1286.0 1334.2 1383.0 1432.5 1482.8 1534.0 1586.1 1639.0 ~
0.3682 1.6995 1.7334 1.7647 1.7937 1.8210 1.8467 1.8946 1.9386 1.9795 2.0179 2.0543 2.0888 2.1217
Sh 40.71 90.71 140.71 190.71 240.71 340.71 440.71 540.71 640.71 740.71 840.71 940.71
35 v 0.01708 11.896 12.654 13.562 14.453 15.334 16.207 17.939 19.662 21.379 23.092 24.803 26.512 28.220
(259.29) h 228.03 1167.1 1187.8 1212.7 1237.1 1261.3 1285.5 1333.9 1382.8 1432.3 1482.7 1533.9 1586.0 1638.9
03809 1.6872 1.7152 1.7468 1.7761 1.8035 1.8294 1.8774 1.9214 1.9624 2.0009 2.0372 2.0717 2.1046
Sh 32.75 82.75 l32.75 182.75 232.75 332.75 432.75 532.75 632.75 732.75 832.75 932.75
40 v 0.01715 10.497 11.036 11.838 12.624 13.398 14.165 15.685 17.195 18.699 20.199 21.697 23.194 24.689
(l{lJn1i' ~ d?6 14 'if,@ Q 1 i'fL\lWiiF 1??E • 1 Z"C 0 m£g tU'lC 1'lQ1..£ lt1?'l.:1 14..21 ~ 1~::I:2"'L--....l.c::Q~Q 1.-'20 Q

0.3921 1.6765 1.6992 1.7312 1.7608 1.7883 1.8143 1.8624 1.9065 1.9476 1.9860 2.0224 2.0569 2.0899

""tJ .- -- • b.l12,"'", ~O-:J~q. "-'--(j.iO~ ~."t2'" 1O.v02O 1O.UOO ,L.1 • .:JUQ J.,I;; • .J,I;;;7 1.":}.I"t.1 .1"t~~r"'.i'b:.1-.JU .1/ • .:J.JU J.t..3~

(281.02) h 250.21 1174.1 1184.1 1209.9 1234.9 1259.6 1284.1 1332.9 l382.0 1431.7 1482.2 1533.4 1585.6 1638.6
0.4112 1.6586 1.6720 1.7048 1.7349 1.7628 1.7890 1.8374 1.8816 1.9227 1.9613 1.9977 2.0322 2.0652
Sh 7.29 57.29 107.29 157.29 207.29 307.29 407.29 507.29 607.29 707.29 807.29 907.29
60 v 0.1738 7.174 7.257 7.815 8.354 8.881 9.400 10.425 11.438 12.446 l3.450 14.452 15.452 16.450
(292.71) h 262.21 1177.6 1181.6 1208.0 1233.5 1258.5 1283.2 l332.3 l381.5 1431.3 1481.8 lS33.2 1585.3 1638.4
0.4273 1.6440 1.6492 1.6934 1.7134 1.7417 1.7681 1.8168 1.8612 1.9024 1.9410 1.9774 2.0120 2.0450
Sh 47,07 97.07 147.07 197.07 297.07 397.07 497.07 597.07 697.07 797.07 897.07
70 v 0.01748 6.205 6.664 7.l33 7.590 8.039 8.922 9.793 10.659 11.522 12.382 l3.240 14.097
(302.93) h 272.74 1180.6 1206.0 1232.0 1257.3 1282.2 l331.6 l381.0 1430.9 1481.5 1532.9 1585.1 1638.2
0.4411 1.6316 1.6640 1.6951 1.7237 1.7504 1.7993 1.8439 1.8852 1.9238 1.9603 l.9949 2.0279
Table 3 (continued)
Abs. Press
LbjSq In. Sat. Sat. Temperature-Degrees Fahrenheit
(Sat. Temp) Water Stearn 350 400 450 500 550 600 700 BOO 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400
Sh 37.96 87.96 137.96 187.96 237.96 287.96 387.96 487.96 587.96 687.96 787.96 887.96 987.96 1087.96
80 v 0.01757 5.471 5.801 6.218 6.622 7.018 7.408 7.794 8.560 9.319 10.075 10.829 11.581 12.331 13.081 13.829
(312.04) h 282.15 1183.1 1204.0 1230.5 1256.1 1281.3 1306.2 1330.9 1380.5 1430.5 1481.1 1532.6 1584.9 1638.0 1692.0 1746.8
0.4534 1.6208 1.6473 1.6790 1.7080 1.7349 1.1602 1.1842 1.8289 1.8702 1.9089 1.9454 1.9800 2.0131 2.0446 2.0750
Sh 29.72 79.72 129.72 179.72 229.72 279.72 379.72 479.72 579.72 679.72 779.72 879.72 979.72 1079.72
90 v 0.01766 4.895 5.128 5.505 5.869 6.223 6.572 6.917 7.600 8.277 8.950 9.621 10.290 10.958 11.625 12.290
(320.28) h 290.69 1185.3 1202.0 1228.9 1254.9 1280.3 l305.4 1330.2 1380.0 1430.1 1480.8 1532.3 1584.6 1637.8 1691.8 1746.7
0.4643 1.6113 1.6323 1.6646 1.0940 1.7212 1.7467 1.7707 1.8156 1.8570 1.8957 1.9323 1.9669 2.0000 2.0316 2.0619
Sh 22.18 72.18 122.18 172.18 222.18 272.18 372.18 472.18 572.18 672.18 772.18 872.18 972.18 1072.18
100 v 0.01774 4.431 4.590 4.935 5.266 5.588 5.904 6.216 6.833 7.443 8.050 8.655 9.258 9.860 10.460 11.060
(327.82) h 298.54 llB7.2 1199.9 1227.4 1253.7 1279.3 1304.6 1329.6 1379.5 1429.7 1480.4 1532.0 1584.4 1637.6 1691.6 1746.5
0.4743 1.6027 1.6187 1.6516 1.6814 1.7088 1.7344 1.7586 1.8036 1.8451 l.8839 1.9205 l.9552 1.9883 2.0199 2.0502
Sh 15.21 65.21 115.21 165.21 215.21 265.21 365.21 465.21 565.21 665.21 765.21 865.21 965.21 1065.21
110 v 0.01782 4.048 4.149 4.468 4.772 5.068· 5.357 5.642 6.205 6.761 7.314 7.865 8.413 8.961 9.507 10.053
(334.79) h 305.80 1188.9 1197.7 1225.8 1252.5 1278.3 1303.8 1328.9 1379.0 1429.2 1480.1 1531.7 1584.1 1637.4 1691.4 1746.4
s 0.4834 l.5950 1.6061 1.6396 1.6698 1.6975 1.7233 1.7476 1.7928 l.8344 1.8732 1.9099 1.9446 1.9777 2.0093 2.0397
Sh 8.73 58.73 108.73 158.73 208.73 258.73 358.73 458.73 558.73 658.73 758.73 858.73 958.73 1058.73
120 v 0.01789 3.7275 3.7815 4.0786 4.3610 4.6341 4.9009 5.1637 5.6813 6.1928 6.7006 7.2060 7.7096 8.2119 8.7130 9.2134
(341.27) h 312.58 1190.4 1195.6 1224.1 1251.2 1277.4 1302.9 1328.2 1378.4 1428.8 1479.8 1531.4 1583.9 1637.1 1691.3 1746.2 --l
0.4919 1.5879 1.5943 1.6286 1.6592 1.6872 1.7132 1.7376 1.7829 1.8246 1.8635 1.9001 1.9349 19680 1.9996 2.0300 i:"l
146.96 196.96 - i·
446.96 546.96 646.96 746.96 846.96 946.96 1046.96 >
Sh 49.96 96.96 246.96 346.96 :::::
140 v 0.01803 3.2190 3.4661 3.7143 3.9526 4.1844 4.4119 4.8588 5.2995 5.7364 6.1709 6.6036 7.0349 7.4652 7.8946
(353.04) h 324.96 1193.0
0.5071 1.5752
1275.3 1301.3
1.6686 1.6949

Table 3 (continued) N
Abs. Press
Lb/Sq In. Sat. Sat. Temperature-Degrees Fahrenheit ("'J
(Sat. Temp) Water Steam 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 0
Sh 36.45 86.45 136.45 186.45 236.45 336.45 436.45 536.45 636.45 736.45 836.45 936.45 1036.45 t""'
160 v 0.01815 2.8336 3.0060 3.2288 3.4413 3.6469 3.. 8480 4.2420 4.6295 5.0132 5.3945 5.7741 6.1522 6.5293 6.9055 Z
(363.55) h 336.07 1195.1 1217.4 1246.0 1273.3 1299.6 1325.4 1376.4 1427.2 1478.4 1530.3 1582.9 1636.3 1690.5 1745.6 C'l
0.5206 1.5641 1.5906 1.6231 1.6522 1.6790 1.7039 1.7499 1.7919 1.8310 1.8678 1.9027 1.9359 1.9676 1.9980 --l
Sh 26.92 76.92 126.92 176.92 226.92 326.92 426.92 526.92 626.92 726.92 826.92 926.92 1026.92 0
180 v 0.01827 1.5312 2.6474 2.8508 3.0433 3.2286 3.4093 3.7621 4.1084 4.4508 4.7907 5.1289 5.4657 5.8014 6.1363 i:"l
(373.08) h 346.19 1196.9 1213.8 1243.4 1271.2 1297.9 1324.0 1375.3 1426.3 1477.7 1529.7 1582.4 1635.9 1690.2 1745.3 ::tI
0.5328 1.5543 1.5743 1.6078 1.6376 1.6647 1.6900 1.7362 1.7784 1.8176 1.8545 1.8894 1.9227 1.9545 1.9849
Sh 18.20 68.20 118.20 168.20 218.20 318.20 418.20 518.20 618.20 718.20 818.20 918.20 1018.20
200 v 0.01839 2.2873 2.3598 2.5480 2.7247 2.8939 3.0583 3.3783 3.6915 4.0008 4.3077 4.6128 4.9165 5.2191 5.5209
(381.80) h 355.51 1198.3 1210.1 1240.6 1269.0 1296.2 1322.6 1374.3 1425.5 1477.0 1529.1 1581.9 1635.4 1689.8 1745.0
0.5438 1.5454 1.5593 1.5938 1.6242 1.6518 1.6773 1.7239 1.7663 1.8057 1.8426 1.8776 1.9109 1.9427 1.9732
Sh = superheat, F; v = specific volume, cu ft per lb; h = enthalpy, Btu per lb; s = entropy. Btu per F per lb.


Multiply By To Obtain
Acres 43.560 Square feet
Acres 4,047 Square meters
Acres 1.562 x 10- 3 Square miles
Acres 4840 Square yards
Acre-feet 43.560 Cubic-feet
Acre-feet 3.259 x 10 5 Gallons
Angstrom units 3.937 x 10- 9 Inches
Atmospheres 76.0 Centimeters of mercury
Atmospheres 29.92 Inches of mercury
Atmospheres 33.90 Feet of water
Atmospheres 10,333 Kilograms/square meter
Atmospheres 14.70 Pounds/square inch
Atmospheres 1.058 Tons/square foot
Barrels (British, dry) 5.780 Cubic feet
Barrels (British, dry) 0.1637 Cubic meters
Barrels (British, dry) 36 Gallons (British)
Barrels, cement 170.6 Kilograms
Barrels, cement 376 Pounds of cement
Barrels, oil' 42 Gallons (U.S.)
Barrels, (U.S., liquid) 4.211 Cubic feet
Barrels, (US., liquid) 0.1192 Cubic meters
Barrels (U.S., liquid) 31.5 Gallons (U.S.)
Bars 0.9869 Atmospheres
Bars 1 x 10 6 Dynes/square centimeter
Bars 1.020 x 10 4 Kilograms/square meter
Bars 2.089 x 10 3 Pounds/square foot
Bars 14.50 Pounds/square inch


Multiply By To Obtain
Board-feet 144 square inches Cubic inches
x 1 inch
British thermal units 0.2520 Kilogram-calories
British thermal units 777.5 Foot-pounds
British thermal units 3.927 x 10-4 Horsepower-hours
British thermal units 1054 Joules
British thermal units 107.5 Kilogram-meters
British thermal units 2.928 x 10-4 Kilowatt-hours
Btu (mean) 251.98 Calories, gram (mean)
Btu (mean) 0.55556 Centigrade heat units
Btu (mean) 6.876 x 10- 5 Pounds of carbon to CO 2
Btu/minute 12.96 Foot-pounds/second
Btu/minute 0.02356 Horsepower
Btu/minute 0.01757 Kilowatts
Btu/minute 17.57 Watts
Btu/square foot/ 0.1220 Watts/square inch
Btu (mean)/hour 4.882 Kilogram-calorie /
(ft2tF (m 2 tC
Btu (mean)/hour 1.3562 x 10-4 Gram-calorie/second
(ft2 tF (cm 2tC
3.94 x 10-4 Horsepower / ( ft 2 ) F
Btu (mean)/hour
Btu (mean)/hour 5.682 x 10-4 Watts/( cm 2tc
Btu (mean)/hour 2.035 x 10- 3 Watts/(in. 2tc
(ft 2 tF
Btu (mean)/pound/ 1 Calories, gram/gramtC
Bushels 1.244 Cubic feet
Bushels 2150 Cubic inches
Bushels 0.03524 Cubic meters
Bushels 4 Pecks
Bushels 64 Pints (dry)
Bushels 32 Quarts (dry)
Calories, gram (mean) 3.9685 x 10- 3 Btu (mean)
Calories, gram (mean) 0.001469 Cubic feet-atmospheres
Calories, gram (mean) 3.0874 Foot-pounds
Calories, gram (mean) 0.0011628 Watt-hours
Calories, (thermochemi- 0.999346 Calories (int. steam
cal) tables)

Multiply By To Obtain
Calories, gram (mean)/gram 1.8 Btu (mean)/pound
Centigrams 0.01 Grams
Centiliters 0.01 liters
Centimeters 0.0328083 Feet (U.S.)
Centimeters 0.3937 Inches
Centimeters 0.01 Meters
Centimeters 393.7 Mils
Centimeters 10 Millimeters
Centimeter-dynes 1.020 x 10- 3 Centimeter-grams
Centimeter-dynes 1.020 x 10- 8 Meter-kilograms
Centimeter-dynes 7.376 x 10- 8 Pound-feet
Centimeter-grams 980.7 Centimeter-dynes
Centimeter-grams 10-5 Meter-kilograms
Centimeter-grams 7.233 x 10-5 Pound-feet
Centimeters of 0.01316 Atmospheres
Centimeters of 0.4461 Feet of water
Centimeters of 136.0 Kilograms/square meter
Centimeters of 27.85 Pounds/square foot
Centimeters of 0.1934 Pounds/square inch
Centimeters/second 1.969 Feet/minute
Centimeters/second 0.03281 Feet/second
Centimeters/second 0.036 Kilometers/hour
Centimeters/second 0.6 Meters/minute
Centimeters/second 0.02237 Miles/hour
Centimeters/ second 3.728 x 10-4 Miles/minute
Centimeters/ second/ 0.03281 Feet/second/second
Centimetels/ second/ 0.036 Kilometers/hour/second
Centimeters/ second/ 0.02237 Miles/hour/second
Circular mils 5.067 x 10- 6 Square centimeters
Circular mils 7.854 x 10- 7 Square inches
Circular mils 0.7854 Square mils
Cord-feet 4 feet x 4 feet x Cubic feet
1 foot

Multiply By To Obtain
Cords 8 feet x 4 feet x Cubic feet
4 feet
Cubic centimeters 3.531 x 10- 5 Cubic feet
Cubic centimeters 6.102 x 10- 2 Cubic inches
Cubic centimeters 10- 6 Cubic meters
Cubic centimeters 1.308 x 10- 6 Cubic yards
Cubic centimeters 2.642 x 10-4 Gallons
Cubic centimeters 10- 3 Liters
Cubic centimeters 2.113 x 10- 3 Pints (liqUid)
Cubic centimeters 1.057 x 10- 3 Quarts (Jiq uid)
Cubic centimeters 0.033814 Ounces (U.S. fluid)
Cubic feet 2.832 x 10 4 Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet 1728 Cubic inches
Cubic feet 0.02832 Cubic meters
Cubic feet 0.03704 Cubic yards
Cubic feet 7.481 Gallons
Cubic feet 28.32 Liters
Cubic feet 59.84 Pints (liquid)
Cubic feet 29.92 Quarts (liquid)
Cubic feet of water{60°F) 62.37 Pounds
Cubic feet/minute 472.0 Cubic centimeters/second
Cubic feet/minute 0.1247 Gallons/second
Cubic feet/minute 0.4720 Liters/second
Cubic feet/minute 62.4 Pounds of water/minute
Cubic feet/second 1.9834 Acre-feet/day
Cubic feet/second 448.83 Gallons/minute
Cubic feet/second 0.64632 Million gallons/day
Cubic feet-atmospheres 2.7203 Btu (mean)
Cubic foot-atmospheres 680.74 Calories, gram (mean)
Cubic foot-atmospheres 2116.3 Foot-pounds
Cubic foot-atmospheres 292.6 Kilogram-meters
Cubic foot-atmospheres 7.968 x 10-4 Kilowatt-hours
Cubic inches 16.39 Cubic centimeters
Cubic inches 5.787 x 10-4 Cubic feet
Cubic inches 1.639 x 10- 5 Cubic meters
Cubic inches 2.143 x 10- 5 Cubic yards
Cubic inches 4.329 x 10- 3 Gallons
Cubic inches 1.639 x 10- 2 Liters
Cubic inches 0.03463 Pints (liquid)
Cubic inches 0.01732 Quarts (liquid)
Cubic inches (U.S.) 0.55411 Ounces (U.S. fluid)

Multiply By To Obtain
Cubic meters 10 Cubic centimeters
Cubic meters 35.31 Cubic feet
Cubic meters 61,023 Cubic inches
Cubic meters 1.308 Cubic yards
Cubic meters 264.2 Gallons
Cubic meters 10 3 Liters
Cubic meters 2113 Pints (liquid)
Cubic meters 1057 Quarts (liquid)
Cubic meters 8.1074 x 10-4 Acre-feet
Cubic meters 8.387 Barrels (U.S., liquid)
Cubic yards (British) 0.9999916 Cubic yards (U.S.)
Cubic yards 7.646 x 105 Cubic centimeters
Cubic yards 27 Cubic feet
Cubic yards 46.656 Cubic inches
Cubic yards 0.7646 Cubic meters
Cubic yards 202.0 Gallons
Cubic yards 764.6 Liters
Cubic yards 1616 Pints (liquid)
Cubic yards 807.9 Quarts (liquid)
Cubic yards/minute 0.45 Cubi~\ feet/ second
Cubic yards/minute 3.367 Gallons/second
Cubic yards/minute 12.74 Liters/second
Days 1440 Minutes
Days 86,400 Seconds
Decigrams 0.1 Grams
Deciliters 0.1 Liters
Decimeters 0.1 Meters
Degrees (angle) 60 Minutes
Degrees (angle) 0.01745 Radians
Degrees (angle) 3600 Seconds
Degrees/second 0.01745 Radians/second
Degrees/second 0.1667 Revolutions/minute
Degrees/secord 0.002778 Revolutions/second
Dekagrams 10 Grams
Dekaliters 10 Liters
Dekameters 10 Meters
Drams 1.772 Grams
Drams 0.0625 Ounces
Dynes 1.020 x 10- 3 Grams
Dynes 7.233 x 10- 5 Poundals
Dynes 2.248 x 10- 6 Pounds

Multiply By To Obtain
Dynes per square centi- Bars
Ergs 9.486 x 10- 1 I British thermal units
Ergs 1 Dyne-centimeters
Ergs 7.376 x 10- 8 Foot-pounds
Ergs 1.020 x 1(f3 Gram-centimeters
Ergs 10- 3 Joules
Ergs 2.390 x 10- 1 I Kilogram-calories
Ergs 1.020 x 10- 8 Kilogram-meters
Ergs/second 5.692 x 10- 9 British thermal units/
Ergs/second 4.426 x 10-6 Foot-pounds/minute
Ergs/second 7.376 x 10- 8 Foot-pounds/second
Ergs/second 1.341 x 10- 10 Horsepower
Ergs/second 1.434 x 10-9 Kilogram-calories/minute
Ergs/second 10- 10 Kilowatts
Fathoms 6 Feet
Feet 30.48 Centimeters
Feet 12 Inches
Feet 0.3048 Meters
Feet 1/3 Yards
Feet (U.S.) 1.893939 x 10-4 Miles (statute)
Feet of air (1 atmos- 5.30 x 10-4 Pounds/square inch
phere 60°F)
Feet of water 0.02950 Atmospheres
Feet of water 0.8826 Inches of mercury
Feet of water 304.8 Kilograms/square meter
Feet of water 62.43 Pounds/square foot
Feet of water 0.4335 Pounds/square inch
Feet/minute 0.5080 Centimeters/second
Feet/minute 0.01667 Feet/second
Feet/minute 0.01829 Kilometers/hour
Feet/minute 0.3048 Meters/minute
Feet/minute 0.01136 Miles/hour
Feet/second 30.48 Centimeters/second
Feet/second 1.097 Kilometers/hour
Feet/second 0.5921 Knots/hour
Feet/second 18.29 Meters/minute
Feet/second 0.6818 Miles/hour
Feet/second 0.Q1136 Miles/minute

Multiply By To Obtain
Feet/100 feet 1 Percent Grade
Feet/second/second 30.48 Centimeters/second/
Feet/second/second 1.097 Kilometers/hour/second
Feet/second/second 0.304'8 Meters/second/second
Feet/second/second 0.6818 Miles/hour/second
Foot-poundals 3.9951 x 10- 5 Btu (mean)
Foot-poundals 0.0421420 Joules (abs)
Foot-pounds 0.013381 Liter-atmospheres
Foot-pounds 3.7662 x 10-4 Watt-hours (abs)
Foot-pounds 1.286 x 10- 3 British thermal units
Foot-pounds 1.356 x 10 7 Ergs
Foot-pounds 5.050 x 10- 7 Horsepower-hours
Foot-pounds 1.356 Joules
Foot-pounds 3.241 x 10-4 Kilogram-calories
Foot-pounds 0.1383 Kilogram-meters
Foot-pounds 3.766 x 10- 7 Kilowatt-hours
Foot-pounds/minute 1.286 x 10- 3 British thermal units/
Foot-pounds/minute 0.01667 Foot-pounds/second
Foot-pounds/minute 3.030 x 10- 5 Horsepower
Foot -pounds/minute 3.241 x 10-4 Kilogram-calories/minute
Foot-pounds/minute 2.260 x 10-5 , Kilowatts
Foot-pounds/second 7.717 x 10- 2 British thermal units/
Foot-pounds/second 1.818xlO- 3 Horsepower
Foot-pounds/second 1.945 x 10- 2 Kilogram-calories/minute
Foot-pounds/second 1.356 x 10- 3 Kilowatts
Foot-pounds/second 4.6275 Btu (mean)/hour
Foot-pounds/second 1.35582 Watts (abs)
Gallons (British) 4516.086 Cubic centimeters
Gallons (British) 1.20094 Gailons (U.S.)
Gallons (British) 10 Pounds (avordupois) of
of water at 62°F
Gallons (U.S.) 128 Ounces (U.S. fluid)
Gallons 3785 Cubic centimeters
Gallons 0.1337 Cubic feet
Gallons 231 Cubic inches
Gallons 3.785 x 10-3 Cubic meters
Gallons 4.951 x 10-3 Cubic yards
Gallons 3.785 Liters

Multiply By To Obtain
Gallons 8 Pints (liquid)
Gallons 4 Quarts (liquid)
Gallons/minute 2.228 x 10-3 Cubic feet/second
Gallons/minute 0.06308 Liters/second
Grains (troy) 1 Grains (average)
Grains (troy) 0.06480 Grams
Grains (troy) 0.04167 Pennyweights (troy)
Grains (troy) 2.0833 x 10- 3 Ounces (troy)
Grains/U.S. gallons 17.118 Parts/million
Grains/U.S. gallons 142.86 Pounds/million gallons
Grains/Imperial gallons 14.286 Parts/million
Grams 980.7 Dynes
Grams 15.43 Grains (troy)
Grams 10- 3 Kilograms
Grams 10 3 Milligrams
Grams 0.03527 Ounces
Grams 0.03215 Ounces (troy)
Grams 0.07093 Poundals
Grams 2.205 x 10- 3 Pounds
Gram-calories 3.968 x 10-3 British thermal units
Gram-centimeters 9.302 x 10-8 British thermal units
Gram -cen time te rs 980.7 Ergs
Gram-centimeters 7.233 x 10- 5 Foot-pounds
Gram-centimeters 9.807 x 10- 5 Joules
Gram-centimeters 2.344 x 10- 8 Kilogram-calories
Gram-centimeters 10- 5 Kilogram-meters
Gram-centimeters 2.7241 x 10-8 Watt-hours
Gram-centimeters/ 9.80665 x 10- 5 Watts (abs)
Grams-centimeters 2 3.4172 x 10-4 Pounds-inch 2
(moment of inertia)
Grams-centimeters 2 2.37305 x 10- 6 Pounds-feet 2
Grams/cubic meters 0.43700 Grains/cubic foot
Grams/centimeter 5.600 x 10- 3 Pounds/inch
Grams/cubic centimeter 62.43 Pounds/cubic foot
Grams/cubic centimeter 0.03613 Pounds/cubic inch
Grams/cubic centimeter 3.405 x 10- 7 Pounds/mil foot
Grams/ cubic centimeter 8.34 Pounds/ gallon
Grams/liter 58.417 Grains/gallon (U.S.)
Grams/liter 9.99973 x 10-4 Grams/cubic centimeter
Grams/liter 1000 Parts/million (ppm)

Multiply By To Obtain
Grams/liter 0.06243 Pounds/cubic foot
Grams/square centi- 0.0142234 Pounds/square inch
Hectograms 100 Grams
Hectoliters 100 Liters
Hectometers 100 Meters
Hectowatts 100 Watts
Hemispheres (sol. 0.5 Sphere
Hemispheres (sol. 4 Spherical right angles
Hemispheres (sol. 6.283 Steradians
Horsepower 42.44 British thermal units/
Horsepower 33,000 Foot-pounds/minute
Horsepower 550 Foot-pounds/second
Horsepower 1.014 Horsepower (metric)
Horsepower 10.70 Kilogram calories/minute

Horsepower 0.7457 Kilowatts

Horsepower 745.7 Watts
Horsepower (boiler) 33,520 British thermal unifs/hour
Horsepower (boiler) 9.804 Kilowatts
Horsepower, electrical 1.0004 Horsepower
Horsepower (me tric) 0.98632 Horsepower
Horsepower-hours 2547 British thermal units
Horsepower-hours 1.98 x 10 6 Foot-pounds
Horsepower-hours 1.684 x 10 6 Joules
Horsepower -hours 641.7 Kilogram-calories
Horsepower-hours 2.737 x 10 5 Kilo gram-meters
Horsepower-hours 0.7457 Kilowatt-hours
Hours 60 Minutes
Hours 3600 Seconds
Inches 2.540 Centimeters
Inches 10 3 Mils
Inches of mercury 0.03342 Atmospheres
Inches of mercury 1.133 Feet of water
Inches of mercury 0.0345 Kilograms/square centi-
Inches of mercury 345.3 Kilograms/square meter
Inches of mercury 25.40 Millimeters of mercury

Multiply By To Obtain
Inches of mercury 70.73 Pounds/square foot
Inches of mercury 0.4912 Pounds/square inch
Inches of water 0.002458 Atmospheres
Inches of water 0.07355 Inches of mercury
Inches of water 25.40 Kilograms/square meter
Inches of water 0.5781 Ounces/square inch
Inches of water 5.204 Pounds/square foot
Inches of water 0.03613 Pounds/square inch
Kilograms 980,665 Dynes
Kilograms 10 3 Grams
Kilograms 70.93 Poundals
Kilograms 2.2046 Pounds
Kilograms 1.102 x 10-3 Tons (short)
Kilogram-calories 3.968 British thermal units
Kilogram-calories 3086 Foot-pounds
Kilogram-calories 1.558 x 10- 3 Horsepower -hours
Kilogram-calories 426.6 Kilogram-meters
Kilogram-calories 1.162 x 10-3 Kilowatt-hours
Kilogram-calories/ . 51.43 Foot-pounds/second
Kilogram-calories/ 0.09351 Horsepower
Kilogram-calories/ 0.06972 Kilowatts
Kilo gram -cen timeters 2 2.373 x 10- 3 Pounds-feet 2
Kilogram-centimeters 2 0.3417 Pounds-inches 2
Kilogram-meters 9.302 x 10- 3 British thermal units
Kilogram-meters 9.807 x 10 7 Ergs
Kilogram-meters 7.233 Foot-pounds
Kilogram-meters 3.6529 x 10- 6 Horsepower-hours
Kilogram-meters 9.579 x 10- 6 Pounds water evaporated
at 212°F
Kilogram-meters 9.807 Joules
Kilogram-meters 2.344 x 10-3 Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-meters 2.724 x 10- 6 Kilowa tt-hours
Kilograms/cubic meter 10-3 Grams/cubic meter
Kilograms,tubic meter 0.06243 Pounds/cubic foot
Kilograms/cubic meter 3.613 x 10- 5 Pounds/cubic inch
Kilograms/cubic meter 3.405 x 10- 10 Pounds/mil foot
Kilograms/meter 0.6720 Pounds/foot

Multiply By To Obtain
Kilograms/square centi- 28.96 Inches of mercury
Kilograms/square centi- 735.56 Millimeters of mercury
Kilograms/square centi- 14.22 Pounds/square inch
Kilograms/square meter 9.678 x 10-5 Atmospheres
Kilograms/square meter 3.281 x 10-3 Feet of water
Kilograms/square meter 2.896 x 10-3 Inches of mercury
Kilograms/square meter 0.07356 Millimeters of mercury
at O°C
Kilograms/square meter 0.2048 Pounds/square foot
Kilograms/square meter 1.422 x 10-3 Pounds/square inch
Kilograms/ square millimeter 10 6 Kilograms/square meter
Kiloliters 10 3 Liters
Kilometers 10 5 Centimeters
Kilometers 3281 Feet
Kilometers 10 3 Meters
Kilometers 0.6214 Miles
Kilometers 1093.6 Yarlfs
Kilometers/hour 27.78 Centimeters/second
Kilometers/hour 54.68 Feet/minute
Kilometers/hour 0.9113 Feet/second
Kilometers/hour 0.5396 Knots/hour
Kilometers/hour 16.67 Meters/minute
Kilometers/hour 0.6214 Miles/hour
Kilometers/hour / 27.78 Centimeters/second/
second second
Kilometers/hour/ 0.9113 Feet/second/second
Kilometers/hour/ 0.2778 Meters/second/second
Kilometers/hour/ 0.6214 Miles/hour/second
Kilometers/minute 60 Kilometers/hour
Kilowatts 56.92 British thermal units/
Kilowatts 4.425 x 104 Foot-pounds/minute
Kilowatts 737.6 Foot-pounds/second
Kilowatts 1.342 Horsepower

Multiply By To Obtain
Kilowatts 14.34 Kilogram-calories/
Kilowatts 10 3 Watts
Kilowa tt -hours 3415 British thermal units
Kilowatt-hours 2.655 x 10 6 Foot-pounds
Kilowatt-hours 1.341 Horsepower, hours
Liters 10 3 Cubic centimeters
Liters 0.03531 Cubic feet
Liters 61.02 Cubic inches
Liters 10- 3 Cubic meters
Liters 1.308. x 10- 3 Cubic yards
Liters 0.2642 Gallons
Liters 2.113 Pints (liquid)
Liters 1.057 Quarts (liquid)
Liters/minute 5.885 x 10-4 Cubic feet/second
Liters/minute 4.403, x 10- 3 Gallons/second
Log, oN 2.303 LogEN or Ln N
Log N or Ln N 0.4343 Log, oN
Meters 100 Centimeters
Meters 3.2808 Feet
Meters 39.37 Inches
Meters 10- 3 Kilometers
Meters 10 3 Millimeters
Meters 1.0936 Yards
Meters 10'0 Angstrom units
Meters 6.2137 x 104 Miles
Meter-kilograms 9.807 x 10 7 Centimeter-dynes
Meter-kilograms 10 5 Centimeter-grams
Meter-kilograms 7.233 Pound-feet
Meters/minute 1.667 Centimeters/second
Meters/minute 3.281 Feet/minute
Meters/minute 0.05468 Feet/second
Meters/minute 0.06 Kilometers/hour
Meters/minute 0.03728 Miles/hour
Meters/ second 196.8 Feet/minute
Meters/second 3.281 Feet/second
Meters/second 3.6 Kilometers/hour
Meters/second 0.06 Kilometers/min ute
Meters/ second 2.237 Miles/hour
Meters/second 0.03728 Miles/minute
Meters/second/second 3.281 Feet/second/second

Multiply By To Obtain
Meters/second/second 3.6 Kilometers/hour/second
Meters/second/second 2.237 Miles/hour/second
Micrograms 10- 6 Grams
Microliters 10- 6 Liters
Microns 10- 6 Meters
Miles 1.609 x lOs Centimeters
Miles 5280 Feet
Miles 1.6093 Kilometers
Miles 1760 Yards
Miles (int. Nautical) 1.852 Kilometers
Miles/hour 44.70 Centimeters/second
Miles/hour 88 Feet/minute
Miles/hour 1.467 Feet/second
Miles/hour 1.6093 Kilometers/hour
Miles/hour 26.82 Meters/minute
Miles/hour/second 44.70 Centimeters/second/
Miles/hour /second 1.467 Feet/second/second
Miles/hour /second 1.6093 KiloIl)eters/hour /second
Miles/hour /second 0.4470 Met~rs/second/second
Miles/minute 2682 Centimeters/second
Miles/minute 88 Feet/second
Miles/minute 1.6093 Kilometers/minute
Miles/minute 60 Miles/hour
Milliers 103 Kilograms
Milligrams 10-3 Grams
Millili te rs 10-3 Liters
Millimeters 0.1 Centimeters
Millimeters 0.03937 Inches
Millimeters 39.37 Mils
Millimeters of mercury 0.0394 Inches of mercury
Millimeters of mercury 1.3595 X 10- 3 Kilograms/square centi-
Millimeters of mercury 0.01934 Pounds/square inch
Mils 0.002540 Centimeters
Mils 10-3 Inches
Mils 25.40 Microns
Minutes (angle) 2.909 x 10-4 Radians
Minutes (angle) 60 Seconds (angle)
Months 30.42 Days
Months 730 Hours

Multiply By To Obtain
Months 43,800 Minutes
Months 2.628 x 10 6 Seconds
Myriagrams 10 Kilograms
Myriameters 10 Kilometers
Myriawatts 10 Kilowatts
Ounces 16 Drams
Ounces 437.5 Grains
Ounces 28.35 Grams
Ounces 0.0625 Pounds
Ounces (fluid) 1.805 Cubic inches
Ounces (fluid) 0.02957 liters
Ounces (U.S. fluid) 29.5737 Cubic centimeters
Ounces (U.S. fluid) 1/128 Gallons (U.S.)
Ounces (troy) 480 Grains (troy)
Ounces (troy) 31.10 Grams
Ounces (troy) 20 Pennyweights (troy)
Ounces (troy) 0.08333 Pounds (troy)
Ounces/square inch 0.0625 Pounds/square inch
Parts/million 0.0584 Grains/U.S. gallon
Parts/million 0.7016 Grains/Imperial gallon
Parts/million 8.345 Pounds/million gallons
Pennyweights (troy) 24 Grains (troy)
Pennyweights (troy) 1.555 Grams
Pennyweights (troy) 0.05 Ounces (troy)
Pints (dry) 33.60 Cubic inches
Pints (liquid) 28.87 Cubic centimeters
Pints (U.S. liquid) 473.179 Cubic centimeters
Pints (U.S. liquid) 16 Ounces (U.S. flUid)
Poundals 13,826 Dynes
Poundals 14.10 Grams
Poundals 0.03108 Pounds
Pounds 444,823 Dynes
Pounds 7000 Grains
Pounds 453.6 Grams
Pounds 16 Ounces
Pounds 32.17 Poundals
Pound (troy) 0.8229 Pounds (av.)
Pounds (troy) 373.2418 Grams
Pounds of carbon to 14,544 Britith thermal units
CO 2 (mean)
Pound-feet (torque) 1.3558 x 10 7 Dyne-centimeters

Multiply By To Obtain
Pound-feet 1.356 x 10 Centimeters-dynes
Pound-feet 13,825 Centimeter-grams
Pound-feet 0.1383 Meter-kilograms
Pounds-feet 2 421.3 Kilogram-centimeters 2
Pounds-feee 144 Pounds-inches 2
Pounds-inches 2 2,926 Kilogram-centimeters 2
Pounds-inches 2 6.945 x 10-3 Pounds-feet 2
Pounds of water 0.01602 Cubic feet
Pounds of water 27.68 Cubic inches
Pounds of water 0.1198 Gallons
Pounds of water evapor- 970.3 British thermal units
ated at 212°F
Pounds of water / 2.699 x 10-4 Cubic feet/second
Pounds/cubic foot 0.01602 Grams/cubic centimeter
Pounds/cubic foot 16.02 Kilograms/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic foot 5.787 x 10-4 Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/cubic foot 5,456 x 10-9 Pounds/mil foot
Pounds/cubic inch 27.68 Grams/cubic centimeter
Pounds/cubic inch 2.768 x 10 4 Kilogl:ams/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic inch 1728 Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic inch 9.425 x 10- 6 Pounds/mil foot
Pounds/foot 1.488 Kilograms/meter
Pounds/inch 178.6 Grams/centimeter
Pounds/square foot 0.01602 Feet of water
Pounds/square foot 4.882 Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square foot 6.944 x 10- 3 Pounds/square inch
Pounds/square inch 0.06804 Atmospheres
Pounds/square inch 2.307 Feet of water
Pounds/square inch 2.036 Inches of mercury
Pounds/square inch 0.0703 Kilograms/square centi-
Pounds/square inch 703.1 Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square inch 144 Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch 70.307 Grams/square centimeter
Pounds/square inch 51.715 Millimeters of mercury
at O°C
Quadrants (angle) 90 Degrees
Quadrants (angle) 5400 Minutes
Quadrants (angle) 1.571 Radians
Quarts (dry) 67.20 Cubic inches

Multiply By To Obtain
Quarts (liquid) 57.75 Cubic inches
QUarts (US. liquid) 0.033420 Cubic feet
Quarts (US. liquid) 32 Ounces (US. fluid)
Quarts (US. liquid) 0.832674 Quarts (British)
Radians 57.30 Degrees
Radians 3438 Minutes
Radians 0.637 Quadrants
Radians/second 57.30 Degrees/second
Radians/second 0.1592 Revolutions/second
Radians/second 9.549 Revolutions/minute
Radians/second/second 573.0 Revolutions/minute/
Radians/second/second 9.549 Revolutions/minute/
Radians/second/second 0.1592 Revolutions/second/
Revolutions 360 Degrees
Revolu tions 4 Quadrants
Revolutions 6.283 Radians
Revolutions/minufe 6 Degrees/second
Revolutions/minute 0.1047 Radians/second
Revolutions/minute 0.01667 Revolutions/second
Revolutions/minute/ 1.745 x 10- 3 Radians/second/second
Revolutions/minute/ 0.01667 Revolutions/minute/
minute second
Revolutions/minute/ 2.778 x 10-4 Revolutions/second/
minute second
Revolutions/second 360 Degrees/second
Revolutions/second 6.283 Radians/second
Revol utions/ second 60 Revolutions/minute
Revolutions/second/ 6.283 Radians/second/second
Revolutions/second/ 3600 Revolutions/minute/
second minute
Revolutions/second/ 60 Revolutions/minute/
second minute
Seconds (angle) 4.848 x 10- 6 Radians
Spheres (solid angle) 12.57 Steradians
Spherical right angles 0.25 Hemispheres
Spherical right angles 0.125 Spheres

Multiply By To Obtain
Spherical right angles 1.571 Steradians
Square centimeters 1.973 x 105 Circular mils
Square centimeters 1.076 x 10- 3 Square feet
Square centimeters 0.1 550 Square inches
Square centimeters 10- 6 Square meters
Square centimeters 100 Square millimeters
Square centimeters- 0.02420 Square inches-inches
centimeters squared squared
Square feet 2.296 x 10- 5 Acres
Square feet 929.0 Square centimeters
Square feet 144 Square inches
Square feet 0.09290 Square meters
Square feet 3.587 x 10- 8 Square miles
Square feet 1/9 Square yards
Square feet-feet squared 2.074 x 104 Square inches-inches
Square inches 1.273 x 10 6 Circular mils
Sq uare inches 6.452 Square centimeters
Square inches 6.944 x 10- 3 Square feet
Square inches 10 6 Squar'emils
Square inches 645.2 Square millimeters
Square inches (U.S.) 7.71605 x 10-4 Sq uare yards
Square inches-inches 41.62 Square centimeters-
squared centimeters squared
Square kilometers 247.1 Acres
Square kilometers 10.76 x 10 6 Square feet
Square kilometers 10 6 Square meters
Square kilometers 0.3861 Square miles
Square kilometers 1.196 x 10 6 Square yards
Square meters 2.471 x 10-4 Acres
Square meters 10.764 Square feet
Square meters 3.861 x 10- 7 Square miles
Square meter,s 1.196 Square yards
Square miles 640 Acres
Square miles 27.88 x 10 6 Square feet
Square miles 2.590 Square kilometers
Square miles 3.098 x 10 6 Square yards
Square millimeters 1.973 x 10 3 Circular mils
Square millimeters 0.01 Square centimeters
Square millimeters 1.550 x 10- 3 Square inches
Square mils 1.273 Circular mils

Multiply By To Obtain
Square mils 6.452 x 10- Square centimeters
Square mils 10-6 Square inches
Square yards 2.066 x 10-4 Acres
Square yards 9 Square feet
Square yards 0.8361 Square meters
Square yards 3.228 x 10- 7 Square milys
Temperature CC) 1 Absolute temperature
+273 ("C)
Temperature CC) 1.8 Temperature ("F)
+ 17.8
Temperature ("F) Absolute temperature
+460 ("F)
Temperature CF) 5/9 Temperature ("C)
- 32
Tons (long) 1016 Kilograms
Tons (long) 224.0 Pounds
Tons (metric) 10 3 Kilograms
Tons (metric) 2205 Pounds
Tons (short) 907.2 Kilograms
Tons (short) 2000 Pounds
Tons (short)/square feet 9765 Kilograms/square meter
Tons (short)/square feet 13.89 Pounds/square inch
Tons (short)/square inch 1.406 x 10 6 Kilograms/square meter
Tons (short)/square inch 2000 Pounds/square inch
Watts 0.05692 British thermal units/
Watts 10 7 Ergs/second
Watts 44.26 Foot-pounds/minute
Watts 0.7376 Foot-pounds/second
Watts 1.341 xlO- 3 Horsepower
Watts 0.01434 Kilogram-calories/minute
Watts 10-3 Kilowatts
Watt-hours 3.415 British thermal units
Watt-hours 2655 Foot-pounds
Watt-hours 1.341 x 10-3 Horsepower-hours
Watt-hours 0.8605 Kilogram-calories
Watt-hours 367.1 Kilogram-meters
Watt-hours 10-3 Kilowatt-hours
Weeks 168 Hours
Weeks 10,080 Minutes
Weeks 604,800 Seconds

Multiply By To Obtain
Yards 91.44 Centimeters
Yards 3 Feet
Yards 36 Inches
Yards 0.9144 Meters
Years (common) 365 Days
Years (common) 8760 Hours
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2.1 The specific volume of the wet steam mixture is ft3/0.99 lb = 1.01
ft3/lb. From the Steam Tables, the specific volumes of saturated vapor
and liquid are vG = 6.032 fe/lb and VI = 0.0175 ft3/lb, respectively.
Let x = weight fraction of vapor. Then, from a mate'rial balance, solve
for x: '

00175 ft' (ft' ) ft'

ib liquid (1 - x) Ib liquid + \6.03 21b vapor (x lb vapor) = 1.01 Th

where we have assumed a basis of I lb vapor-gas mixture.

0.0175 - 0.0175 x<+ 6.032 x = 1.01

x = 0.17

152 mm Hg = 42.18 + PH 2 or PH 2 = 709.8 mm

Apply ideal gas law to compute volume of dry H2 :

'd )( 273 K\(709<8mm\_1 2 'd
(1 500 em ryH 2 273+35) 760mmJ- 24 em ryH 2

@ standard conditions


2.3 From steam tables, Piho @ 90°F = 36.1 mm Hg. Determine partial
pressure of H 20 vapor in air.

Pt-P H 0 755 -PH 0
%.).1 = 29% = p* z (100) = 36.1 z (100)
Hz~ 755 - 36.1
Pt - P

PH 0
1.456 = 755 _ zPH 0 (100)
10.99 - 1.456 X lO-zPHzO = PHzO

PHzO = 11.16 mm Hg

% RH = (PHzO/PHz0)100 = (11.16/36.1)(100)
% RH = 30.9%

The dew point is the temperature at which the water vapor in the air
begins to condense. This would occur at the vapor pressure of 11.16
mm Hg, or about 55°F.

For any gas,

cP (ali)
aT P=[au +aTa(Pv)] P [au aT+ PdV] P

For an ideal gas,


and from PV = RT;

(av) =P
aT P


Cp = Cv + R

2.5 T = 273 + 950°C = 1223°K

1223 f.t223

f ,73
= 1223 -
273 =
(8.89 + 0.0029T - 28,400/T')dT
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

8.89 [1223 - 273] 0.0029 [(1223)2 - (273)2] 28,400 (-dB - ~)

= 950 + 2(950) + 950
8,445.5 + 2060.7 + 127.3
Cpm = 950

Cpm = 11.19 cal/(g-mole)("K)

2.6 (a) The point of coordinates, T = 130°F,.J.I = 0.045, is located on the

psychrometric chart (Figure 2.5). The point lies on the 40% humidity
curve. From the chart, the saturation humidity at 130°F is.J.I s = 0.113.
Thus, the % humidity is (0.045/0.113)100 = 39.8%
(b) The molal absolute humidity is

J.I,(MWair/MWH20) = 0.045 (28.97/18.02)

= 0.072 moles H20/mole dry air

(c) It can be shown that the partial pressure of water vapor in the
sample ,is

J.I Pt 0.072(1 atm)

PH 20 = 1 + J.I + 1.072 = 0.067 atm

2.7 (a) The vapor pressure of water at 130°F is

PH,O = 2.21 psia = 0.151 atm



% RH = PH 2 O(100)/PB 2 0
= (0.067 atm)(100)/0.151 = 44.4%

(b) Dew point. From psychrometric chart, tw = 101°F

(c) Humid Volume. From Figure 2.5, the specific voluI,lle of dry air
@ 130°F is 14.8 ft /1b dry air. The humid volume of saturated air is
17.5 ft3/lb dry air. Interpolating for 40% humidity,

VH = 14.8 + (17.5 - 15.0) (0.40) = 15.8 ft' wet air/lb dry air

(d) Humid Heat. From Equation 2.39,

Btu for wet air

Cs = Cair + J.lCH 20 = 0.24 + (0.045)(0.45) =0.260 (lb dry air)(OF)

(e) Enthalpy. From the chart @ 130°F, enthalpy of dry air is

23.5 Btu/lb dry air; enthalpy for saturated air is 150 Btu/lb dry air.
Interpolating for 40% humidity,

H =23.5 + (150 - 23.5) (0.40)

= 74.1 Btu/lb dry air

2.8 Locate the point T = 135°F, .J.I = 0.029, on the psychrometric chart
(Figure 2.5). As in problem 2.7, the humid volume must be determined
by interpolating for 22.9% humidity:

VH = 15.0 + (18.15 - 15.0)(0.229) = 15.72 ft' wet air/lb dry air

The mass of dry air = Wair = 400/VH = 25.4 lb. From Equation 2.40,
Q = WairCsAT = 25.4 (0.254) (180 -135) = 291 Btu

2.9 From the psychrometric chart (Figure 2.5), follow the adiabatic satu-
ration curve for tw = 95°F down to the dry-bulb temperature 165°F,

J.I = 0.02


Tl = 273 + 26°C = 299°K

To = 273 + 6loC = 334°K

By logarithmic interpolation, solve for T 3:

1 1
m--r, log 100 -log 200
1 1 log 100 - log 400
T3 = 3lSoK = 42°C

Note that the correct value (measured) is 42.3°C for this vapor pressure.
Linear interpolation would have given an incorrect value of 37 .7°C.


3.1 The general differential equation for mass transfer is'

Flux in all 3 directions o@ chemical

steady reaction


d d
dz NAz = 0 or dz NBz = 0

Component B is a stagnant gas in the column, hence NBz is 0 through-

out the column.
From an overall balance, the molar flux of A is


[C] O<AB dy A
N - -----
Az-- l-YA dz

where O!AB, the proportionality constant, is the diffusivity.


'[C]O<AB (I-YA 2 )
NA = - - - I n
z (z 2 - z I ) (1 - YA I )

Defining a log-mean concentration for B in terms of A,

YA I - YA 2
YB lm = In[(l- YA )/(l-YA)]
2 I

since YB = r~ YA. Hence,

3.2 For an ideal gas,

where n is number moles. Hence,


O<ABP t (PAl - P A)
NAz = =-R=T--'-(z=----'-z""7) PB
2 I 1m

where PBlm is the log-mean pressure.


3.3 Volume of water = (2 ft2)(0.08 in./12 in./ft) = 1.33 X 10- 2 ft3

Weight of water = 62.4 1b/ft3 X 1.33 X 10- 2 ft3 = 0.832 Ibm
Moles of water = (0.832Ibm>/(18Ibm/lb-mole) =0.046Ib-mo1e
The moles of water evaporated per unit area per unit time can be
expressed by the following (see problem 3.1):

From the ideal gas law, the total molar concentration in the gas is

n p
[Cj = - = -
v RT

1 atm Ib-mole
[Cj = (0.73 atm-ft3/Ib-mole-O R)(537°F) = 0.00255----rt'

From Figure 2.5 (psychrometric chart), at 77°F the ~aturated humidity

is 0.019 1b H 20/1b dry air or '"

Ibm H2 )(lb-mole H 2
( 0.019 Ibm dry air 181bm '
0)( 29lbm )
lb-mole air = 0.0304
lb-mole H 20
Ib-mole air

Hence, mole fraction is

yA, = 1.0304 = 0.0295

The air's humidity is

I.\0.001 Ibm
Ibm H 0 ) (29)
2 Ib-mole H 0
dry air 18 = 0.0016 lb-mole air


YA 2 =0.0016/1.0016 =0.00161


YA, - YA2 = 0.0295 - 0.0016 = 0.0279

(1 - YA 2) - (1- YA,) YA, - YA2
YB 1m = In[(I- YA )/(1- YA)] = In[(I-YA )/(I-YA)]
2 1 2 1

YBl m = In[ (1- 0.0016)/0 - 0.0295)] = 0.984 ,

The molar flux is

(0.00255 Ib-mole/ft 3)(0.259 X 3.87 fe/hr) 0.0279

NAz = (0.28 in./12 in./ft) 0.984
NAz = 0.00311b-mole/ft 2-hr

We have 0.046 lb-mole H20/2 ft2 = 0.023 lb-mole H 20 per ft 2 to be

evaporated. Hence,

0.023 Ib-mole/ft 2
fI = 0.00311b-mole/(ft2)(hr) = 7.42 hr

3.8 For the air-water system at ordinary conditions, the Lewis relation
states the following:

C s =h/MW ky

When this relation holds, the psychrometric curve for a system can be
approximated by the adiabatic saturation line.
3.9 Mass balance for component A:

Enthalpy balance:


•• + AM4WiiWi_ _ 1


This can be expanded from the definition of H to give

where To = reference temp .

.J.I = absolute humidity
Ao = latent heat of vaporization at To
C =heat capacity
Cs =humid heat

(See definitions and symbols used in Chapter 2.)

3.1 0 For the case in which the exiting gas-vapor mixture is saturated, we
have the term Tas, .JI. as , Has. The liquid enters at T as and the gas is
humidified by evaporation of liquid and cooled. By expansion of the
humid heat terms in the equation derived for problem 3.9,

CB(TG j - To) + .Nt CA (T G t - To) + .J.It Ao + (.N as - .Nt)C AL(T as - To)

= CB(Tas-T o) + .NasCA(Tas - To) + .NasAo

where .Nas = saturated absolute humidity at adiabatic saturation temperature

Tas = adiabatic-saturation temperature (see chapteJ 2)

Subtracting .JIIC A Tas from both sides and rearranging,

(CB + .NtCA)(TG t - Tas) = CSt (TG t - Tas)

= (.Nas - .Nt)[CA(T as - To) + Ao - CAL(Tas - To)]

or we get

This is the equation of the adiabatic saturation curve, which passes

through the points (.JIas , Tas) on the 100% saturation curve and
(.Jib T GI)' Note that


5.5 Absolute humidities for incoming and exiting air streams can be obtained
from the psychrometric chart (Figure 2.5):

Ib H2 0 gr gr H 2 0
Air in: ).I = 0.007 Ib-dry air X 7000 TIJ = 49 Ib-dry air

. Ib H2 0 gr gr H2 0
Au out: ).I = 0.0255 Ib-dry air X 7000 TIJ'" 178.5 Ib-dry air

Specific volumes for air streams can be computed from the following

v = (0.730T +336) (;9 +"ts)

(See discussion in Chapter 5.) Hence,

Air in: v = (0.730 X 75°p + 336) (£9 + 010807) = 13.63 Ib-d:~ air
. - 1442 ft'
Au out: v = . Ib-dryair

Enthalpies of the moist air streams can be computed from the follow-
ing relation:

AH=0.240(T-0) + ).1(1075 + 0.45 (T-32))

~ .'--v-'" ~
Cp(AT) for air Heat of vaporization Cp(AT) for
at 32°P H20 vapor


AlI '" 0.240T +).1(1061 + 0.45T)

Air in: AlI = 0.240 X 75T + 0.007 (1061 + 0.45 X 75°P) = 25.66 Btu/lb-dry air
Air out: AH =49.69 Btu/lb-dry air

Enthalpy of entering water:

AlIi = CpH OAT'" 1 (130 - 32) = 98 Btu/lb H2 0


Enthalpy of exiting water:

AHo = 1 (90 - 32) = 58 Btu/lb H 2 0


where 32°p has been chosen as the reference temperature. Amount of

dry air fed to the cooling tower:

9 X 10· ft3/hr/13.63 ft3/1b-dry air = 6.60 X 105 hr

The amount of H20 cooled can be determined from an overall energy

(enthalpy) balance:

Amount H 2 0 evaporated into air = 0.0255 - 0.007

= 0.0185 Ib H 20/1b-dry air

Let w = mass rate of water entering the tower in the water stream per
unit mass of incoming air. Then mass rate of water leaving the tower in
the water stream per unit mass of incoming air is (w - 0.0185). Review-
ing each term in the energy balance,

Moist air in:

Btu 5 Ib-dry air _ . 7

25.66 Ib-dry air X 6.60 X 10 hr - 1.694 X 10 Btu/hr

Water stream in:

Btu Ib-H 2 0 Ib-dry air 7

98 Ib-H 0 X w Ib-dry air X 6.6 X 105 hr 6.468 X 10 Btu/hr

Moist air out:

Btu sib-dry air _ 7

, 49.69 Ib-dry air X 6.6 X 10 hr - 3.280 X 10 Btu/hr

Water stream out:

Btu Ib H,o Ib-dry air

58 Ib-H,O X (w - 0.0185) Ib-dry air X 6.6 X 105 hr

= 3.828 X 10 7 (w ~ 0.0185) Btu/hr


At steady state, energy in = energy out. Hence,

1.694 X 10 7 + 6.468 X 10 7 w = 3.28 X 10 7 + 3.828 X 10 7 (w - 0.0185)

Solving for w,

Ib HzO
w = 0.574 Ib-dry air


lb HzO 5
lb-dry air gal
0.574Ib_dry air X 6.6 X 10 hr X 8.33 lb = 4.55 X 10 4 gal/hr

5.6 From Figure 2.5 (humidity ch~rt),

J.I of incoming air stream = 0.0155 lb HzO-vapor/lb-air

.J.I. of discharge air found by following the adiabatic cooling curve for
80°F to a dry-bulb temperature of 95°F; .J.I = O.019lb H 20-vapor/lb-air.

lb HzO
0.019 - 0.0155 = 0.0035 lb-dry air added

5.7 Refer to Figure 5.14, applying the log mean enthalpy difference: At the
top of the tower (air exits),

Hzs - Hz = 116.2 - 65.1 = 51.1 Btu/lb

At the bottom of the tower (air inlet),

H,s - H, = 44.1 - 30.4 = 13.7 Btu/lb

- 51.1-13.7
AHl m = 2.303 log,o(51.1/13.7) = 28.4 Btu/lb


Ntu' = KaV = _dT_

L Hs-H

Ntu' = 1l~8~480 = 1.34

The answer obtained from numerical integration was 1.73, or a 23%

difference in the solutions. The error introduced by using a log-mean
value increases with larger ranges. Log-mean calculations should be used
only when the range is small.
5.8 Assume a basis of 1 ft 2 cross-sectional area of tower. Then,

, Ka(Z X 1)
Ntu = L

Ntu' 0.85)(1700)
Z = Ka = 13 2 = 23.8 ft

5.9 The height of a transfer unit is simply Z/Ntu'. Hence,';

Ntu'L (1.85)(1700)
Z=~= 125 = 25.2ft


Htu' = i:8~ = 13.6 ft

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The following citations and abstracts cover all phases of the cooling tower spectrum.

1) Influence of Atmospheric Precipitation on the Operation of a Natural

Draught Indirect-Contact Cooling Tower
Herberholz, Peter; Schulz, Siesfried, L.,
& C. Steinmueller, Gummersbach, Ger.
Ger. Chern. Eng., V. 2, N. 6, Dec. 1979, pp. 352-360
This paper discusses the natural draught indirect-contact cooling
tower which is part of a recirculation cooling system developed mainly
for power generating plants. Warm. process fluids exchange their energy
in a tubular heat exchanger with colder ambient air, which derives its
flow energy from thermal buoyancy. In addition, too many other at-
mospheric manifestations, precipitation has not yet been quantified
and it is a phenomenon constituting a factor which can impair the
operation of the air heat exchanger with respect to ideal meteorological
conditions. A procedure for the calculation of the deterioration in the
efficiency of an indirect-contact cooling tower as a result of precipitation
is presented in this paper. The model is based on input data of the
meteorological situation and parameters of the tower. This work aims
at adding to the knowledge of design and systematic study of parame-
ters. 15 refs. cited.

2) Hybrid Cooling System Thermodynamics and Economics

Giaquinta, Arthur R.; Croley, Thomas E., II; Hsu, Tai-Dan
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
J. Energy Div. Proc. ASCE, V. 106, N. 1, April 1980, pp. 89-107
Wet cooling towers can be used for once-through cooling at riverside
power-plant sites where the permissible river heat assimilation capacity
is inadequate to absorb all of the waste heat. A comprehensive com-
pu ter model is presented giving a thermodynamic analysis, economic as-
sessment, and optimum design of once-through/wet tower hybrid cool-
ing systems. Several different configurations are investigated, and results


are presented for an 1,150 MW nuclear power plant located on the Mis-
souri River at Sioux City, Iowa. One hybrid cooling system described is
arranged in a series water path with a partially closed-cycle loop. The
model shows this arrangement to be the most economical configuration
for the site conditions studied when zero water costs are used. Compari-
son of hybrid systems with once-through cooling and closed-cycle wet
tower systems indicate that hybrid cooling systems are economically
superior. A trade-off function between total cost and water evaporation
is presented to indicate the best hybrid arrangement fOT sites where
water availability is limited. 16 refs. cited.

3) Wind Effects'on Cooling-Tower Shells

Niemann, Hans-Jursen
Ruhr-Univ Bochum, Ger.
ASCE J. Struct Div., V. 106,N. 3, March 1980, pp.' 643-66 1
This paper discusses the impact of wind action on natural-draft cool-
ing towers. The structure of the wind load may be divided into a static,
a qUasistatic, and a resonant part. The effect of surface roughness of the
shell and of wind profile on the static load is discussed. The quasistatic
load may be described by the variance of the pressure fluctuations and
their circumferential and meridional correlations. The high-frequency
end of the pressure spectra ~nd of the coherence functions are used for
the analysis of the resonant response. It is shown that the resonant
response is small even for very high towers, however, it increases linear-
ly with wind velocity. Equivalent static loads may be defined using ap-
propriate gu'st-response factors. These loads produce an approximation
of the behavior of the structure and in general are accurate. 11 refs. cited.

4) Method of Using Agricultural Wastewater For Power-Plant Cooling

Septhon, Hugo, H.; Klein, Gerhard; Jarvis, Thomas J.; Vermeulen,
Water Resour. Cent. Desalin. Rep. Univ. Calif., N. 68, June 1979, 180 p.
This report discusses the technical and economic feasibility for using
saline wastewaters collected from irrigated fields by underground tile
drainage systems for power plant cooling purposes. A novel process se-
quence was employed comprising of ion-exchange resin softening where-
by nearly all the calcium was removed from drainage water. A pilot
plant facility of 2,000 GPD capacity was designed, constructed and
tested, including a softening and regeneration facility, a cooling tower
operating under realistic process conditions and a complete vertical-
tube foam evaporation facility. 14 refs. cited.

5) Construction and Design of Large Cooling Towers

Zerna, Wolfgang; Mungan, Ihsan
Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Ger.
ASCE J. Struct Div., V. 106, N. 2, February 1980, pp. 531-544
Large natural-draft cooling towers are used for dry-type cooling of
power plants with high capacity. Through the choice of an appropriate
offset distance between the axis of the hyperbola and axis of rotation
the stress distribution as well as buckling and vibration behavior can be
influenced greatly. To maintain the required buckling safety and lowest

natural frequency as the dimensions of the cooling tower shell are in-
creased stiffening of the shell becomes indispensable. Numerical studies
show that the efficiency of the stiffeners is different, rings being more
effective than meridional ribs. Stiffening rings can be built easily after
slight modification of the existing climbing form work. Reinforced con-
crete shells stiffened by rings can compete with cable network structures,
even beyond a height of 200 m (656 ft). 13 refs. cited.

6) Zero Discharge of Cooling Water by Sidestream Softening

Matson, Jack V.; Harris, Teaue G. III
Univ. of Houston, Tex.
J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., V. 51, N. 11, Nov. 1979, pp. 2602-2614
A preliminary design methodology is presented for the sidestream
softeners in zero-discharge cooling water systems. The methodology
consists of semiempirical chemical equations which were calibrated by
experiments and which are linked to the mass balances of the important
chemical species. The only inputs required are the makeup water quali-
ty and certain cooling water system parameters. 20 refs. cited.

7) Zero Blowdown: Is It Feasible?

Brooke, J. M.
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 58, N. 7, July 1979, pp. 211-214.
For every million BTU's of heat dissipated in a cooling tower, an
average of 35 ~allons of circulating cooling water is wasted to blow-
down. This represents monies to obtain the water., to pretreat it, for
scale and fouling prevention, for corrosion protection, for pumping it
from place to place, and to treat it before it can be released as waste.
Cooling tower operation economy can be achieved by decreasing the
blowdown. The ultimate economy comes when the blowdown is reduced
to zero. This paper presents some' suggestions related to water pre-
treatment which will help achieve this goal. Several examples of calcu-
lation for zero blowdown are given. 4 refs. cited.

8) Noise Prediction/Control In Design of Power Plant Cooling Towers

Mirsky, Gary R.; Lemmens, Pierre
Hamon Cooling Tower Div., Somerville, NJ
Nat'l. Eng., V. 83, N. 7, July 1979, pp. 11-14
The paper discusses noise sources, types, production and control
from the earliest design state of a cooling tower project.

9) Protecting Cooling Towers From Overpressure

Veazey, J. A.
Monsanto Agric. Prod. Co., Luling, LA
Chern. Eng. Prog., V. 75, N. 7, July 1979, pp. 73-77.
Monsanto Corp. operates three amonia plants in Luling, LA; a dual-
reform train unit built by Chemicao (1954), a 600 ton/day (544 metric
tid) facility erected by Kellogg (1965), and a 1,040 metric tid complex
put up by Kellogg (1975-1976). This last facility suffered damage to its
cooling tower in October, 1977, while it was onstream when a heat ex-
changer failed. Preventive measures are discussed which constitute a
vent installed on top of the riser. It was found to be sufficient to relieve

a large surge condition caused by failure of an exchanger when a second

accident occurred three months later without damaging the tower. De-
tails of the system and its operations are given.

10) Scaling Characteristics of Cooling Tower Water

Lee, S. H.; Knudsen, 1. G.
Oreg. State Univ., Corvallis
ASHRAE Trans., V. 85, pt. 1, 1979, Tech and Symp paper presented at
the ASHRAE Semiannual Meeting, Philadelphis, PA, Jan. 28-Feb 1,
1979, pp. 281-302.
The paper discusses a study and presents the deposition models for
systematic evaluation of condenser water fouling as applied to the air-
conditioning and refrigeration industry. The equipment used in the
study was designed to simulate the operating conditions of a cooling
tower. Before the cooling water entered the test sections, it was heated
to 35°C in two shell and tube heat exchangers by warm water circulated
from a domestic water heater. 18 refs. cited.

11) Influence of Fish Protection Considerations on the Design of Cooling

Water Intakes
Mussalli, Uysuf G.; Hofmann, Peter; Taft, Edward P.
Stone & Webster Eng. Corp., Boston, MA
Proc. Jt. Symp. on Des. and Oper. of Fluid Mach., Colo. State Univ.,
Fort Collins, June 12-14, 1978. Sponsored by IAHR, Delft, Neth.,
ASME, New York, NY, and ASCE, New York, NY. Pub!. by Colo. State
Univ., Fort Collins, 1978, V. 1, pp. 413-424.
Stringent regulatory requirements in the United States often require
the incorporation of fish protection facilities at power plant intakes.
There are three different concepts that can be used: fish collection and
removal, fish diversion, and fish deterrance. The incorporation of fish
protection systems at specific sites can necessitate modifications to
conventional intake designs. Such modifications can influence screen-
well layouts and selection of screens and pumps, and in certain cases re-
quire model studies to develop design criteria which will ensure that
fish protection facilities will be biologically effective and not adversely
affect plant operations. 9 refs. cited.

12) Drift From the Chalk Point Natural Drift Brackish Water Cooling
Tower: Source Definition, Downwind Measurements, Transport
Webb, Ronald 0.; Schrecker, Gunther 0.; Guild, Dennis A.
Environ. Syst. Corp., Knoxville, Tenn.
Waste Heat Manage and Util., Proc. of a Conf., Miami Beach, FL,
May 9-11, 1977, Pub!. by Hemisphere Pub!. Corp., New York, NY and
London, Engl., 1979, V. 3, pp. 1761-1797.
Drift data are presented. The data was acquired in and around
PEPCO's Chalk Point Unit #3 natural draft cooling water tower. Source
data in the form of droplet size spectra and salt mass emission were
acquired via an equal area traverse near the exit plane of the 400 foot
tower and in the 712 foot stack. Results show that the drift fraction of

the tower is within the manufacturer's guarantee when the tower circu-
lating water flow rate is assumed to be the design value (260,000 GPM).
The droplet spectra showed an average droplet mass median diameter of
79 microns for the measurement series. Results also showed that the
stack which uses a brackish water scrubber may caUse problems to cool-
ing tower drift modeling studies. Downwind measurements at ground
level of airborne salt concentration and droplet number per unit volume
of air were compared with predicted results from drift transport models
using the source data as input. Comparison of predicted and measured
downwind values show good agreement. 5 refs. cited.

13) Computerized Engineering Model for Evaporative Water Cooling

Park, J. E.; Vance, J. M.; Cross, K. E.; Van Wie, N. H.
Union Carbide Corp., Oak Ridge, TN
Waste Heat Manage. and Util., Proc. of a Conj., Miami Beach, FL,
May 9-11,1977, Publ. by Hemisphere Pub!. Corp., New York, NY and
London, Engl., 1979, V. 2, pp. 1007-1024.
This paper represents a physical model for crossflow and counter-
flow cooling towers which imposes rigoroUS heat and mass balances on
each increment of the tower under study. Individual towers are charac-
terized by specification of a mass evaporation rate equation. The solution
algorithm allows reduction of test data, interpolation of the reduced
data, and comparison of test results to design data. These capabilities
can be used to evaluate acceptance tests for new "towers, to monitor
changes in tower performance as an aid in planning maintenance, and to
predict tower performance under changed operating conditions. 3 refs.

14) Improving Cooling Tower Fan Syste~ Efficiencies

Monroe, Robert Co.
Hudson Prod. Corp.
Combustion, V. SO, N. 11, May 1979, pp. 20-26.
The authors briefly discuss some of the problems for air cooled heat
exchangers and cooling towers using axial fans. The balance of the paper
discusses ways to improve system efficiencies in three areas: before the
fan system design is finalized, improvements in the physical equipment
as installed, and recognition of performance problems caused by ad-
jacent equipment. Results of a full-scale test illustrating fan efficiency
contributions of various components are given. 1 ref. cited.

15) Close Study of Cooling-Tower Pump Intakes Adds to Reliability Over

Performance Range
Dicmas, John L.; Fornesi, Robert
Johnston Pump Co.
Power, V. 123,N. I,Jan. 1979,pp. 94-96
The paper discusses suction-intake design, suction-bell submergence,
air-entrainment potential, and net positive suction head of cooling
towers. Guidelines on possible problems and ways to assure reliable
operation of cooling towers are given.

16) Cooling Tower Retrofit

BUrger, Robert
Robert Burger Assoc., Inc., New York, NY
Chern. Eng. Prog., V. 75, N. 3, March 1979, pp. 78-81.
This paper stresses energy conservation and cost savings which can
be achieved in chemical plants through proper design and maintenance
of water cooling towers. These advantages can be obtained in both
chemical processing and refrigeration systems. To emphasize money
loss contributed by a malfunctioning or inefficient cooling tower, calcu-
lations are presented to illustrate this contention. The paper covers the
following top,ics: impact of improper maintenance; energy conservation
examples; phosphate plant problem. 5 refs. cited.

17) Development and Verification of a Wet Cooling Tower Drift Deposition

Miksad, Richard W.; Ratcliff, Michael A.
Univ. of Texas, Austin
Proc. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc., 71st Annual Meeting, Houston, Texas,
June 25-30, 1978. Pub. by Air Poll. Control Assoc., Pittsburgh, PA,
1978, V. 4, Pap. 48, 3, 15 p.
This paper discusses preliminary results of a model which is designed
to predict drift deposition drop size distributions and number flux. The
influence of evaporation and the drop breakaway process are studied by
using both a bulk breakaway criteria and a distributed partial break-
away criterill for each drop size. Comparisons are made at several down-
wind receptor sites for drop size distribution and number flux. 13 refs.

18) Cooling Towers: Design and Performance

Hundemann, Audrey S. (Ed.)
NTIS, Springfield, VA
NTIS Search, Search Period covered 1970-Aug. 1978. Pub!. by NTIS,
Springfield, VA, Aug. 1978. Available from Eng. Index, New York, NY.
Provides abstracts of worldwide research on design and performance
of mechanical draft and natural draft wet, dry, and dry-wet combi-
nation cooling towers. Abstracts cover studies on size reduction, cor-
rosion protection, and economic optimization of cooling towers pri-
marily used with nuclear power plants and fossil fuel power plants. Also
covered are abstracts which pertain to cooling towers used in waste-
water treatment. It contains 305 abstracts, 65 of which are new entries
to the previous edition.

19) Stabilitaetsverhalten Hyperbolischer Kuehltunnschalen Unter Wind-

(Stability of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower Shells Under Wind Load)
Walther, Jochen; Woelfel, Roland
Hochsch fuer Archit und Bauwes Weimar, E. Ger.
BauplanungBautech, V. 32, N.l1, Nov. 1978, pp. 510-512.
Based on model studies, an approximation formula for the critical
wind pressure was developed. Buckling effective factors, including dead
&M&4 iil!Ml!!l!iliPf J


weight, flexibility of support, imperfections of the structure, fracture

areas and constructional conditions of hyperbolic towers were quali-
tatively and quantitatively studied. 15 refs. cited. (In German).

20) Specifying Tolerance Limits for Meridional Imperfections in Cooling

Croll, J. G. A.; Kemp, K. O.
J. Am. Con cr. Inst., V. 76, N. 1, Jan. 1979, pp. 139-158.
The collapse of a large cooling tower shell in Great Britain was be-
lieved to have been primarily due to the combined effects of geometric
imperfections and vertical cracks. Design implications of geometric im-
perfections in the meridional profiles of cooling towers are reassessed in
this paper. The authors suggest that the present and proposed tolerance
recommendations are not sufficiently linked to the specific nature of
the shell and its reinforcement, and if followed could result in serious
overstressing. On the basis of a simplified approach to the analysis of a
geometrically imperfect shell, tentative, code oriented, and rational
tolerance specifications are presented. 11 refs. cited.

21) Better Water Treatment in Cooling Tower Systems

Klen, E. F.; Grier, J. C.
Na1co Chern. Co., Oak Brook, lllinois
Ammonia Plant Sa!., V. 20; Annual Ammonia Saf. Symp., 22nd,
Denver, Colorado, Aug. 29-31, 1977. Publ. by AIChE (a CEP Tech.
Man.), New York, NY, 1978, pp. 57-63.
The paper discusses a two-step approach to guide an ammonia plant
operator in the design, selection, and implementation of the optimum
cooling water management program for this cooling system.

22) Estimate Cooling Tower Requirements Easily

Meytsar, J.
Favra Int., Milan, Italy
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 57, N. 11, Nov. 1978, pp. 238-239.
This paper presents graphs resulting from hundreds of stUdies of
cooling towers. With these curves one can determine the following data
related to a cooling tower: power adsorbed by fans; dimensions of cool-
ing tower; and quantity of air operated by fans. The cooling towers
considered have the fixed data shown. Cell widths were selected to
make cooling tower dimensions easier to establish.· These assumptions
are accurate enough for the estimations given.

23) Utilizb1g Water Chillers Efficiently

Cooper, Kenneth W.
Borg Warner Corp., York, PA
Energy Use Manage., Proc. of the Int. Conf., Tucson, Arizona, Oct. 24-
28, 1977. Publ. by Persamon Press, Elmsford, NY and Oxford, Engl.,
1977, V. 1, pp. 293-241.
This provides curves for cooling tower performance and typical off
design performance of centrifugal compressor chilled water systems.
These graphs show typical coincident wet and dry bulb temperatures, in

addition to hours of occurrence per year. Since the outdoor wet tem-
perature is at its design value for only a few hours per year, a typical
centrifugal chiller cooled with cooling tower water can take advantage
of the lower outdoor wet bulb and operate at reduced heat dUring a
significant portion of the year. Examples of the energy savings possible
with varying cooling water temperatures are given. The effects of raising
the leaving chilled water temperature, changing compressor operating
speed, and limiting the use of hot gas bypass are discussed. 2 refs. cited.

24) Cooling Tower Technology; Cold Water Makes Profits

Burger, Robert
Robert BUrger Assoc., New York, NY
Ind. Water Eng., V. 15, p. 4, July-Aug. 1978, pp. 14-18. ,
The paper discusses design conditions and criterion of cooling tower
performance. These criterion are specified when the cooling tower is
purchased and/or rebuilt to maintain cooling of a specific quantity of
circulating water from entering the tower at a particular temperature
and leaving at a definite value. Enthalpy pressure diagram presented
relates cold water to the energy needed for refrigerant utilization.

25) Optimization of Cooling-Water Circuit Design

Paul, G. T.; Wearmouth, J. W.
McLellan & Part., West Byfleet, Surry, England
Met. Technol., V. 5, Pt. 6, June 1978, pp. 203-211.
The mecbanism of dissipating unwanted process heat energy to the
atmosphere "is examined. The importance of considering the heat-
exchange equipment in the process plant as part of the cooling circuit
is stressed. Seven types of cooling-water circuits often found in the
metals industries are outlined and water supplies and treatment are
discussed. Particular reference is given to the prevention of scaling and
corrosion at high heat fluxes. The influence of the water source on any
subsequent treatment for a particular circuit is pointed out and the
relative performance of evaporative cooling towers, cooling ponds, and
air-to-water and water-to-water heat exchangers examined. 6 refs. cited.

26) Cross Wind and Internal Flow Characteristics of Dry Cooling Towers
Russell, C. M. ·B.; McChesney, H. R.; Holder, D. W.; Jones, T. V.,
Verlinden, M.
C-E Lummus, Combust. Eng. Inc.
Combustion, V. 49, N. 11, May 1978, pp. 20-24.
The authors in association with Oxford University, undertook re-
search, to determine how the arrangement of heat exchanger bundles at
the base of a tower affects the tower's internal flow and its sensitivity
to cross winds. To learn more about these effects, experiments were
conducted with model towers in which heat exchanger bundles were
represented by gauze screens. Two types of tests were conducted: The
first study involved a tower flow in the absence of cross winds which
was made at high Reynolds numbers. The second was a study of cross-
wind effects made at much reduced Reynolds numbers in a 4m by 2m
wind tunnel. 8 refs. cited.

27) Chromate Removal by Ion Exchange

Seward, Roger B.
ARCO Chern. Co., Channelview, Texas
Int. Water Conf., Annual Meeting, 38th, Proc., Pittsburgh, PA, Nov. 1-
3, 1977. Publ. by Eng. Soc. of West PA, Pittsburgh, 1977, pp. 201-210.
The Lyondell plant (ARCO Chemical Company) operates one of the
first industrial scale chromate recovery systems in the U.S. The chromate
recovery system is located in the ethylene plant of the Channelview,
Texas, chemical complex. It was designed to treat a 1100 GPM cooling
tower blowdown stream containing a 20-25 ppm chromate (Cr04). A
strong base anion resin is used to selectively remove the chromate. This
unit was placed in service in June, 1976. Information presented in this
paper is based upon operating experiences. Economic considerations are
also included.

28) Vibration Analysis ofAxi-Symmetric Shell by Mode Superposition

Nakao, Yoshiaki; Abiru, Hisanori
Hiroshima Tech. Inst., Japan
Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Mitsubishi Tech. Bull., N. 127, Jan. 1978,8 p.
In designing axi-symmetric shell structures such as large-type cooling
towers, it is necessary to predict the vibration responses to various ex-
ternal forces. The authors describe the linear vibration response analysis
of ax i-symmetric shell structures by the finite element method. They
also analyze geometric nonlinear (large deflection) vibration which
poses a problem in thin shell structures causes dy,namic buckling in
cooling towers. They present examples of numerical calculation and
study the validity of this method. 11 r!:1fs. cited.

29) Why-and When-Cooling Towers Pay Off

Hanna, J. P.
Conair, Inc., Franklin, P A
Plast. Technol., V. 24, N. 3, March 1978, pp. 77-80.
The paper discusses recirculating cooling-tower systems and their
capability reducing water usage by up to 95% are a boon to plastics
processors in using large quantities of cooling water to remove heat
from processing machinery. Descnbed are the design and operation
techniques of cooling towers and factors determining the best type of
system for individual plant needs. Economic considerations are also

30) Cooling Tower Supporting Columns and Reinforcing Rings In Small

and Large Displacement Analyses
Chan, A. S. L., Wolf, J. P.
Imp. CoIl. of Sci. & Technol., London, England
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., V. 13, N. 1, Jan. 1978, pp. 1-26.
Basic elastic and geometric stiffness properties of the individual sup-
porting columns are synthesized into a stiffness matrix compatible with
an axisymmetrical shell element by a series of transformations. These
are to be used in conjunction with a finite element representation of
the cooling tower, where the displacements are decomposed into Fourier

hannonics. The effect of the column supports can be rigorously ac-

counted for in a large displacement nonlinear analysis. To complete the
stiffness property of the cooling tower structure, the elastic and geo-
metric stiffness of the reinforcing rings are also included. Examples are
given to show the effect of these additions on the buckling wind load
and the stress distribution. 12 refs. cited.

31) Wet Coolhtg Tower Backfitting Economics

Croley, Thomas E. II; Giaquinta, Arthur R.; Patel, Virendra C.
Iowa Inst. of Hydraul. Res., Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 104, p. 2, April 1978, pp. 115-130.
Because of recent legislation designed to reduce thermal pollution,
the electric utilities industry is faced with the prospect of backfitting
their existing installations with closed-cycle cooling systems. Wet cool-
ing towers offer an attractive solution since they perform well and they
are well established. The paper presents a method for evaluating the
cost of backfitting a power plant currently using open-cycle cooling
with a closed-cycle mechanical-draft crossflow wet cooling tower. Basic
equations and normalized charts for estimating the total backfit cost
have been developed and are recommended, enabling inclusion of first
costs and continuing resultant operating costs appropriate to the back-
fit cost estimate. An example is given to illustrate the methodology and
the relevant parameters for cost estimating.

32) Centrifugal Water Chilling Systems: Focus on Off-Design Performance

Cooper, Kenneth W.; Erth, Richard A.
Borg-Warner Corp., York, PA
Heat Piping Air Cond., V. 50, N. 1, Jan. 1978, pp. 63-67.
The paper discusses the off-design performance of a centrifugal water
chiller. The effect of changes in operating variables on its power con-
sumption are discussed along with a simplified method for estimating
annual operating costs, using the chiller's off-design performance, cool-
ing tower performance, and building load profile.

33) Large Cooling Towers: The Present Trend

Diver, M.; Paterson, A. C.
Socotec, Paris, France
Struct. Eng., V. 55, N. 10, Oct. 1977, pp. 431-445.
The paper reviews relevant design parameters such as wind pressure,
including wind induced vibrations, thermal gradient, self-weight and
moments in the shell. Comparative calculations were performed varying
the value of one parameter at a time and considering the effect on con-
crete and steel stresses. The influence of the modulus of elasticity used
in calculations of thermal effects is discussed and illustrated. A number
of possible approaches to the towers' buckling behavior are discussed.
A detailed comparison is made between towers designed for similar
conditions in England and a number of other EUropean countries and
in the United States. 19 refs. cited.

34) Use Side Stream Softening to Reduce Pollution

Reed, D. T.;Klen, E. F.; Johnson, D. A.
Nalco Chern. Co., Oak Brook, IL
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 56, N. 11, Nov. 1977, pp. 339-342.
The paper discusses design procedures which are available for mini-
mizing cooling tower blowdown flow in petroleum refineries. Side
stream softening is used to reduce cooling tower blowdown, reduce pol-
lution and save water. By-pass lime softening appears to be a practical
technique for use both with new and existing cooling tower systems
while synergistic chromate formations can be expected to adequately
protect cooling water systems in high dissolved solids applications. A
method is available for designing lime softening systems for use in zero
blowdown applications and for predicting the steady state chemistry
conditions. Each situation must, however, be tested to determine the
extent of the various effects such as softener interferences, corrosion,
etc., on a potential design. Details of the test procedure are illustrated
by examples. 10 refs. cited.
35) Air·Vapor Dynamics in Large-Scale Atmospheric Spray Cooling
Chaturvedi, Sushil; Porter, R. W.
Ill. Inst. of Technol., Chicago
ASME Pap., for Meeting Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 1977, 11 p.
A quantity NTU containing the spray drop wise parameters allows
prediction of cooling range if local wet-bulb temperature is known. The
essential problem is characterized by NTU and other parameters. Theo-
ry was developed for this purpose using various analytical and numeri-
cal approximations, wind attenuation and turbulent diffusion in the
atmospheric boundary layer. EXperiments were run on a large flow-
through spray canal involving segments with two types of floating spray
modules where both·local spray temperatures and wet-bulb temperature
correlated with ambient conditions, geometry and thermal parameters.
Previous experimental data are available for a fixed-manifolded spray
pond. 21 refs. cited.
36) Considerations Sur Le Calcul Des Refrigerants Atmospheriques
(Remarks on the Design of Natural Draft Cooling Towers)
Diver, Marius
SOCOTEC, Paris, France
Ann. Inst. Tech. Batim. Trav Publics, N. 353, Sept. 1977, pp. 61-91.
The paper discusses a study of the current methods for the design of
reinforced concrete natural cooling towers. It accounts for the follow-
ing criteria: the state of the art with particular reference on theoretical
and experimental aspects; and the influence of certain parameters
(wind pressure, thermal gradient, factored weight, shell moments,
Young's modulus) on concrete and steel stresses. The French experi-
ence is compared to current techniques and codes used in other
countries. The paper leads to the formulation of practical proposals to
be used in the design of natural draft cooling towers, whose increasing
dimensions makes their conception complex. 20 refs. cited. (In French
with English abstract).

37) Comparative Performance Evaluation of Current Design Evaporative

Cooling Tower Drift Eliminators
Chan, Joseph; Golay, Michael W.
MIT, Cambridge, MA
Atmos. Environ., V. 11, N. 8, 1977, pp. 775-781.
The paper gives an analysis of the performance of standard industrial
evaporative cooling tower drift eliminators using both numerical simu-
lation methods and experimental techniques. The simulation methods
make use of computer codes to calculate the two-dimensional laminar
flow velocity field and pressure loss in a drift eliminator geometry. The
collection efficiency is computed by performing trajectory calculations
for droplets of a given size by a fourth order Runse-Kutta numerical
method. The experiments make use of a laser light scattering technique
for the measurement of the droplet size spectra both at the inlet and
outlet of the eliminator. From these measured spectra, the collection
efficiency as a function of droplet size can be deduced. 12 refs. cited.
38) Spray Cooling: An Alternative to Cooling Towers
Shell, Gerry L.; Wendt, Ronald C.
Gerry Shell Environ. Eng., Brentwood, TN
Pollut. Eng., V. 9, N. 7, July 1,977, pp. 32-36.
The paper describes a spray nozzle cooler design concept which uses
a multiple nozzle assembly supported on a floating platform. A pump-
manifold-nozzle design produces effective heat transfer while the float-
ing platform Offers quick, flexible installation. Heated water is sprayed
into the air tb achieve the desired heat dissipation. Spray coolers re-
quire more land than wet cooling towers but less than 5% of the land
required for cooling ponds. The effect of drift is less for spray coolers
than for wet cooling towers, and no chemical additives are required for
biological growth control. 5 refs. cited.

39) New Technology and Cooling Tower Design Practices

Lefevre, Marcel
Hamon Cooling Tower Div., Research Cottrell
Combustion, V. 48, N. 11, May 1977, pp. 28-32.
The paper considers the state-of-the-art in cooling towers, covering
various types of towers in use. It discusses how they respond to the
present and the future needs of the industry. A trend toward the
counterflow design in the heat exchanger is indicated, and a forced
draft counterflow tower is described. The design of the fan-assisted
tower using both mechanical and natural draft is briefly dealt with.
1 ref. cited.
40) Dry and Wet-Peaking Tower Cooling Systems for Power Plant
Larinoff, M. W.; Forster, L. L.
Hudson Prod. Corp., Houston, TX
Combustion, V. 48, N. 11, May 1977, pp. 8-21.
The paper presents a new concept of the power plant heat-sink
system which employs the combination of a conventional wet-tower
and a conventional dry-tower. The purpose of this system is to reduce

wet cooling-tower makeup-water requirements in water-short areas. The

dry tower operates all year around while the wet-peaking tower is used
only above certain ambient dry-bulb temperatures. The two cooling cir-
cuits serve separate sections of a conventional, surface-type, steam con-
denser. Thermal performance analysis is given for various combinations
of cooling systems ranging from 100% wet to 100% dry. Annual
makeup-water requirements are calculated for various tower sizes located
in different U.S. cities. 11 refs. cited.

41) Kuehlwasserpumpenbauarten Fuer Kuehltuerme

(Cooling Water Pump Systems for Cooling Towers)
Holzhueter, E.; Misod, A.; Siekmann, H.
Ind. Anz., V. 99, N. 21, March 11, 1977, pp. 373-377.
The paper discusses various factors affecting the design of cooling
tower pumps. A review of current cooling tower pump systems is given
and efficient pump control techniques are discussed. (In German).

42) Predicting the Performance of Forced-Draught Cooling Towers

Whillier, A.
Chamber of Mines of S. Africa, Environ. Eng. Lab.
J. Mine Vent Soc., S. Africa, V. 30, N. I, Jan. 1977, pp. 2-25.
An important thermodynamic parameter in cooling tower calcu-
lations is the ratio of the thermal capacity of the water stream to that
of the sir stream. This parameter is referred to as ,the tower capacity
factor. It is shown that when air or water efficiency,~re plotted against
the capacity factor test points for a given tower are found to lie on a
single smooth curve. The correlation is obtained, irrespective of whether
the equipment is used as a water cooler or air cooler, and irrespective of
the temperature levels, temperature ranges and barometric pressures.
The paper also shows that when a specified amount of heat has to be re-
jected into a specified air stream, optimum performance giving the low-
est average water temperature is obtained when the water flow rate is
chosen so that its thermal capacity is equal to the potential thermal
capacity of the air stream. 13 refs. cited.

43) Thin Shell Finite Element by the Mixed Method Formulation-2,3

Chan, A. S. L.
Imp. Coli. of Sci. & Technol., London, England
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., V. 10, N.I, Jan. 1977, pp. 75-103.
Th~ first part of the paper (Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.,
V. 9, N. 3, Nov./Dec. 1976, p. 337) formulates the displacement theo-
ry. Part 2 formulates the so-called geometric stiffness matrix which
performs the large displacement, nonlinear analysis by the incremental
method. This method is used for calculating buckling loads. Examples
are given of a discontinuous shell for which no finite element result has
been obtained before. In Part 3, the mass matrix is developed, and ex-
amples are' given of small displacement dynamic analysis, including the
case of a cooling tower subject to earthquake loading. 16 refs. cited.

44) Cooling Tower Estimates Made Easy

Uchiyama, Takashi
Toyo Eng. Corp., Funabashi City, Japan
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 55, N. 12, Dec. 1976, pp. 93-96.
The paper presents an analysis of water cooling tower data. It de-
scribes a method to estimate cooling tower weight, volume, number of
cells, motor size and price. Two examples are given illustrating the use
of calculation techniques developed.

45) Testing a Saltwater Cooling Tower

Monjoie, Michael; Sobel, Nelson
Power, V. 120, N. 12, Dec. 1976, pp. 42-43.
In 1974 the Atlantic City Electric Co. placed Unit 3 of its B L Eng-
land Station into commercial operation. Condenser cooling for the unit
is provided by cirCUlating sea water in a closed-cycle, natural-draft
system. The cooling tower selected for the site was a hyperbolic, counter-
flow unit. The thermal test instrumentation procedures and test data as
well as drift measurement results are given. The paper indicates that the
tower operates within design specifications for thermal performance
and that it meets the environmental criteria regarding the drift.

46) Laboratory Simulation of Wind Loading of Rounded Structures

Farell, Cesar; Guven, Oktay; Patel, V. C.
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
lASS (Int. Assoc. of Shell and Space Struct.) World Consr. on Space
Enclosures, Montreal, Quebec, July 4-9,1976. Pub!. by Concordia
Univ., Build. Res. Cent., Montreal, Quebec, 1976, V. 2, pp. 905-913.
The paper shows that mean-pressure distributions on cooling tower
shells depend on a number of factors including the Reynolds number,
the surface roughness, the velocity distribution and the turbulence char-
acteristics of the approaching stream, the presence of other large
structures in the vicinity, and the wind-tunnel blockage in the case of
model tests. The paper reviews the relative importance of these factors
and establishes criteria for the modeling of wind loadings on the basis
of experimental and analytical studies performed by the authors.

47) Cooling Water Salinity and Brine Disposal Optimized with Electro-
dialysis Water Recovery/Brine Concentration System
Westbrook, G.; Wirth, L. Jr.
Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI
ASME Paper, N. 76-WA/Pwr-3 for Meeting Dec. 5, 1976,8 p.
The paper discusses discharge power plants which must operate
with the smallest possible waste volumes for containment on the site.
An electrodialysis (ED) system and its accompanying pretreatment
system are described. They are designed to concentrate solute salts to as
high as 15 to 20% concentration for solar pond or evaporator feed. The
water separated from the salts (about 90% of the flow volume) is re-
cycled back to the cooling tower, thus reducing water usage in water
scarce areas. Capital and operating costs are compared to thermal
evaporators and solar ponds as well as the flexibility for handling
larger flows by each method. 17 refs. cited.

48) Development of the Assisted-Draught Cooling Tower

Gardner, B. R.
Energy Dig., V. 5, N. 2, April 1976, pp. 22-27.
A 2000 megawatt generating station is capable of using up to 230
million liters of cooling water per hour. This water is needed to con-
dense the working fluid (steam) after its passage through the turbines,
ready for recycling, as soft water, back to the boilers. Inland stations
generally must use the same cooling water over and over again in a
closed cycle. The heat absorbed by the cooling water from the con-
densing steam is usually dumped to the atmosphere by transferring it
to an up-draft of air in heat exchangers. These consist of regular ar-
rays of wooden or asbestos packing installed within the lower parts of
the familiar circular towers, a prominent feature of inland station sites.
The largest towers in use by the Central Electricity Generating Board
(GEGB, in the United Kingdom) are some 114 meters high and 91
meters in diameter at the base. About six of these are needed to serve
a 2000 megawatt station if natural draft alone is used. To reduce the
bulk of the cooling-tower installation, studies were made to increase
the capacity of these towers, thus reducing the number of them re-
quired per station. The general tower dimensions were retained to pre-
vent the plume from returning to ground. The paper discusses work on
a forced-draft design and explains why it was replaced by an induced-
draft system. The latter system allowed the inlet and diffuser sections
to be dispensed with and keep the tower's apron diameter down to the
size of the packing annulus. In a tower of 1000 1)1egawatts capacity,
there would be room to install the fans in the space'between the pack-
ing and the shell-support columns. In the new design the fans are pro-
tected from the direct influence of external cross winds, which would
otherwise produce high fluctuating stresses in the blade roots and con-
siderably shorten blade life. .

49) Cooling Tower Effluent Reduction by Electrodialysis

Jordan, D. R.;McIlhenny, W. F.; Westbrook, G. T.
Dow Chemical
Combustion, V. 48, N. 4, Oct. 1976, pp. 28-32,45.
The paper deals with electrolysis side-stream desalting which offers
an alternative solution to the problem of water and salt management in
electric power generating plants where blowdown disposal is needed,
and where the value of recovered water is considerable. An advanced
electrodialysis technology is described. 4 refs. cited.

50) Develdpment of the Assisted-Draught Cooling Tower

Gardner, B. R.
Cent. Electr. Generating Board, England
Combustion, V. 48, N. 4, Oct. 1976, pp. 15-22.
The paper discusses a new design which is attractive enough to be
used for a full-scale tower to serve power generating stations. In the
long term, it is not expected to show financial economies over natural-
draught installations it replaces, but as a single assisted-draught cooling
tower it can do the work of three or four of the large conventional
towers. The paper claims gains in visual amenity and a reduction of the

land area occupied by a station utilizing this design. The paper begins
by outlining the basic principles of cooling-tower design and gives some
account of the work which has brought the first 1000 megawatt (elec-
trical) induced-draught tower to the stage of being a practical propo-

51) Heutiger Entwicklungsstand Der Kombinierten Nass-/Trockenkuehlung

In Der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Und Erste Betriebserfahrungen Mit
Den Verschiedenen Verfahren ,
(Present State of Development of Combined Wet/Dry Cooling in the
Federal Republic of Germany and Initial Operating Experience with
Different Processes)
Vodicka, V.
Balcke-Duerr, Bochum, Germany
VGB Kraftswerkstech, V. 46, N. 10, Oct. 1976, pp. 630-637.
The paper explains the physical background to the development of
visible cooling tower vapor. There are several processes where it is pos-
sible to suppress the firmness of the vapor. As the paper shows, parallel
connection of both the wet and dry sections of the air side offer the
most economical approach. The paper presents designs of large scale
installations, explains their, operating procedures and discusses costs.
It is shown that wet/dry cooling even in designs with a relatively high
proportion of dry removed heat is more economical than pure dry cool-
ing. 7 refs. cited. (In German).

52) Computer Simulation of Atmospheric Effects of Waste Heat Rejected

From Conceptual Large Power Parks
Bhumralkar, C. M.
Stanford Res. Inst., Menlo Park, CA
ASME Paper, N. 76-WA/HT-20 for Meet. Dec. 5,1976,8 p.
Proposals to install large power complexes at single site (generating
capacity 10,000 to 50,000 MW/le) raise concern for the inadvertent
weather modification by attendant effluents. A mesoscale model de-
signed to simulate the inadvertent modification of the atmosphere
caused by localized perturbations of heat and/or moistUre, was applied
to a hypothetical development at a site near Baton Rouge, LA. Numeri-
cal studies determined the relationships between local meteorological
variables, orientation of cooling towers to the ambient wind, and other
factors, and the resultant atmospheric effects. The preliminary results
presented indicate that the model's treatment of the temperature and
moisture perturbations caused by natural draft wet cooling towers is
realistic and physically consistent. The results also provide indication
that significant weather modification can result from the type of power
park development proposed. It is believed that the model can make
valuable contributions to the design of the facilities for disposing waste
heat at large power complexes. 9 refs. cited.
53) Mean Wind Loading on Rough-Walled Cooling Towers
Farell, Cesar; Guven, Oktay; Maisch, Federico
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
ASCE J. Eng. Mech. Div., V. 102, N. 6, Dec. 1976, pp. 1059-1081.

Measurement of mean pressure distributions on a cooling tower

model in uniform wind for several longitudinal-rib configurations and
two uniformly distributed roughnesses are presented. The base pressure
coefficient is shown to be fairly constant along the cooling-tower
height and independent of roughness in the range of Reynolds number
independence. Differences between the base and minimum pressure
coefficients were shown to decrease with increasing relative roughness
or decreasing relative rib spacing when there was no interaction between
the flow patterns around consecutive ribs. This results in significant
reductions in the magnitude of the negative mean side pressures on the
structure and supports the use of strakes on prototypes for the purpose
of reducing the mean side sections. The physical mechanisms responsi-
ble for the surface roughness effects are identified in the light of the
boundary-layer theory. Possible choices as roughness configurations are
examined. 29 refs. cited.

54) Economics of Dry-Wet Cooling Towers

Croley, Thomas E. II; Patel, V. c.; Cheng, Mow-Soung
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 102, N. 2, Nov. 1976, pp. 147-163.
Contemporary dry-wet design efforts and economic studies are re-
viewed. Promising configurations are delineated. The basic accounting
scheme and relevant parameters necessary for comprehensive total cost
calculations are identified. Existing thermodynamic and psychrometric
models for dry towers, wet towers, turbines, and condensers are com-
bined with the economic information to derive the total economies of
various dry-wet tower configUrations. Examples for four parallel air-
paths and one series air-path cooling tower are included. The paper indi-
cates that parallel air-path configurations offer the most economical
design for a dry-wet tower. Dry-wet cooling towers also appear econom-
ically competitive with wet towers in some areas with high water costs.
36 refs. cited.

55) Growing Role of Natural Draft Cooling Towers in U.S. Power Plants
Haggerty, Dennis; LeFevre, Marcel
Research-Cottrell, Hamon Cooling Tower Div.
Power Eng., (Barrington, IL), V. 80, N. 6, June 1976, pp. 60-63.
Natural draft cooling towers may well handle more kilowatt capacity
than the mechanical draft tower for power plants constructed during
the next decade. The main force behind the recent trend in natural
draft c<;>oling towers is economics. The high cost of fan energy penalizes
the mechanical draft tower in any economic analysis. As long as energy
costs remain high, the natural draft tower will be the choice for a larger
number of new plants. The typical mechanical draft tower is 60 ft. high,
while a natural draft tower may be 500 ft. high or more. Because the
natural draft tower can release its cloud of water vapor at this much
greater height, the problem of local fogging, recirculation, and icing is
eliminated. The plume is widely dispersed rather than settling back into
the valley and causing chronic fogging in local inversions.

56) Continuous Belt Ion Exchanger: Chromate Removal from Cooling

Tower Blowdown Waters
Brown, Denzel A.; May, Paul D.; Klein, Elias; Miles, H. Brinson III
Gulf South Res. Inst., New Orleans, LA
Appl. Polym. Symp., N. 29,1976: New and Spec. Fibers, Proc. Symp.
at Am. Chern. Soc. Nat'I. Meet., Chicago, IL, Aug. 26-27,1975,
The paper describes a design for a continuous process using ion ex-
change resin impregnated on cotton fabric belting. This, approach has
proven useful for the removal of chromate from cooling tower blow-
down waters. Two processes are primarily in use today. These are chem-
ical reduction and ion exchange columns. The paper presents an eco-
nomic evaluation on the basis design of 100 gal/min treatment. This
level was established with the assumption that the average cooling
tower capacity is 10,000 gal/min and is run at a 1% continuous blow-
down. It is shown that the continuous belt ion exchanger has excellent
market potential. Results of broad studies are included in this paper.

57) Spry Cooling System Design

Elgawhary, A. W.
Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, pp. 95-99.
A mathematical model simulating the cooling process of a spray cool-
ing system is presented. The analysis shows the system's thennal per-
fonnance for different meteorological conditions. The following ob-
servations were made from the results of this work: (a) The design
specifications for meteorological conditions spray systems must include
the coincident occurrence values of the relevant ambient parameters
such as wet bulb temperature, and wind speed and direction. (b) For
engineering applications, the meteorological conditions for a spray
system analysis should be based on the desired highest wet bulb temper-
ature. For design purposes, the other parameters (dry bulb temperature
and wind speed) coincident with this selected high wet-bulb tempera-
ture should be used. (c) Increasing length and decreasing width of the
discharge path will improve the thennal perfonnance of the spray cool-
ing system. 2 refs. cited.

58) Cooling Tower Drift Elimination

BUrger, Robert
Robert Burger Assoc., Inc., New York, NY
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, pp. 85-88.
A new cellular drift eliminator for cooling towers is discussed. The
design prevents water loss, prolongs tower life, and provides improved
plant efficiency. Before discussing drift elimination in detail, the paper
outlines the principles of cooling towers and some of the equipment
designs that use them. Tests with cooling towers indicate that con-
version to cellular wet decking fill and drift eliminators can improve
operating efficiency by more than 30%.


59) Approaches to Zero Pollutant Discharge

Dabrowski, H. J.
Giffels Assoc., Inc., Detroit, MI
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, pp. 51-59.
A case history is presented. It focuses on several points: chemical
treatment, ion exchange treatment, and mechanical treatment as a
means for achieving zero pollutant discharge, design and operating ex-
periences, costs and some alternatives.
60) Electrochemical Removal of Chromates and Other Metals
Duffey, J. G.; Gale, S. B.; Bruckenstein, S.
Andco Inc., Buffalo, NY
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, pp. 44-50.
The paper presents operating data using the electrochemical method
of chromate removal for treatment of cooling tower blowdown water.
It is shown that chrome levels consistently under 0.05 ppm can be
achieved with no pH adjustment of the feed-water provided that it is in
the pH range of 6 to 9. Operating costs (excluding labor) are generally
in the range of 5 to 10 cents per 1,000 gal. depending upon the
chromate concentration. The labor amounts to less than one-half man-
hr. per day, used mainly in an acid wash procedure. Operating experi-
ence confirms the theory of the process and initial design problems
were solved permitting continuous operating periods generally in excess
of one month between electrode changes. The feasibility of removing
other heavy metals electrochemically as well as a/senates and other
compounds is demonstrated. 2 refs. cited.

61) Cooling Towers, Volume 2, 1975

AIChE, New York, NY
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, 99 p.
This is a manual which contains 18 papers covering various topics
such as reverse osmosis, reducing energy losses in cooling towers, con-
trolling water pollution, environmental evaluation of closed-cycle cool-
ing, total water management, and cooling system design.
62) Cooling Tower Technology-Wet Decking Fill
Burger, Robert
Robert BUrger Assoc.
Nat'l. Eng., V. 80, N. 6, June 1976, p. 16.
DeSign problems of water cooling towers and their use in various
water cooling systems are discussed.

63) Waste Heat Management of Steam-Electric Power P~ants

Moy, H. C.
Consolidated Edison of New York, NY
ASME Paper, N. 76-ENAs-44 for Meet. July 12-15, 1976,8 p.
The paper points out that nearly two-thirds of the supplied energy
of power plants is nonrecoverable and is ultimately rejected to the envi-
ronment. The principal cooling schemes of power plant include once-

through, closed-cycle, and a combination of both. The paper discusses

the technology of each. It is concluded that avoidance of undesirable
detrimental environmental effects must be a major consideration in the
design of any once-through cooling system. Although closed-cycle al-
ternatives may offer minimal ecological impact, their cost is high. As
for waste heat utilization, its beneficial usage in agriculture and aqua-
culture appears to be practical and economically feasible. 12 refs. cited.

64) Alternative Arrangements and Designs for Wet/Dry Cooling Towers

Smith, E. C.; Larinoff, M. W.
Hudson Prod. Corp., Houston, TX
Power, Eng., '(Barrington, IL), V. 80, N. 5, May 1976, pp. 58-61.
The paper makes a comparison between separate-structure wet/dry
cooling towers with different condensers or the same condenser and
with parallel or series circulating water flow. The use of single-structure
versus separate structure wet/dry towers is also considered.

65) Optimum Shape of Cooling Towers

Reinschmidt, Kenneth F.; Narayanan, R.
Comput. Struct., V. 5, N. 5-6, Dec. 1975, pp. 321-325.
The determination of the optimal shape of continuous surface
structures can be approached by algebraic techniques suitable for digital
computation. When the coordinates of the middle surface of a shell are
expressed by a finite polynomial series, an optimization problem in a
finite set of discrete variables materializes. The method is applied to a
particular example of a shell of revolution describing a natural draft
cooling tower. A simple preliminary design model is formulated to eval-
uate the potential savings due to numerical optimization, and the result-
ing nonlinear programming problem is solved by iterated linear program-
ming. The results indicate that the method is feasible and that signifi-
cant savings could be achieved by computerized shape optimization.
5 refs. cited.

66) Role of Geometric Imperfections in the Collapse of a Cooling Tower

Kemp, K. 0.; Croll, J. G. A.
Univ. Coll., London, England
Struct. Eng., V. 54, N. I, Jan. I976,pp. 33-37.
Effects of geometric imperfections in the form of the meridians of
hyperboloidal cooling towers are described. The authors show that even
moderate imperfections induce hoop stresses in the vicinity of the im-
perfection that are of the same order of magnitude as the meridional
stresses that would occur in this same area of the perfect shell. By ex-
amining a shell of form similar to the Ardeer shell which recently col-
lapsed, it is indicated that imperfections may have had an important
contributory role in initiating this failure. The authors suggest that for
fu ture designs, greater attention be given to specifying imperfection.
11 refs. cited.

67) Gust Factors for Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

Singh, Mahendra P.; Gupta, Ajaya K.
Sargent & I.undy, Chicago, IL
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 102, N. 2, Feb. 1976, pp. 371-386.

The paper notes that wind pressure distribution and dynamic be-
havior of hyperbolic cooling towers are significantly different from
those of simple slender structures. As such, the gust response factors de-
veloped for design of simple structures may not be applicable to cooling
towers. The author introduces a method which considers the dynamic
interaction of the wind and tower to obtain the gust factors for cooling
tower design. Wind pressure distribution measurements made on model
towers in wind tunnels are presented. Simplifying assumptions are made
concerning the correlation characteristics of wind pressure on a tower
surface. Effect of change in wind and tower parameters on gust factors
is examined. 12 refs. cited'.

68) Thermodynamic Models of Dry-Wet Cooling Towers

Croley, Thomas E. II; Patel, V. C.; Cheng, Mow-Soung
Inst. of Hydraul. Res., Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
ASCEJ.PowerDiv., V.102,N.1,Jan.1976,pp.I-I9.
Basic thermodynamic models are discussed. The models are neces-
sary for a comprehensive consideration of all cooling system costs. They
are outlined for the combination dry-wet cooling towers. The various
subsystem models of indirect air-cooled heat exchangers, crossflow
evaporative piles, turbines, and condensers are combined to give a man-
ageable overall thermodynamic model, suitable for large numbers of
repetitive calculations at different meteorological conditions. The re-
sulting model represents several configurations of the parallel air-path,
crossflow, induced-draft, dry-wet cooling tower. EXamples are given to
illustrate the model use and indicate its large applicability in economic,
water consumption, and plume emission studies. 44 refs. cited.

69) Comparison of Different Combinations of Wet and Dry Cooling Towers

von Cleve, H. H.
GEA Des fuer Luftkondensation, Ger.
ASME Paper, N. 75-WA/Pwr-1O for Meet., Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1975, 7 p.
The paper notes that the most economical solution for any design is
a combination of conventional wet cooling towers with direct air cooled
condensers. Various limitations at particular sites, such as ambient air
conditions which require that wet cooling tower plumes be avoided,
makeup water quantity available, and maximum turbine backpressure
acceptable only dictate the individual design data for the wet and dry
sections. The author describes simple methods to determine the design
of both individual sections. To meet makeup water and/or backpressure
requirements the wet and the dry section must not necessarily be com-
bined into one unit. However, one combined cooling system is required
to avofd wet cooling tower plumes.

70) Power Spray Cooling-Unit and System Performance

Soo, S. L.
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
ASME Paper, N. 75-WA/Pwr-8 for Meet. Nov. 30-Dec. 4,1975,11 p.
The author notes that the performance of unit sprays can be ex-
pressed in the coefficient of performance per unit temperature differ-
ence of water to that of the wet bUlb. For large unit sprays, cross wind
is important to the performance because the local humidity depends on

its rate of removal. Low power requirements of spray cooling systems

requires optimum droplet size and high pump efficiency. The ratio of
spray flow to through-flow controls the loss from mixing. Optimum de-
sign should strive for small mean droplet sizes around 5-mm-dia. and
spray height around 4 m to limit the loss by cross wind while insuring
large heat release rates. For a typical power plant, the power con-
sumption of the spray cooling system designed following these criteria
will be below 1% of the total power output and water loss below 2.5%.
Such a system as an alternative to devices like piped-in spray ponds and
cooling towers has the advantage of flexibility in design ahd operation
and future expansion. The system is also useful as an evaporator for
sewage treatment plants. 7 refs. cited.

71) Aerodynamic Design of Cooling Tower Drift Eliminators

Yao, S. C.; Schrock, V. E.
Argonne Nat'l. Lab., IL
ASME Paper, N. 75-WA/Pwr-5 for Meet. Nov. 30-Dec. 5, 1975,7 p.
A parametric study of the characteristics of inertial drift eliminators
of wet cooling towers is presented for their blade shapes, orientation
with respect to gravity, solidity ratios, blade sizes, approaching air
speed, and drift spectrum. The behavior of drift eliminators is revealed
by nondimensional parameters. A method for the optimum design of
an eliminator considering minimum cost versus performance is de-
veloped. This methodology can be integrated into the optimum design
of the entire cooling system. An example of the design approach is
given. 18 re~s. cited.

72) Dynamic Plume Model for the Prediction of Atmospheric Effects

Associated with Cooling Tower Operation
Rao, K. S.; Lague, J. S.; Egan, B. A.; Chu, Y. H.
Environ. Res. & Technol., Concord, MA
Proc. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 68th 1975, for Meet., Boston, MA,
June 15-20, 1975, V. 1, Paper 75-04, 5,18 p.
A numerical method for predicting the convective rise of cumulus
clouds in a quiescent atmosphere was adapted to model the behavior of
a buoyant moist plume released at high vertical velocity into a cross-
wind. The model was successfully applied to assess the atmospheric ef-
fects (ground-level icing, fogging, and length of visible plume) associ-
ated with a number of cooling tower designs. A physically-realistic pro-
cedure for treating the merging of multiple plumes has been incorpo-
rated for applications to mechanical draft towers. 9 refs. cited.

73) Recycling cooling and Chilling Equipment Energy

Prasad, Anil; Fitzgerald, John
Appl. Eng. Corp., Elk Grove Village, IL
SPE Tech. Cont, 33rd Annual Proc., Atlanta, GA, May 5-8,1975,
pp. 8-10. Publ. by SPE, Greenwich, CT, 1975.
The authors discuss three different temperature considerations
which should be taken into account when selecting cooling and chilling
equipment. Water temperature levels of 80°F to 95°F are used in the

cooling of hydraulic oil and air compressors. These higher water temper-
atures are usually supplied by an evaporative cooler (cooling tower).
The second range of temperatures is from 40°F to 55°F. This coolant
temperature is generally used for cooling molds, jacketed vessels, cal-
enders and mills. This level of water temperature is supplied by refriger-
ation equipment. The usual coolant medium is water. The third area of
temperature consideration is the low temperature range of coolants.
This temperature range is from 40°F to OaF and lower. These molding
temperatures are supplied by low temperature refrigeration equipment.
For larger cooling system requirements, it may be more advantageous
to consider a central system. One of the more practical central system
designs is the energy conserving air cooled type. From energy and eco-
nomics standpoints, this type of chilling provides two benefits; it con-
serves water (l00% recovery) and it recycles process energy to conserve
heating fuel.

74) Initial Investigations of the Effects of Heat and Moisture Dissipation

from a Large Natural·Draft Cooling Tower
Peterman, William A.; Frey, Glen R.; Limbird, Arthur G.
Bowling Green State Univ., OH
Symp. on Atmos. Dittus. and Air Pollut., Prepr., Santa Barbara, CA,
Sept. 9-13, 1974, pp. 420-425. Publ. by Am. Meteorol. Soc., Boston,
The paper is intended to provide an outline of the efforts underway
to ascertain the effects of heat and moisture dissipation from a large
natural draft cooling tower. The outline of the discU:'ssion is as follows:
The general problem of climatic fluctuations is treated first. A detailed
discussion of the soil environment is given. The purpose of this section
is to show how the meteorological investigations will act as the key to
understanding the total environmental change. Finally, a review of the
problem of inadvertent weather modification is provided. 17 refs. cited.

75) Evaluation of Varying Meteorological Parameters on Cooling Tower

Plume Behavior
Tsai, Y. J.: Huang, C. H.
Stone & Webster Eng. Corp., Boston,. MA
Symp. on Atmos. Dittus. and Air Pollut., Prepr., Santa Barbara, CA,
Sept. 9-13, 1974, pp. 408-411. Publ. by Am. Meteorol. Soc., Boston,
Cooling tower plume behavior is simulated by an integral method.
The model offers an accurate and flexible simulation of the plume char-
acteristics. The model allows investigation of environmental design con-
siderations in conjunction with cooling system alternatives of electric
generating plant, plant operating modes, and meteorological conditions,
and to minimize the impact on the environment. 9 refs. cited.

76) Some Extra-High Capacity Heat Exchangers of Special Design

Forgo, L.
HOTERV, Des Br. for Ind. Power & Heat Supply, Budapest, Hungary
Heat Exch. " Des. and Theory Sourcebook, Int. Cent. for Heat and Mass

Transfer, 5th Semin., Proc. pp. 101-119. Pub!. by Scripta Book Co.,
Washington, DC, 1974, Div. of McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Air cooled condensing plants, steam turbines with multiple reheating
cycle are described and analyzed. Diagrams and plates illustrating design
and plants are appended. 4 refs. cited.

77) Recycling of Cooling Water in Cable Manufacture

Benenati, Samuel R.
West. Electr. Co., Buffalo, NY
Wire J., V. 8, N. 6, June 1975, pp. 61-65.
At Western Electric Company's Buffalo works, municipal water re-
quired for co.oling four cable jacketing lines has been recirculated and
reused. Water consumption for this manufacturing operation was re-
duced by 95%. The recirculating system uses a unique injection, spray-
type commercial cooling tower which is virtually maintenance-free. The
cooling system has no moving parts, fans, wet decks, or electrical wiring.
Cooling is accomplished by spraying and expanding water through
numerous small nozzles. Insulation on the outside piping is not required
to prevent freezing, because the design of the cooling unit permits the
water to drain out when it is not in operation. FUrther reduced instal-
lation costs were achieved by the use of commercially available pump
suction diffusers and triple-du ty check valves.

78) Stability of Hyperboloidal Shells

Veronda, Daniel R.; Weingarten, Victor I.
Hughes Airc~aft Co., Fullerton, CA
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 101, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 1585-1602.
The paper presents an analytical and experimental investigation of
buckling loads of hyperboloidal shells with different geometries sub-
jected to the axisymmetric loadings of external pressure and axial com-
pression. Sander's thin shell equations were used in conjunction with
the finite element method to determine the bifurcation buckling load
of the shell. Experimental data on the instability behavior of hyperbo-
loidal shells subjected to combined loadings is presented. Molded PVC
specimens were used in the experiments. Shell specimens were: (a)
Clamped on both ends; and (b) clamped on one end and free on the
other end. The experimental data were found to be in good agreement
with the analysis for all types of loading conditions. 16 refs. cited.

79) Analysis of a Multi·Unit Cocurrent Crossflow Cooling Tower

Hayashi, Yoshishige; Hirai, Eiji
Kanazawa Univ., Japan
Heat Transfer Jap. Res., y. 3, N. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1974, pp. 67-74.
An analysis of multi-unit cocurrent crossflow cooling towers is made.
Towers were placed in series and the results obtained were compared
with that of multi-Unit countercurrent crossflow cooling towers. The
experimental data on the multi-unit cocurrent crossflow cooling tower
were· analyzed in terms of enthalpy efficiency of single-unit, heat
capacity ratio and number of transfer units. An outline of design calcu-
lations of multi-unit cocurrent crossflow cooling towers is presented.
4 refs. cited.

80) Cooling Tower Design and Evaluation Parameters

Kelly, G. M.
Marley Co., Mission, KS
ASME Paper, N. 75-IPWR-9 for Meet. May 19-20, 1975,8 p. CODEN:
The paper discusses the parameters involved in the thermal design
and evaluation of industrial cooling towers. By relating tower perform-
ance, size and costs to the previously published Rating Factor-Tower
Unit system, the engineer gains a useful tool for selecting, optimizing
and pricing various tower design conditions.

81) Successive Graphical Method of A Cross-Flow Cooling Tower

Inazumi, H.; Kageyama, S.
Shizuoka Univ., Hamamatsu, Japan
Chern. Eng. Sci., V. 30, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 717-721.
A graphical method of the calculation of the mean enthalpy driving
force in a cross-flow cooling tower is presented. In this method, the
equilibrium relationship between the temperature and the enthalpy of
saturated air is graphically represented and used in the calculation. The
applicable range is wider than the conventional methods which use the
equilibrium relation in a form of a first-order equation or an exponen-
tial expression for a limited range of the temperature. This method is
educational since it is a visual, graphical method. An example of the
calculation applied to the practical case is given. 5 refs. cited.

82) Optimization of Plant Cooling Water Systems

Allman, W. B.
DuPont, Wilmington, DE
ASME Paper, N. 75-IPWR-7 for Meet. May 19-20, 1975,5 p.
This paper attempts to demonstrate to power design engineers the
desirability of having an accurate computer model available when
needed if they are to achieve realistic and workable optimized plant
cooling water systems. Optimization guidelines and their limitations are
discussed. The balance of the paper discusses the Computer Flow Study
Diagram and the computer model and gives an example of their use in
optimizing a cooling tower system.

83) Effect of Evaporation Losses in the Analysis of Counterflow Cooling

Nahavandi, Amir N.; Kershah, Rashid M.; Serico, Benjamin J.
Newark ColI. of Eng., NJ
Nucl. 'Eng. Des., V. 32, N. 1, 1975, pp. 29-36.
In Merkel's method for the thermal design of counterflow cooling
towers, the variation of the water flow from the tower inlet to outlet
(due to evaporation losses) is neglected. This does not lead to a conser-
vative design. In the analysis, the water evaporation losses are included
in the energy balance and a new technique for the thermal design of
cooling towers is developed. A comparison of the present analysis with
the Merkel solution indicates that the error in the Merkel method may
reach 12%, depending on the design conditions. The present solution is
recommended where more accurate results are needed. 8 refs. cited.

84) Cooling Tower Institute, Annual Meeting, 1974

Cool Tower Inst., Annu. Meet., Paper, New Orleans, LA, Jan. 28-30,
1974. Available from Cool Tower Inst., Houston, TX, 1974.
Proceedings from this conference includes 14 papers on recent de-
velopments in the design, operation, and economy of cooling towers.
Topics include cooling tower fans, problems of waste heat utilization,
the generation of visible plumes by wet/dry cooling towers, problems of
airborne transmission of pathogenic organisms in cooling tower drift,
cooling tower rebuilding, cooling tower consumed power and its re-
lationship t9 powerplant output, cooling requirements for the nuclear
industry, cooling water use by manufacturers, side stream filtration for
cooling towers, evolution of nonpolluting microbicides, coordinated
cooling water treatment programs, and new developments in cooling
water treatment technology.

85) Buckling of Cooling-Tower Shells: Bifurcation Results

Cole, Peter P.; Abel, John F.; Billington, David P.
Lab H. Hossdorf, Basel, Switzerland
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 101, N. 6, June 1975, pp. 1205-1222.
The paper describes studies of bifurcation buckling of hyperboloids
used for large-scale cooling towers. Those studies include the effects of
flexible supports, combined loadings from wind, dead weight, and
temperature, shell cracking, different variations in the wind pressure
distribution, and changes in the shell thickening. The paper gives com-
parisons between numerical and wind-tunnel results. The finite element
formulation used is examined and results are presented for the tower at
the Trojan Nuclear Plant on the Columbia River, Oregon. 26 refs. cited.

86) Buckling of Cooling-Tower Shells: State-of-the-Art

Cole, Peter P.; Abel, John F.; Billington, David P.
Lab H. Hossdorf, Basel, Switzerland
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 101, N. 6, June 1975, pp. 1185-1203.
Various analytical, experimental, and numerical contributions to the
buckling analyses of large hyperbolic cooling towers are summarized.
Previously published results for axisymmetric pressures and asymmetric
wind loadings of hyperboloids are compared to new bifurcation pre-
dictions by a finite element method. A limited series of wind-tunnel
tests remain the only standard against which various analytical and
numerical approaches can be judged. However, numerical stUdies seem
promising for studying the effect of various design factors as variable
thickness, flexible supports, and edge stiffenings. 28 refs. cited.

87) Cooling Blowdown in Cooling Towers

Crits, G. J.;Glover, G.
Cochrane Environ. Syst., King of Prussia, PA
Water Wastes Eng., V. 12, N. 4, April 1975, 5 p. between pp. 45 and 52.
The authors describe how manageable discharge levels can be ob-
tained by sidestream treatment and careful tower design. The permissi-
ble tower control limits based on old concepts and with high pH and
new concepts requiring the use of organic additives or dispersant are
listed. Examples are given.

88) Performance Curves for Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers

Hallett, G. F.
Ceram Cooling Tower Co., Fort Worth, TX
ASME Paper, N. 74-WA-PCT-3 for Meet. Nov. 17-22, 1974,6 p.
Both ASME PTC-23 and Cooling Tower Institute Bulletin ATP-I05
are being revised and both test codes have historically used performance
curves as a means of evaluating cooling tower capacity. Techniques and
methods are given for calculating performance curves for both counter-
flow and crossflow type cooling towers. These procedures can be used
dUring bid evaluation to assess and predict tower performance at vari-
ous operating conditions other than the design point. 12 refs. cited.
89) Reservoir Operation Through Objective Trade-Offs
Croley, Thomas E. II
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
Water Resour. Bull., V. 10, N. 6, Dec. 1974, pp. 1123-1132.
Some of the problems that concern the proper methods for con-
sideration of several different objectives in reservoir planning are dis-
cussed. Classical systems analysis approach to decision making for mUl-
tiple objective problems is outlined and the inherent difficulties associ-
ated with multiple objectives and subjective estimates are identified.
Techniques used in reservoir design and operation are reviewed. An al-
ternate technique for considering noncommensurate, objectives, which
relates the objectives in terms of real trade-off costs and eliminates the
need for a priori estimates of objective worth is pres,!'lnted. The method
is illustrated with three examples, including a reservpir operation prob-
lem and a cooling tower design problem. 31 refs. cited.
90) Effect of Wind Friction on Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Herzos, Max, A. M.
Struct. Eng., V. 52, N. 11, Nov. 1974, pp. 417-420.
The paper stresses that the action of winds on the rough surfaces of
cooling towers is often not accounted for. Designing cooling towers can
result in their unsatisfactory behavior regardless of this fact. Wind
forces acting on cooling towers are discussed and approximate analysis
of cooling towers under dead load and wind is presented. 17 refs. cited.
91) Sea-Water Cooling Tower ,
Fukuda, Shozo; Aramaki, Mikio; Oda, Masao; Shoji, Ikuzo
Nagasaki Tech. Inst., Japan
Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Tech. Rev., V. 11, N. 3, 1974, pp. 238-248.
A large capacity sea-water cooling tower is designed with a drift
elimin~tor to drastically reduce the drift carry-over. The drift carry-over
from the tower has in fact been reduced to only an order of 6 to 7 X
10 7 of the quantity of sea-water circulated for cooling, or is as low as
1/2000 or less as compared with 0.2% in the conventional fresh-water
cooling tower. The present paper gives an outline of the service results
of this cooling tower. 5 refs. cited.
92) Wet/Dry Cooling Tower: An Effective Plume Control Method
Reisman, J. I.; Dolan, N. E.
Ecodyne Corp., Santa Rosa, CA
ASME Paper, N. 74-WA/HT-57 for Meet. Nov. 17-22, 1974, 13 p.

Under certain conditions, the exhaust air of conventional mechanical

draft cooling towers may form a fog plume, causing visibility and icing
problems to highways and equipment. In cases where this cannot be
tolerated, a combination wet/dry cooling tower is shown to be effective
fog plume control method. The paper describes the basic phenomena of
cooling tower fog formation. The operation and performance character-
istics of the wet/dry tower are discussed as well as a method of select
wet/dry design criteria. 11 refs. cited.

93) Experimental Cooling Tower

Rish, R. F.
Univ. of Tasmania
Australia Conf. on Heat and Mass Transfer, 1st Pap., Monash Univ.,
Melbourne, Aust., May 23-25, 1973, Sect 5, 2, pp. 1-14. Available from
Dr. R. J. Batterham, CSIRO Oiv. of Chern. Eng., Clayton, Victoria,
August 1973.
A new design of an experimental cooling tower is described. The
tower can be used for instructing in the principles of evaporative cool-
ing and for testing film flow packings. The tower is inexpensive to con-
struct and the power required for water heating and air circulation is
kept low. At the same time the tower is large enough to minimize errors
due to end effects. Experimental results relate air friction and mass
transfer coefficients for a range of spacings and configurations of pack-
ings. 7 refs. cited.

94) Thermal Loading of Thin-Shell Concrete Cooling Towers

Larrabee, Richard D.; Billington, David P.; Abel, John F.
Souza and Tru., Cambridge, MA
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 100, N. 12, Dec. 1974, pp. 2367-2383.
The behavior of reinforced concrete cooling shells is investigated
under the effect of axisymmetric operating thermal loads and nonaxi-
symmetric solar thermal loads. Analytical and finite element techniques
are applied. Stress and displacement results are compared to field
measurements on a 420-ft. high cooling tower. High flexural stresses
due to operating thermal gradients are found to be relieved by meridion-
al cracking of the shell, and the effect of this cracking is examined in
relation to cooling-tower design. 7 refs. cited.

95) Axisymmetric Free Vibration and Transient Response of a Clamped

Cylindrical Shell of Linear Varying Thickness
Fisher, H. D.
Combustion Eng. Inc., Windsor, CT
Nucl. Eng. Des., V. 30, N. 2, Sept. 1974, pp. 278-285.
A variety of structural design problems in nuclear engineering require
a knowledge of the dynamic response of variable thickness shells. Ex-
amples include natural draft cooling towers subjected to wind loading,
and the core support barrel of a pressurized water reactor during a loss
of coolant accident, where the maximum radial deflection due to hydro-
dynamic loadings is a critical design parameter. The paper investigates
the free vibration and transient response of a circular cylindrical shell of
linear varying thickness. Mode shapes and frequencies, calculated in the

free vibration analysis, are used in a model solution for the transverse
displacement and bending stress of the forced vibration problem. Nu-
merical results are presented for two clamped cylinders subjected to a
triangular pressure-time history. Application of analysis to constant
thickness cylinders which are linearly thickened near a clamped support
is discussed. 12 refs. cited.

96) Vibration of Cooling Towers

Armitt, J.
Cent. Electr. Res. Lab., Leatherhead, England
Vib. Probl. in Ind., Int. Symp. Proc., Sess. Pap., Keswick, England,
April 10-12,.1973, Sess 3, Pap. 311,19 p. Available from UK at Energy
Auth., Windscale, Seascale, Cumberland, England, 1973.
Wind tunnel test methods were developed to determine wind induced
stresses in cooling towers using aeroelastic models as part of a detailed
model of a power station site. The turbulence and shear in the atmos-
pheric wind are simulated. Tests on a model of Ferrybridge 'C' Power
Station show that resonant stresses are significant at the design wind
speed. These increase as the fourth power of wind speed and can be
greatly enhanced by turbulent wakes of upstream structures. 6 refs.

97) Wet Bulb Temperatures in Cooling Tower Design

Hill, G. B.
Heat Vent. Eng., J. Air Cond., V. 48, N. 564, July 1974, pp. 19-22,32.
This article examines the selection of cooling to~er design ambient
air wet bulb temperatures in the light of recent developments in the air
conditioning industry.

98) Wake and Gust Loading on Cooling Towers

Sawyer, R. A.
Salford, Univ., England
Vib. Probl. in Ind., Int. Symp. Proc., Sess. Pap., Keswick, England,
April 10-12, 1973, Sess. 3, Pap. 117, 19 p. Available from UK at Ener-
gy Auth., Windscale, Seascale, Cumberland, England, 1973.
An experiment was conducted in a low speed gust tunnel in which
steady and unsteady pressure distributions over the surface of a model
cooling tower were measured. Attention is concentrated on the spectra
of pressure fluctuations at a section near the throat of the tower. The
effects of boundary layer, wake and incident wake on the spectra of
pressure fluctuations at points on the tower are demonstrated, and the
effects of lateral turbulence identified by varying the amplitude of the
input to the gust actuators. 10 refs. cited.

99) Air Side Design and Operating Problems in Cooling Towers

Phelps, P. M.
Phelps Eng. Co., Kentfield, CA
ASMEPaper, N. 74-Pet-29 for Meet. Sept. 15-18, 1974,4p.
The size of a cooling tower is normally established by the amount of
air that is needed for a specified cooling job. The tower fill, which mini-
mizes air rate requirements generally minimizes overall tower costs as

well as for anyone basic type of tower. Such low air rate designs will
usually result in comparatively less severe icing during winter months;
however, fog discharge from the tower can be greater than from a high
air rate design.

100) Treat Cooling-Tower Blowdown

Boies, D. B.; Levin, J. E.
Wapora Inc.
Power, V. 118, N. 8, Aug. 1974, pp. 76-78. ,
To maintain environmental impact at a mmmlUm, cooling-tower
systems must be designed to abate both thermal and chemical pollution
in blowdown stream. The latter is accomplished by treating blowdown
prior to discharge or reuse. Sedimentation and other methods prepare
blowdown streams for discharge to the natural environment. Evapo-
ration or reuse permits a closed cooling system.

101) Die Wichtigsten Parameter, Die Das Verhalten Des Nassen Kuehlturms
(Most Important Parameters that Decide the Operation of Wet Cooling
Vladea, I.
Tech Hochsch, Timisoara, R'om
Brennst-Waerme-Kraft, V. 26, N. 6, June 1974, pp. 244-249.
In effecting the desired cooling range, it is important that this range
lies within the lowest possible water temperatures. Experimental studies
showed that meeting this requirement depends on the design of the in-
ternal baffles. The paper gives experimental results obtained with flat
and corrugated baffles (for countercurrent cooling) and with profiled
rods (crosscurrent cooling). As a basis for comparison, a cooling tower
with assumed operation at various air temperatures was used. 8 refs.'
cited. (In Gennan).

102) Cooling Cascades for Wet/Dry Transfer Processes

Berliner, Paul
Ges fuer Kernforsch, Karlsruhe, Germany
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp., Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 119-126. Pub!. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
Natural draught will dominate as the prime mover of cooling towers
where heated air fluxes of still unknown magnitude occur. The opti-
mum height/diameter relation can be deduced from thenno- and aero-
dynamic principles. Both the uprise within a hyperbolic shell and the
buoyancy and the diffusion into the ambient air influences the capcity.
It is shown that large diameters are relatively more effective than large
chimney heights. Also, vast air rates make high air inlet openings ad-
visable. To elevate the circulating water to the large inlet heights em-
bodies excessive pumping heads in counterflow cooling towers. These
three factors stand against conventional design rules. They promote
the presented concept of a perimetric cooling wall. The water can be
distributed in cascades of limited height. The cooling cascades can be

operated wet and/or dry by automatic control. The automatic oper-

ation includes a method of tJIrning the fill body of wet heat transfer
out of the air flow in periods of dry heat transfer to reduce the pres-
sure drop of the air. 3 refs. cited.

103) Dry Cooling Tower Power Plant Design Specifications and Performance
Larinoff, Michael W.
Hudson Prod. Corp., Houston, TX
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 57-75. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
The paper discusses operating limitations imposed by the turbine ex-
haust element and the alternatives presently available to the electric
utility industry. It also presents tools for estimating dry tower plot area,
fan power and circulating pump power requirements. It shows the sav-
ings in fan power which can be expected with a decrease in turbine-
generator load and ambient air temperatures. It discusses expected main-
tenance costs and the owner's possible exposure with a large 1000 MW
dry cooling tower system. The paper ends with an evaluation of the po-
tential for lower dry tower system costs in the future. 12 refs. cited.

104) Combined Dry Tower-Cooling Pond Systems for Power Plant Cooling
GUpta, Arun K.; Gorton, Robert L.
Kansas State Univ., Manhattan ,
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp:'Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 127-137. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
The paper presents economic study of a power plant cooling system.
The system studied is comprised of 'a dry cooling section followed by a
cooling pond. Cooling range is 27°F with 8.0 in. Hg condenser pressure
and a base environmental condition of 98°F and 50°F dew point. Vari-
ous ratios of dry tower to pond cooling are studied to determine least
cost proportions for a range of summer design conditions and cost
factors typical of current or expected conditions. Results are presented
only for summer maximum design conditions. Combined system cool-
ing is shown to be more economical at the specified design condition
than either all-dry or all-pond systems for the majority of the cases con-
sidered. 11 refs. cited.

105) Dry Towers and Wet-Dry Towers for the Indirect Power Plant Cycle
Hansen, E. P.
Marley Co., Mission, KS
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 109-117. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
Dry towers for power plants are of three types. The direct system
wherein steam is condensed directly in the dry tower; the indirect type
wherein water is cooled in a dry tower and then used to condense
steam in a direct contact condenser; and the indirect type wherein water

is cooled in a dry tower and then used to condense steam in a conven-

tional surface condenser. A dry tower design of the indirect type for
either a mixing condenser or a surface condenser is considered. Air side
capacity control and recirculation are examined and supported with
laboratory data. For sites where some water is available, the use of the
Parallel Path Wet-Dry Cooling Tower is suggested. 5 refs. Cited.
106) Dry and Wet/Dry Cooling Towers for Power Plants
Webb, Ralph L. (Ed.); Barry, Robert E. (Ed.)
Trane Co., La Crosse, WI
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York, 1973, 153 p.
Thirteen papers by various authors are presented. Topics discussed
include design optimization of the dry cooling tower; design concepts
for combined wet/dry cooling systems; economic optimization of plant
loading due to climatic variation on turbine design and operation; and
practical design and operational requirements for power plant coding

107) Periodic Cooling Towers for Electric Power Plants

Robertson, M. W.; Glicksman, L. R.
MIT, Cambridge, MA .
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 139-153. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
A periodic cooling tower was designed to operate at lower evapo-
ration rates than conventional wet towers and with a capital savings
over dry cooling towers. In this design discs of galvanized steel sheet
metal rotate from the hot water to the cool air. A thin layer of oil float-
ing on the water surface separates the water stream from the air stream
and prevents any water carryover. Tests on a scale model of the peri-
odic tower showed the amount of heat transfer due to evaporation to
be less than four-tenths of one percent as compared to eighty percent
for conventional wet towers. The cost per square foot of the periodic
heat transfer is lower than for one conventional dry tower. Half of the
total cost of a dry tower is heat transfer surface cost, thus this new
design has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost of dry
cooling towers. 9 refs. cited.
108) Plume Behavior and Potential Environmental Effects of Large Dry
Cooling Towers
Kearney, D. W.;Boyack, B. E.
Gulf Gen. at Co., San Diego, CA
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 35-48. Pub!. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
The magnitude of the heat rejection of large modern power gener-
ating plants is so great that the problem of potential environmental ef-
fects due to dry cooling systems must be studied. The plumes from
both natural-draft and mechanical-draft towers deSigned for IOOO-MW
plants of several representative types are examined with respect to

plume height and penetration of inversions. Based on the estimated

plume behavior, numerical calculations on potential environmental im-
pact are presented including effects such as cloud formation and precip-
itation, local winds and heating, fog dispersal, noise, aesthetics and land
usage. It is found that no serious local environmental effects appear
likely from large dry cooling towers. 23 refs. cited.

109) On the Minimum Size For Forced Draft Dry Cooling Towers for Power
Generating Plants
Johnson, B. M.; Dickinson, D. R.
Battelle Mem. Inst., Richland, WA
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 25-34. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
A scaling law is derived relating the heat transfer and drag character-
istics, frontal area, volume, surface area, power reqUirements, and per-
formance for mechanical draft cooling towers and on air-cooled heat
exchangers in general. Through a modified Reynolds analogy, connect-
ing friction and heat transfer behavior, the power requirements and
heat transfer performance are related. Size functions are developed, one
of which is related to the frontal area of the heat exchanger and another
to the total volume of the exchanger. Each of these has a unique mini-
mum with respect to the air outlet temperature for particular values of
the water outlet temperature, the entrance head loss, and relative friction
and heat transfer characteristics of the exchanger surfiace. The influence
of each parameter on the minimum frontal area and minimum size of
the heat exchanger is determined. 6 refs. cited.

110) Design of Droplet Sampling Devices for Measurements in Cooling

Morton, V. M.; Foster, P. M.
Cent. Electr. Res. Lab., Leatherhead, Surrey, England
Atmos. Environ., V. 8, N. 4, April 1974, pp. 361-372.
The interpretation of measurements is discussed for the particular
cases of collectors shaped like a circular cylinder, an aerofoil or a circu-
lar disc. It is shown through the trajectories of representative droplets
that correction factors are needed to relate the numbers caught to the
numbers present in the unobstructed flow. These factors are given in
graphical form, and a practical application is discussed.

111) Some Water Droplet Measurements Inside Cooling Towers

Martin, A.; Barber, F. R.
Sci. Servo Dep., Nottingham, Ratcliffe-on-Soar, England
Atmos. Environ., V. 8, N. 4, April 1974, pp. 325-336.
Drop size measurements were made on water sensitive papers exposed
inside cooling towers at various levels. Results are given for samples
taken under eliminators, over eliminators and high in towers. Design
and operational factors which affect the values are discussed. Droplet
removal efficiencies are given for conventional louvre eliminators and
for louvre eliminators modified with plastic meshes.

112) Meteorology and Cooling Tower Operation

Spurr, G.
C.E.G.B. Headquarters, London, England
Atmos. Environ., V. 8, N. 4, April 1974, pp. 321-324.
Climatic aspects were studied at several of the many cooling tower
plants in the United Kingdom. The impact of their operation has been
found to have a negligible effect on the local climate. A salt water tower
plant was also operated for many years with negligible effects.

113) Research and Development Background to the Environmental Problems

of Natural Draught Cooling Towers
Gardner, B. R.; Lowe, H. J.
Cent. Electr. Res. Lab., Leatherhead, Surrey, England
Atmos. Environ., V. 8, N. 4, April 1974, pp. 313-320.
Significant droplet carry-over (drift) was detected at two new 2000
MW plants. More spray was found created in the larger installations and
longer residence time in the larger towers increases droplet growth.
However, the two recent occurrences were principally due to the use
of eliminators which differed from the originally recommended designs
in construction in one case, and in installation in the other.

114) Fans Key to Optimum Cooling-Tower Design

Monroe, R. C.
Hudson Prod. Corp., Houston, TX
Oil Gas J., y. 72, N. 21, May 1974, pp. 52-56.
Questions most often asked of a fan engineer about axial-flow fans
for today's wet cooling towers generally cover: performance; efficiency;
corrosion resistance; and noise. This article reviews such fundamentals
and gives new insight for optimum tower design.

115) Response of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers to Turbulent Wind

Hashish, Mahmoud G.; Abu-Sitta, Salman H.
Ain Shams Univ., Egypt
ASCE J. Struct Div., V. 100, N. ST5, May 1974, Pap. 10542, pp. 1037-
The paper outlines a general procedure for predicting the dynamic
response, including resonance, of hyperbolic cooling towers to turbu-
lent winds. Pressure spectra on the tower surface were measured in a
boundary layer wind tunnel. Application to full-scale tower is examined.
It is concluded that while the quasi-steady response increases with the
wind velocity squared, the resonant response increases faster than wind
velocity cubed. 10 refs. cited.

116) American Power Conference Proceedings, Volume 35, 1973

Ramsdell, Roger G. Jr.; Pinheiro, G.; Hays, T. C.; Krippene, B. C.;
Clessuras, G. J.; McMackin, G. E.; Roma, Carlo; Mikol, W. W.;
Yaworsky, Y. J.; Baker, J. M.; Dolhec, A. C.; Berman, P. A.; Giras, T. c.;
Furlong, Dale A.
Am. Power Conf. Proc., 35th Annu. Meet., Ill. Inst. of Techno!.,
Chicago, May 8-10, 1973. Available from lIT, Chicago, IL, 1973,
1268 p.

The following is a partial list of titles and authors:

"Practical Design Parameters for Hot and Cold Electrostatic Precipi-
tators," by Roger G. Ramsdell, Jr. "State-of-the-Art: Precipitators on
Oil-Fired Installations," by G. Pinheiro. "Development of Large Com-
ponents for Large Steam Generators," by T. C. Hays, B. C. Krippene,
G. J. Clessuras and G. E. McMackin. "Advanced Dry Cooling System
for Water from Large Power Station Condensers," by Carlo Roma.
"Complete Automation for Combined-Cycle Operation," by W. W.
Mikol and Y. J. Yaworsky. "STAG Combined-Cycle Plant Controls-
Flexibility and Reliability," by J. M. Baker and A. C. Dolbec. "Total
Energy Management for Combined-Cycle Power Plants," by P. A.
Berman and T. C. Giras. "Direct Combustion of High-Sulfur Coal Using
Today's Gas Turbines," by Dale A. Furlong.

117) Cooling Water Practices

Kolflat, T. D.
Sargent & Lundy
Power Eng., (Barrington, IL), V. 78, N. 1, Jan. 1974, pp. 32-39.
The paper compares wet, dry and wet and dry cooling towers on the
basis of their performance and costs. Design factors involving heat
transfer characteristics wet bulb temperature effect, fans and stack,
etc., are evaluated.

118) Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

Abu-Sitta, Salman H.
Univ. of West Ont., London
Eng. J. (Montreal), V. 56, N. 10, Oct. 1973, pp. 26-28.
The paper explains how safe and economic structures can be realized,
and points out the sensitivity and importance of cooling tower design
in relation to the wind stresses. 5 refs. cited.

119) Stability and Dynamic Analyses of Cooling Tower

Yeh, Chang-hua; Shieh, William Y. J.
Harza Eng. Co., Chicago, IL
ASCE J., Power Div., V. 99, N. P02, Nov. 1973, Pap. 10141, pp. 339-
The paper examines the behavior of natural draft cooling tower
wind pressure. BUckling loads of the towers of different meridional
curvatures and shell thicknesses are computed and compared. The re-
sults show that an increase in stiffness of the structure with an increase
in meridional curvature; and changes of buckling load caused by changes
in shell thickness is approximately proportional. 10 refs. cited.

120) Structural Models Conference, 1972 Conf.

Struct. Models Canf" Paper, Sydney, Aust., May 16-18, 1972. Available
from Cern. and Cancr. Assoc. of Aust., North Sydney, 1972.
The volume includes 37 papers. Discussions cover the verification of
flat plate analyses by model studies; long-term behavior of small com-
posite prestressed concrete bridge beams; studies of a prestressed con-
crete girder with web openings; the structural behavior of a hyperbolic
cooling tower under static loadings; models of shear wall structures;

automatic data acquisition and analysis for model studies; structural

models for stability studies; the application of telemetry to data col-
lection from structural tests; the aeroelastic modeling of structures in
wind; model tests on a lamella roof structure compared with several
theoretical analyses; size effects on reinforced micro-concrete models;
model studies of hyperbolic paraboloid shells; model analysis as an ex-
tension of theoretical structural studies; and comparison of physical
and theoretical models of a continuous curved girder bridge.

121) How to Get Rid of Cooling Tower Plumes

Patel, Krishn!l N.; Sanchez, Alberto J.
King/Leopold Inc., Philadelphia, P A
Actual Specif. Eng., V. 30, N. 4, Oct. 1973, pp. 103-106.
The paper describes how cooling tower plumes are formed, the
hazards involved, and how' plumes can be avoided through efficient

122) Design of Underground Cooling Towers

Whillier, A.
J. Mine Vent Soc. S. Afr., V. 26, N. 6, June 1973, pp. 73-85.
Paper refers to the contents of the title paper in Vol. 25, N. 5, of
May 1972, and presents an empirical analysis of a number of carefully
conducted tests in cooling towers of the vertical, counter-flow type. In
order to put cooling tower performance on a common basis the area to
height factor is introduced. Parameters examined by Dr. Whillier are
reexamined and use is made of the area to height factor to predict cool-
ing tower performance.

123) Dynamic Wind Stresses in Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

Abu-Sitta, Salman H.; Hashish, Mahmoud G.
Univ. of West Ont., London
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 99, N. ST9, Sept. 1973, Paper N. 9989,
The paper outlines a general procedure for estimating the wind dy-
namic stresses in hyperbolic cooling towers on the basis of a statistical
dynamic approach. Using wind tunnel measurements of pressure fluctu-
ations and assuming that resonance is negligible, predicted wind stresses
agreed with measured stresses on an aero elastic model. The procedure is
applied to 45l-ft tower. 9 refs. cited.

124) Very Large Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

Furzer, I. A.
Univ. of Sydney, Aust.
In st. Eng., Aust., Mech. Chern. Eng. Trans., V. MC8, N. 2, Nov. 1972,
The paper gives a method for obtaining the dimensions of a hyper-
bolic cooling tower using a modern theory. A computer program is used
to calculate a range of design variables so that a minimum cost function
can be evaluated. A single cooling tower 152m in height could handle
the thermal load of a 1000-MW power plant. 12 refs. cited.

125) Trockene und Nasse Rueckkuehlung: ein Vergleich

(Dry and Wet Re-Cooling Compared)
Berliner, P.
Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, Ger.
Brennst-Waerme-Kraft, V. 25, N. 2, Feb. 1973, pp. 43-48.
The paper compares important aspects of the dry convective and the
wet cooling systems. In order to make a comparison possible between
the energy requirements of the two processes, a dimensionless number
E is derived from the Chiltron Colburn Analyses which helps in decision
findings. The number E depends on the prevailing state conditions of
the wet air and can be shown on a conditions chart. Optimal operation-
al conditions can be obtained with a cooling tower which is so designed
that it can be adjusted at any time to the changing atmospheric and
load conditions. 20 refs. cited. (In German).
126) Zur Auslegung von Ventilator-Kuehltuermen
(Design of Cooling Tower with Forced Flow)
Pana, P.; Oancea, N. D.
Waerme, V. 79, N. 1, Feb. 1973, pp. 5-9.
An economic design of a cooling tower is presented. The analysis is
based on consideration of all elements in the cycle, such as turbine and
condenser. The optimum conditions are given for heat exchanger and
condensing temperatures. 6 refs. cited. (In German).

127) Rubber Manufacturing Plant Cooling Water System D,esign

Considerations "
Hewitt, W. L.
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, OH
ASME Paper, N. 73-IPWR-6 for Meet. May 14-20, 1973, 7 p.
Current environmental regulation's necessitate that new concepts be
used in the design of industrial cooling water systems. Equipment se-
lection and component layout related to these regulations are discussed.
Special emphasis is given to the power requirements needed for the
system. The subject matter for this paper was developed from obser-
vations of rubber industry manufacturing operations.

128) Water Cooling Plant in a Plastic Converting Works

Seiderer, S.; Weder, B.; Knopf, M.
Winterthur Engineering Works Div., Switz.
Sulzer Tech. Rev., V. 54, N. 3, 1972, pp. 213-218.
The plant is designed so that, at a wet bulb temperature of 21°C,
400 m 3 of water per hour can be cooled from 35°C to 24°C (corre-
sponding to a cooling capacity of 4. 4. 10 6 kcal/h). Operating principles
of the cooling towers, warm and cold water circuits and pumps are de-
scribed, plus capital and operating costs.

129) Design Considerations for Particulate Instrumentation by Laser Light

Scattering (Pills) Systems
Shofner, Frederick M.; Watanabe, Yasuo; Carlson, Thomas B.
Env. Systems Corp., Knoxville, TN
[SA Trans., V. 12, N. 1, 1973, pp. 56-61.

Basic electro-optical design and performance parameters are dis-

cussed for a laser light scattering system employing an external scatter-
ing volume and a pulsed junction diode laser. Experimental sensitivity,
resolution, and calibration results are described. An exemplary particle
size distribution for liquid droplets entrained in the efflux of and gener-
ated by breakup of the circulating water in a mechanical draft cooling
tower is reported. 6 refs. cited.

130) How to Design Compact Mass Transfer Packing for Maximum

Egberongbe, S. A.
Process Eng., Feb. 1973, pp. 82-83, 85.
This paper points out important criteria for an efficient mass trans-
fer packing. Also described is a new PVC packing for use in water/air or
water/gas applications such as'cooling towers. 4 refs. cited.

131) Ararat-A Computer Code for Thermal Design of Cooling Towers

Mesarovic, Miodrag M.
ENERGOPROJEKT, Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Nucl. Eng. Des., V. 24, N. 1, Jan. 1973, pp. 57-70.
A computer program is pr'esented for thermal and hydraulic designs
of cooling towers. Options are provided for evaluating cooling tower
size and performance curves by applying a basic physical model of heat
and mass transfer. The solution is conducted by multiple iteration. Iter-
ation loops ine mutually inclusive in the model. Both film and spray-
filled cooling towers are considered with either induced or natural air
circulation. Numerical solutions are presented for a number of natural
draft cooling towers which serve present nuclear or conventional power
plants. 8 refs. cited.

132) Shell Structures and Climatic Influences

Mueller, R. K.;Mirza, S.;Doise, A. G.;Vellozzi, J. W.; Schnobrich,
W. C.; Abel, J. F.; Billington, D. P.; Buchert, K. P.; Walser, A.; Gurfinkel,
G.; Bandel, H.; Nash, W. A.; Simmonds, S. H.; Leonard, 1. W.; Lopez
Palanco, R.
Int. Assoc. for Shell Struct, lASS Calgary, Symp., Proc., Univ. of Cal-
gary, Alta, July 3-6,1972,539 p. Available from P. G. Glockner
lASS Cant Comm., Dep. Civ. Eng., Univ. of Calgary, Alta.
The following is a partial list of titles and authors of papers presented:
"Some Questions in Connection with Unsolved Problems of the Investi-
gation of Thermal Stresses by Means of Models," by R. K. Mueller.
"Free Vibration of Shallow Spherical Sandwich Shells," by S. Mirza
and A. G. Doise. "Brief Review of the American Standard Building
Code Requirements for Minimum Design Wind Loads," by J. W. Vel-
lozzi. "Seismic Analysis of Cooling Towers," by W. C. Schnobrich.
"Stability Analysis of Cooling Towers: A Review of Current Methods,"
by J. F. Abel and D. P. Billington. "Preliminary Stability Analysis of
Concrete Cooling Towers," by K. P. Buchert. "Structural Design of Hy-
perbolic Cooling Towers," by A. Walser and G. Gurfinkel. "Report for
Session on Wind Effects," by H. Bandel: "Report for Session on Special
Topics; Random Vibrations of Shallow Shells," by W. A. Nash. "Report

for Session on Construction," by S. H. Simmonds. "Report for Session

on Membrane Analysis and Inflatables; Inflatable Shells-A Review,"
by J. W. Leonard. "Report for Session on General Climatic Factors,"
by R. Lopez Palanco.

133) Einfluss der Ungleichfoermigkeit der Stroemung Auf die stoff-und

Waermeuebertragungsverhaeltnisse in Kuehltuermen
(Influence of Flow Nonuniformity on the Mass and Heat Transfer
Conditions in Cooling Towers)
Staudte, W.
Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Waermeuebertragung,
Luft Kaeltetech, V. 8, N: 6, Dec. 1972, pp. 315-318.
Based on locally nonuniform theoretical distribution of fluids in the
range of the inserts it is shown, that not only the nonuniformity of the
flow field of the cooling air, but also the nonuniformity of the water to
be cooled have to be taken into account in evaluating experimental re-
sults and in design. 11 refs. cited. (In German).

134) Tour de Refroidissement a Sec Pour Centrale Thermique

(Air-Cooled Cooling Tower for a Thermal Power Plant)
Bodas, Janos
Rev. Alum., N. 410, Sept. 1972, pp. 715-720.
A detailed description is provided of the design and operation of a
Heller-type cooling tower that uses natural air as cooling medium. This
design has been recently constructed in Soviet Armenia to serve as a
600-MW-thermal power plant. Attention is given to aluminum heat ex-
changers employed in the cooling columns of the tower. (In French).

135) Periodic Response of a Viscoelastic C.ooling Tower

Lanshaar, H. L.; Boresi, A. P.
Univ. of Illinois, Urbana
Nucl. Eng. Des., V. 22, N. 1, 1972, pp. 75-94.
The periodic response of a linear viscoelastic cooling tower to a pre-
scribed recurring sequence of pressure fluctuations and earth acceler-
ations are analyzed. An approximate analysis, based on the bending
theory of shells, is presented. The problem is reduced to a double se-
quence of boundary-value problems of linear ordinary differential
equations. 19 refs. cited.
136) Methods of Calculation for Natural Draft Cooling Towers
Keyes, R. E.
Westin'ghouse Habford Co., Richland, WA
AIChE Paper, N. 25, for Meet. Aug. 6-9, 1972,31 p.
The design of large natural draft cooling towers and analysis of their
performance are complicated by the effects of variations in ambient air
humidity. Often the effluent air from the tower is assumed to be at
100% relative humidity, to simplify calculations for design parameters.
This study avoids the simplification, and proposes a procedure for deter-
mining the major design parameters for a natural draft tower. The theo-
retical and empirical relationships applicable to heat balance, heat
transfer and transport, and tower draft and air resistance are given. 13
refs. cited.

137) Die Stufenschaltung bei der Kondensation in Luftgekuehlten

(Multi-Stage Arrangement of Condensation in Air-Cooled Steam Power
Kelp, F.
Brennst-Waerme-Kraft, V. 24, N. 9, Sept. 1972, pp. 333-339.
In air-cooled power stations it becomes possible to reduce the cool-
ing air quantity, compared with the usual one-stage design, by applying
a multi-stage arrangement of the condensation, without incurring ther-
modynamic disadvantages. The savings in space obtained for the moving
of the cooling air facilitate the application of the air cooling (in this
case meaning' the dry-air cooling). This applies mainly to large unit-
type power stations as the multi-stage arrangement relates the conditions
for optimization to a new thermodynamic starting basis. 16 refs. cited.
(In German).

138) On the Minimum Size of Natural-Draft Dry Cooling Towers for Large
Power Plants
Moore, F. K.
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY
ASME Paper, N. 72-WA/HT-60 for Meet. Nov. 26-30, 1972, 11 p.
A simple scaling law is derived relating size, shape, drag coefficient
and performance for natural-draft dry cooling towers. The tower is
viewed as a gas/dynamic duct. The flow is analyzed by a perturbation
theory for small temperature differences and flow Mach numbers. For a
given drag, temperature performance, and duct area ratio, height is in-
versely proportional to the square of flow area. Adapting standard heat-
exchanger design relationships, and postulating a Reynold's number
analogy connecting friction and heat transfer, drag and performance are
related to each other. For the gas/dynamic scaling law a size function is
developed which has a minimum at a particular air exit temperature, for
a given water exit temperature. Technical requirements for minimum
sizes are derived. 8 refs. cited.

139) Approaches to the Design of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers Against the

Dynamic Action of Wind and Earthquake
Isyumov, N.; Abu-Sitta, S. H.; Davenport, A. G.
Univ. of Western Ontario, London
Bull. Int. Assoc. Shell Spat. Struct., N. 48, March 1972, pp. 3-22.
Certain simplifications that allow the dynamic response to be recon-
ciled with equivalent static loadings are examined. In earthquake load-
ing the dominant effects are found to occur in the lowest mode for
which no cross sectional distortion takes place. In wind loading the dy-
namic response is spread over several modes. The maximum dynamic
tensile stresses at the windward base of the tower can be estimated
using simple gust effect factors. 20 refs. cited.

140) The Design of Underground Cooling Towers.

Whillier, A.
Chamber of Mines of South Africa, Johannesburg
J. Mine Vent. Soc. S. Afr., V. 25, N. 5, May 6, 1972, pp. 70-81; June,

Recommendations are provided for designing vertical cooling towers

for use underground in mines. A method is given for predicting the
entering and leaving water temperatures when a given amount of heat
has to be dissipated. 4 refs. cited.

141) Design of Cross-Flow Cooling Towers and Ammonia Stripping Towers

Wnek, Walter J.; Snow, Richard H.
lIT Res. Inst., Chicago, IL
Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des. Dev., V. 11, N. 3, July 1972, pp. 343-349.
The paper presents a design method which avoids the numerical
analysis previously required for cooling tower design. Approximate
analytical solutions are obtained for the simultaneous equations of con-
servation of energy and mass. Results agree with examples from the
literature obtained by a less general finite-difference method, and also
with data from a pilot ammonia stripping tower. Equipment and oper-
ating cost correlations are presented. A method to optimize ammonia
stripping tower design geometries is also presented. The design methods
are applicable to other cross-flow stripping systems (for example, odor
control). The possibility of using these towers for waste water treating
is also explored. 19 refs. cited.

142) Analysis and Design of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

Gurfinkel, German; Walser, Adolf
Univ. of Illinois, Urbana
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 98, N. POI, June 1972, Pap:~8997, pp. 133-152.
The analysis and design of a hyperbolic cooling'tower for a nuclear
power plant are reviewed. Analysis is performed using computer pro-
grams. Various loading conditions on the tower such as wind, earth-
quake, thermal, and self-weight, are considered and their effects are
combined and compared. A number of wind-load distributions, used in
Britain, Belgium, and the U.S., are taken for the analysis. Correspond-
ing results are compared. 18 refs. cited.

143) Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Cooling Tower

Yeh, Chang-hua
Hana Engrs. Co., Chicago, IL
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 98, N. POI, June 1972, Pap. 8983, pp. 49-63.
A finite element method is employed to study t1~e nonlinear dynamic
effect of a strong wind gust on a cooling tower. Geometric nonlineari-
ties associated with finite deformations of the structure are considered
but the material is assumed to remain elastic. Load is applied in small
increments and the equation of motion is solved by a step-by-step inte-
gration technique. It has been found that the cooling tower will col-
lapse under a wind gust of maximum pressure 1.2 psi. 13 refs. cited.

144) Wet-Type Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

Rogers, Paul
Partner, Alfred A. Yee & Paul Rogers Inc., Los Angeles, CA
Civ. Eng., (NY), V. 42, N. 5, May 1972, pp. 70-72.
The author describes key considerations in design. The hyperbolic
shape is shown to be an advantageous structural solution.

145) power Plant Cycles for Dry Cooling Towers

Leung, P.;Moore, R. E.
Bechtel Corp., Los Angeles, CA
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 97, N. P04, Dec. 1971, Pap. 8565, pp. 729-47.
Design considerations affecting turbine thermal cycles for steam-
electric generating plants employing dry cooling towers are presented.
Effects on major plant components, such as turbine exhaust end sizes,
cycle parameters, and steam conditions, and the extent of feedwater
heating within the regenerative cycle. Plant siting constraint consider-
ations and general economic appraisals of fossil-fueled 11lld nuclear-
fueled cycles are summarized. 11 refs. cited.

146) Up Cooling Tower Capacity Without Adding New Cells

Phelps, P. M.
Phelps Engineering Co., Kentfield, CA
Heat, Piping Air Cond., V. 43, N. 3, March 1971, pp. 82-4.
By combining narrow sections of thin wall, high performance pack-
ing in both crossflow and counterflow configurations tower perform-
ance can be upgraded. The design is also applicable to new cooling tower
construction. On an economic basis it would be expected to have more
potential in rebuilding and upgrading existing towers. Crossflow cooling
sections are installed along the sides of the tower. A space is left below
the crossflow packing, of sufficient height to pennit passage of a pre-
detennined amount of ambient air to the inner portion of the tower,
which is filled
with counterflow packing.

147) Cooling Towers with Turbine Drive of the Blower

Berliner, P.
HeizungLueftung-Haustech, V. 21, N. 6, June 1970, pp. 196-201.
The paper covers the design of cooling towers which have two fluid
flow engines. One is a turbine and the other an axial fan that operates
with one mutual shaft. The turbine takes advantage of the pressure
gradient, which will be utilized with the application of spray nozzles for
a regular spraying of the cooling water. Method of designing such cool-
ing towers and the selection of reasonable operation areas is defined.
(In Gennan).

148) Rugeley Dry Cooling Tower System

Christopher, P. J.; Forster, V. T.
English Electric Co., Ltd., Willans Works, Rugby, England
[nst. Mech. Eng. Proc. (Part 1) Gen. Proc., V. 184, N. 11, 1969-0,
pp. 197-221.
Studies showed that a new cooling system provided the most eco-
nomic and practical solution for large steam turbines. The design uses
the atmosphere as a heat sink for the turbine exhaust heat by a combi-
nation of a jet condenser, closed water circuit, heat exchangers cooled
by air, and cooling tower. Although there is a water circuit to be filled
initially, no further water is needed. This dry cooling tower system was
first applied to a 120 MW turbine at the Rugeley Power Station. It was

designed to dissipate nearly 600 million Btu of heat/hr, to produce a

turbine exhaust vacuum of 28.7 in. of mercury when the turbine was in
full load conditions to operate under all conditions of weather and tur-
bine load, and to meet the normal requirements of availability and
durability. The plant at Rugeley saves between 1.5 and 1.8 million gal.
of water a day when compared with an equivalent 'wet' tower where
makeup water is approximately 2% of circulating flow rate. The cooling
tower system and its performance in service are described in some

149) Free Vibration of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

Hashish, M. G.; Abu-Sitta, S. H.
Univ. of Western Ontario, London
ASCE J. Eng. Mech. Div., V. 97, N. EM2, April 1971, Pap. 8037,
pp. 253-69.
The paper presents a modified finite difference technique for deter-
mining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of hyperbolic cooling
tower shells. The influences of the meridional curvature and the bounda-
ry conditions on the vibration characteristics of the tower are investi-
gated. In all cases, changes in frequency are found to be essentially due
to changes in membrane energy. The paper shows that, for a fixed- free
shell, the increased meridional curvature leads to an increase in the
natural frequency. The lack of axial restraint results in a large reduction
in the membrane energy. 12 refs. cited.
,.. \"
150) Reduction of Blowdown from Power Plant Cooling Tower Systems
Christiansen, P. B.
Southern California Edison Co., Los Angeles, CA
AIChE Workshop, Ind. Process Des Water Pollut. Contr., V. 2, Houston,
TX, April 24-25,1969, pp. 85-8. .
Given are two examples which show different methods that are
used to reduce the quantities of waste water from cooling tower oper-
ation. In one case, the treatment technique of an existing facility was
modified to reduce waste water production. In the order case, a new
plant design included facilities for the minimization of the requirements
for waste water disposal.

151) Design of Cooling Towers Circulating Brackish Waters

Deflon, J. G.
Marley Co., San Gabriel, CA
AIChE Workshop, Ind. Process Des Water Pollut. Contr., V. 2, Houston,
TX, April 24-25, 1969, pp. 69-73.
Maintenance and costs of cooling towers circulating brackish water
is naturally of considerable concern. Inadequate consideration of ma-
terials of construction and disregard of the simple rudiments of water
control can be expensive. If the above suggestions for designing and
operating such a unit are taken into consideration, maintenance should
be little more than that of a standard tower employing fresh water


152) Cooling Tower Fog: Control and Abatement

Veldhuizen, H.; Ledbetter, J.
International Nickel Co. of Canada, Ltd., Sudbury, Onto
J. Air Pollut. Contr. Ass., V. 21, N. 1, Jan. 1971, pp. 21-4.
Fogs from cooling towers are causing an increasing number of visi-
bility problems as well as icing of roads, sidewalks, and powerlines,
during freezing weather. The paper summarizes a study aimed at ascer-
taining the best method of fog control at a refinery in Houston, Texas.
The induced draft, counterflow cooling towers of concern have design
capacities of 750 X 10 6 Btu/hr and 225 X 10 6 Btu/hr under local
climatic conditions. Several methods of alleviating restricted visibility
were considered and cost estimates were made for the most promising
methods. 21 refs. cited.

153) System Costs Say Optimize Cooling

Nicoli, L. G.; Jaske, R. T.; Witt, P. A.
Battelle-Northwest, Richland, WA
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 49, N. 10, Oct. Sec. 1 1970, pp. 97-100.
The increasing cost of heat rejection is aggravated by tougher com-
petition for air and water use and more rigid controls. Imaginative design
is needed to curb such costs: New technology and the computer can op-
timize plant systems. This paper reviews present day cooling tower tech-

154) Cooling Towers Supported on Columns

Univ. of Western Ontario, London
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 96, N. STl2, Dec. 1970, Pap. 7753, pp. 2575-
The paper discusses stresses due to the individual effects of forces,
moments and deformations at the base of hyperboloidal cooling towers.
With the assumption that the column- spacing is sufficiently small to
permit taking an average stiffness per unit length, forces and moments
in a loaded cooling tower, supported on columns, are calculated for dif-
ferent column stiffnesses and different load distributions in the circum-
ferential direction. The paper indicates that all base displacements have
finite values, membrane (not bending) stiffness of the column is impor-
tant, and column effect is noticeable when bending moments are signifi-
cant. 7 refs. cited.

155) Analysis of Hyperboloids of Revolution

Krishna, Reddy, G. V.
PSG ColI. of Technol., Coimbatore, India
Indian Caner. J., V. 44, N. 3, March 1970, pp. 123-5.
The equilibrium equations of a hyperboloid of revolution used for
cooling towers derived by using membrane theory under an arbitrary
static normal load are reduced to a single partial differential equation
with constant coefficients. The problem of finding displacements is re-
duced to a similar type of equation so that the solution for this prob-
lem becomes straightforward. 11 refs. cited.

156) Cooling Tower Application

Kohloss, F. H.
ASHRAE J., V. 12, N. 8, Aug. 1970, pp. 49-52.
The article features a two-stage evaporative cooling system with
cooling tower and dry basin for freezing weather tower operation. De-
sign conditions and visual problems are discussed together with cooling
tower enclosure, structural and vibration considerations.

157) Design of Reinforced Concrete Chimneys

Diver, M.
J. Amer. Concrete [nst., V. 67, N. 10, Oct. 1970, pp. 788-801.
The paper presents a method for the rational design of reinforced
concrete chimneys or cement silos, towers for warm liquids and cooling
towers subject to the effects of thermal gradients. The loads acting on
the structure are divided into general loads and local loads. The effects
of these loads on the concrete, the vertical reinforcement, and the hori-
zontal (annular) reinforcement are studied with the aid of tables to ob-
tain the significant stresses. A numerical example is given. 8 refs. cited.

158) "Proceedings of the Conference on Tower Shaped Structures" Held

Under the Auspices of the Int. Organization of Shell Structures (lASS),
April 24-26,1696, The Hague, Neth.
Organ. for Appl. Sci. Res. in the Netherlands, Inst. TNO for Bldg.
Mater. and Bldg. Structures, Delft, Neth., 1969 (rec'd, 3/23/70),
392 p. "
Twenty-five papers were presented at a conference of the Inter-
national Working Group of Tower Shaped Structures. They dealt with
recent developments on wind and ice loadings of structures like TV-
towers, chimneys, guyed stacks, tall buildings, and cooling towers. The
main themes of the meeting with stochastical concepts of wind loading,
load in wind direction, load perpendicular to the wind direction, ice
loading, and wind load on cooling towers.

159) Wind Loading of Cooling Towers

Kraetzig, W. B.; Peters, H. L.
Proc. of Conf. on Tower Shaped Structures, by lASS, April 24-26,
1969, Hague, Neth. Int. Ass. for Shell Struct., 1969, pp. 243-53.
Observations showed that the wind direction is not perpendicular to
the cooling tower axis when a cooling tower is standing on a slope. To
analyze pressure distributions on the inside and the outside face of the
shell, tests were carried out at the Institut fuer Massivbau of the Techni-
cal University of Hannover to conduct the measurements of the inside
and outside pressure distributions of an idealized cooling tower model
in a wind tunnel and of perpendicular and nonperpendicular air stream
to the model axis.

160) Stability of Hyperboloidal Cooling Tower

Lanshaar, H. L.; Boresi, A. P.; Miller, R. E.; Bruegging, J. J.
Univ. of Illinois, Urbana

ASCE J. Eng. Mech. Div., V. 96, N. EM5, Oct. 1970, Pap. 7635,
An infinitesimal theory of instability of an elastic orthographic shell
of revolu tion subjected to uniform external normal pressure is developed
in this paper. The theory leads to a linear eigenvalue problem for deter-
mining buckling pressure. Numerical calculations based on piecewise-
polynomial approximations and the partition method are given for a
tower erected in West Virginia. The tower is a reinforced concrete hy-
perboloidal shell of revolution, 370 ft. high and 5.5 in. thick for most
of its height. 11 refs. cited.
161) Earthquake Design of Cooling Towers
Abu-Sitta, S. H.; Davenport, A. G.
Univ. of Western Ontario, London
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 96, N. ST9, Sept. 1970, Pap. 7524, pp. 1889-
A dynamic statistical approach is used to predict dynamic stresses in
a hyperboloidal cooling tower due to earthquakes. It is shown that the
configuration associated with one circumferential wave is the only one
which is excitable by earthquake force and that the first mode of such
configuration is dominant. ~n equivalent static load is calculated on
this basis. Numerical data presented give coefficients for equivalent
static loads, natural frequencies of cooling towers, and static stresses for
a seismic load. 21 refs. cited.

162) Model of Natural Draft Cooling Tower Performance

Winiarski, L. D.; Tichenor, B. A.
Pacific Northwest Water Lab., Corvallis, OR
ASCE J. Sanit. Eng. Div., V. 96, N. SA4, Aug. 1970, Pap. 7461,
Methods of approximating the heat transfer and friction coefficients
of a tower are examined. For parallel plate, film packing coefficients
are calculated to ,correspond to the geometry of the packing. A counter-
flow computer program computes thes