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This Sheet is for:

Single Axles
Flexible Pavements

This cell must be 1, 2 or 3.


Change this number as follows:
1 to get EALF for single axle
2 to get EALF for tandem axle
3 to get EALF for tridem axle

L2 = pt = 1.5
1
Axle Load Structural Number, SN
Kips 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
4 0.0017 0.0017 0.0017 0.0017 0.0017 0.0017 0.0017 0.0017
6 0.0084 0.0084 0.0084 0.0084 0.0084 0.0084 0.0084 0.0084
8 0.0279 0.0279 0.0279 0.0279 0.0279 0.0279 0.0279 0.0279
10 0.0730 0.0730 0.0730 0.0730 0.0730 0.0730 0.0730 0.0730
12 0.162 0.162 0.162 0.162 0.162 0.162 0.162 0.162
14 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322 0.322
16 0.587 0.587 0.587 0.587 0.587 0.587 0.587 0.587
18 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
20 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62
22 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
24 3.72 3.72 3.72 3.72 3.72 3.72 3.72 3.72
26 5.38 5.38 5.38 5.38 5.38 5.38 5.38 5.38
28 7.58 7.58 7.58 7.58 7.58 7.58 7.58 7.58
30 10.43 10.43 10.43 10.43 10.43 10.43 10.43 10.43
32 14.08 14.08 14.08 14.08 14.08 14.08 14.08 14.08
34 18.66 18.66 18.66 18.66 18.66 18.66 18.66 18.66
36 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
38 31.33 31.33 31.33 31.33 31.33 31.33 31.33 31.33
40 39.81 39.81 39.81 39.81 39.81 39.81 39.81 39.81
42 50.01 50.01 50.01 50.01 50.01 50.01 50.01 50.01
44 62.18 62.18 62.18 62.18 62.18 62.18 62.18 62.18
46 76.58 76.58 76.58 76.58 76.58 76.58 76.58 76.58
48 93.50 93.50 93.50 93.50 93.50 93.50 93.50 93.50
50 113.25 113.25 113.25 113.25 113.25 113.25 113.25 113.25
52 136.16 136.16 136.16 136.16 136.16 136.16 136.16 136.16
54 162.60 162.60 162.60 162.60 162.60 162.60 162.60 162.60
56 192.93 192.93 192.93 192.93 192.93 192.93 192.93 192.93
58 227.59 227.59 227.59 227.59 227.59 227.59 227.59 227.59
60 266.99 266.99 266.99 266.99 266.99 266.99 266.99 266.99
62 311.61 311.61 311.61 311.61 311.61 311.61 311.61 311.61
64 361.93 361.93 361.93 361.93 361.93 361.93 361.93 361.93
66 418.47 418.47 418.47 418.47 418.47 418.47 418.47 418.47
68 481.79 481.79 481.79 481.79 481.79 481.79 481.79 481.79
70 552.46 552.46 552.46 552.46 552.46 552.46 552.46 552.46
72 631.08 631.08 631.08 631.08 631.08 631.08 631.08 631.08
74 718.31 718.31 718.31 718.31 718.31 718.31 718.31 718.31
76 814.82 814.82 814.82 814.82 814.82 814.82 814.82 814.82
78 921.31 921.31 921.31 921.31 921.31 921.31 921.31 921.31
80 1038.52 1038.52 1038.52 1038.52 1038.52 1038.52 1038.52 1038.52
82 1167.22 1167.22 1167.22 1167.22 1167.22 1167.22 1167.22 1167.22
84 1308.24 1308.24 1308.24 1308.24 1308.24 1308.24 1308.24 1308.24
86 1462.40 1462.40 1462.40 1462.40 1462.40 1462.40 1462.40 1462.40
88 1630.60 1630.60 1630.60 1630.60 1630.60 1630.60 1630.60 1630.60
90 1813.75 1813.75 1813.75 1813.75 1813.75 1813.75 1813.75 1813.75
92 2012.81 2012.81 2012.81 2012.81 2012.81 2012.81 2012.81 2012.81
94 2228.78 2228.78 2228.78 2228.78 2228.78 2228.78 2228.78 2228.78
96 2462.67 2462.67 2462.67 2462.67 2462.67 2462.67 2462.67 2462.67
98 2715.58 2715.58 2715.58 2715.58 2715.58 2715.58 2715.58 2715.58
100 2988.61 2988.61 2988.61 2988.61 2988.61 2988.61 2988.61 2988.61
AASHTO 18-Kips ESAL Factors
Flexible Pavements
pt = 2.0

Structural Number, SN
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2
0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0001 0.0001 0.0004 0.0004
0.0021 0.0025 0.0023 0.0020 0.0018 0.0018 0.0017 0.0017 0.0029 0.0042
0.0095 0.0116 0.0114 0.0101 0.0092 0.0088 0.0086 0.0085 0.0110 0.0174
0.0296 0.0352 0.0364 0.0332 0.0306 0.0292 0.0286 0.0283 0.0319 0.0470
0.0752 0.0847 0.0901 0.0847 0.0791 0.0761 0.0746 0.0739 0.0781 0.1022
0.165 0.177 0.189 0.183 0.174 0.168 0.165 0.164 0.168 0.198
0.325 0.338 0.354 0.350 0.338 0.331 0.327 0.325 0.328 0.358
0.589 0.598 0.613 0.612 0.603 0.596 0.592 0.590 0.591 0.613
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.61 1.59 1.56 1.55 1.57 1.59 1.60 1.61 1.61 1.57
2.49 2.44 2.35 2.31 2.35 2.41 2.45 2.47 2.48 2.38
3.71 3.62 3.43 3.33 3.40 3.51 3.60 3.65 3.69 3.49
5.36 5.21 4.88 4.68 4.77 4.96 5.13 5.23 5.33 4.99
7.54 7.31 6.78 6.42 6.52 6.83 7.10 7.29 7.49 6.98
10.38 10.03 9.24 8.65 8.73 9.17 9.61 9.91 10.31 9.55
14.00 13.51 12.37 11.46 11.48 12.07 12.72 13.21 13.90 12.82
18.55 17.87 16.30 14.97 14.87 15.63 16.55 17.28 18.41 16.94
24.20 23.30 21.16 19.28 19.02 19.93 21.17 22.22 24.02 22.04
31.14 29.95 27.12 24.55 24.03 25.10 26.72 28.17 30.90 28.30
39.57 38.03 34.34 30.92 30.04 31.25 33.29 35.24 39.26 35.89
49.70 47.74 43.02 38.55 37.21 38.52 41.03 43.57 49.31 45.02
61.79 59.32 53.37 47.63 45.69 47.05 50.06 53.30 61.30 55.91
76.09 73.02 65.60 58.34 55.66 57.03 60.56 64.58 75.48 68.78
92.90 89.12 79.97 70.90 67.30 68.61 72.68 77.58 92.15 83.91
112.52 107.92 96.73 85.54 80.84 82.00 86.61 92.48 111.61 101.56
135.28 129.71 116.16 102.50 96.48 97.40 102.55 109.46 134.18 122.03
161.54 154.86 138.58 122.04 114.46 115.04 120.70 128.73 160.22 145.65
191.68 183.72 164.29 144.44 135.05 135.16 141.31 150.51 190.10 172.75
226.10 216.69 193.66 170.01 158.50 158.01 164.61 175.04 224.24 203.70
265.24 254.16 227.05 199.06 185.12 183.88 190.88 202.57 263.05 238.89
309.56 296.60 264.84 231.93 215.20 213.05 220.39 233.37 307.00 278.73
359.54 344.46 307.46 268.98 249.07 245.83 253.45 267.74 356.56 323.65
415.71 398.23 355.34 310.59 287.08 282.55 290.36 305.97 412.25 374.14
478.60 458.45 408.94 357.16 329.60 323.56 331.48 348.40 474.62 430.66
548.79 525.65 468.77 409.13 377.00 369.21 377.14 395.37 544.22 493.74
626.90 600.42 535.32 466.92 429.69 419.91 427.73 447.24 621.66 563.92
713.54 683.37 609.16 531.02 488.11 476.04 483.64 504.41 707.58 641.78
809.40 775.14 690.83 601.92 552.68 538.04 545.29 567.27 802.63 727.92
915.17 876.40 780.95 680.13 623.89 606.35 613.11 636.26 907.51 822.96
1031.60 987.85 880.13 766.20 702.23 681.44 687.55 711.82 1022.96 927.57
1159.44 1110.24 989.04 860.69 788.20 763.80 769.10 794.42 1149.72 1042.43
1299.51 1244.32 1108.35 964.20 882.36 853.94 858.24 884.55 1288.61 1168.27
1452.65 1390.91 1238.79 1077.34 985.25 952.38 955.50 982.72 1440.45 1305.85
1619.72 1550.84 1381.09 1200.76 1097.46 1059.70 1061.43 1089.47 1606.11 1455.95
1801.64 1724.99 1536.04 1335.14 1219.61 1176.47 1176.59 1205.36 1786.50 1619.39
1999.36 1914.26 1704.44 1481.18 1352.33 1303.28 1301.56 1330.96 1982.55 1797.02
2213.87 2119.60 1887.13 1639.60 1496.27 1440.78 1436.97 1466.89 2195.26 1989.72
2446.20 2341.99 2084.98 1811.15 1652.13 1589.61 1583.44 1613.76 2425.62 2198.44
2697.41 2582.46 2298.92 1996.64 1820.62 1750.44 1741.64 1772.24 2674.71 2424.11
2968.61 2842.06 2529.86 2196.87 2002.47 1923.99 1912.25 1942.99 2943.62 2667.73
L Factors

pt = 2.5 pt =

Structural Number, SN Structural Number, SN


3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4
0.0003 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0001 0.0008 0.0009 0.0006 0.0003
0.0035 0.0026 0.0021 0.0019 0.0018 0.0017 0.0045 0.0083 0.0062 0.0036
0.0167 0.0128 0.0104 0.0094 0.0089 0.0087 0.0136 0.0303 0.0281 0.0176
0.0507 0.0412 0.0343 0.0310 0.0295 0.0288 0.0353 0.0697 0.0796 0.0553
0.1175 0.1023 0.0877 0.0802 0.0767 0.0750 0.0823 0.1317 0.1683 0.1320
0.229 0.213 0.189 0.176 0.169 0.166 0.173 0.231 0.296 0.260
0.399 0.388 0.360 0.342 0.333 0.328 0.332 0.388 0.468 0.447
0.646 0.645 0.623 0.606 0.598 0.593 0.594 0.633 0.695 0.693
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.49 1.47 1.51 1.55 1.58 1.59 1.60 1.53 1.41 1.38
2.17 2.09 2.18 2.30 2.38 2.43 2.47 2.29 1.96 1.83
3.09 2.89 3.03 3.27 3.45 3.56 3.67 3.33 2.69 2.39
4.31 3.91 4.09 4.48 4.82 5.04 5.29 4.72 3.65 3.08
5.90 5.21 5.39 5.98 6.54 6.93 7.43 6.56 4.88 3.93
7.94 6.83 6.97 7.79 8.66 9.30 10.21 8.93 6.46 4.97
10.52 8.85 8.88 9.95 11.20 12.20 13.77 11.95 8.45 6.24
13.74 11.34 11.18 12.50 14.22 15.68 18.23 15.75 10.92 7.79
17.73 14.38 13.93 15.50 17.76 19.81 23.78 20.45 13.97 9.67
22.61 18.06 17.20 18.98 21.86 24.64 30.59 26.21 17.68 11.93
28.51 22.50 21.08 23.04 26.58 30.22 38.85 33.19 22.18 14.64
35.60 27.78 25.64 27.72 31.97 36.62 48.79 41.59 27.56 17.85
44.03 34.05 31.00 33.13 38.11 43.90 60.64 51.60 33.95 21.64
53.99 41.42 37.24 39.34 45.07 52.11 74.67 63.44 41.50 26.08
65.68 50.05 44.50 46.47 52.93 61.34 91.15 77.34 50.35 31.27
79.31 60.08 52.88 54.61 61.79 71.65 110.39 93.56 60.65 37.28
95.11 71.69 62.53 63.88 71.76 83.15 132.70 112.37 72.59 44.23
113.32 85.04 73.58 74.41 82.95 95.93 158.45 134.06 86.34 52.20
134.20 100.33 86.19 86.34 95.48 110.10 188.00 158.95 102.11 61.32
158.04 117.76 100.51 99.82 109.48 125.78 221.74 187.38 120.10 71.70
185.14 137.54 116.73 114.98 125.11 143.09 260.12 219.69 140.54 83.47
215.81 159.91 135.03 132.00 142.50 162.17 303.57 256.28 163.66 96.77
250.38 185.11 155.59 151.06 161.84 183.18 352.57 297.53 189.72 111.73
289.21 213.39 178.64 172.32 183.28 206.29 407.63 343.88 218.99 128.52
332.69 245.03 204.37 196.00 207.01 231.65 469.29 395.77 251.74 147.28
381.19 280.31 233.03 222.30 233.22 259.46 538.10 453.69 288.28 168.18
435.15 319.53 264.85 251.42 262.13 289.91 614.66 518.12 328.92 191.42
495.00 363.02 300.10 283.60 293.94 323.21 699.60 589.59 373.99 217.16
561.20 411.10 339.03 319.07 328.87 359.58 793.57 668.66 423.83 245.62
634.24 464.13 381.92 358.09 367.17 399.24 897.27 755.90 478.82 276.99
714.62 522.47 429.08 400.92 409.09 442.43 1011.40 851.92 539.32 311.48
802.87 586.51 480.80 447.83 454.87 489.41 1136.72 957.36 605.75 349.34
899.54 656.64 537.41 499.10 504.80 540.43 1274.03 1072.87 678.51 390.78
1005.23 733.28 599.24 555.04 559.15 595.78 1424.14 1199.14 758.04 436.07
1120.52 816.87 666.65 615.96 618.23 655.74 1587.92 1336.91 844.79 485.44
1246.05 907.87 739.99 682.17 682.33 720.61 1766.25 1486.92 939.24 539.18
1382.46 1006.74 819.65 754.03 751.79 790.69 1960.07 1649.95 1041.89 597.56
1530.46 1113.99 906.02 831.88 826.92 866.32 2170.35 1826.82 1153.23 660.87
1690.73 1230.11 999.51 916.09 908.08 947.84 2398.10 2018.37 1273.80 729.42
1864.02 1355.65 1100.54 1007.04 995.63 1035.58 2644.35 2225.49 1404.16 803.51
2051.08 1491.15 1209.56 1105.11 1089.94 1129.92 2910.19 2449.08 1544.88 883.46
3.0

ural Number, SN
5 6 7 8
0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002
0.0025 0.0020 0.0019 0.0018
0.0123 0.0102 0.0093 0.0089
0.0400 0.0336 0.0308 0.0295
0.1007 0.0862 0.0797 0.0767
0.212 0.187 0.175 0.169
0.391 0.358 0.341 0.333
0.651 0.622 0.606 0.597
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.44 1.51 1.55 1.58
1.97 2.16 2.30 2.38
2.60 2.96 3.25 3.44
3.33 3.91 4.43 4.79
4.17 5.00 5.86 6.48
5.15 6.26 7.52 8.53
6.28 7.67 9.43 10.95
7.60 9.25 11.59 13.76
9.15 11.03 14.00 16.96
10.95 13.02 16.67 20.56
13.06 15.26 19.60 24.56
15.51 17.78 22.83 28.96
18.35 20.62 26.36 33.77
21.64 23.83 30.23 39.00
25.44 27.45 34.49 44.65
29.80 31.53 39.16 50.77
34.80 36.13 44.31 57.36
40.50 41.31 49.97 64.49
46.98 47.13 56.22 72.17
54.33 53.67 63.11 80.48
62.61 60.98 70.70 89.46
71.94 69.14 79.07 99.18
82.41 78.24 88.29 109.71
94.11 88.36 98.43 121.11
107.15 99.58 109.59 133.47
121.66 112.01 121.84 146.88
137.75 125.74 135.28 161.41
155.55 140.87 150.00 177.16
175.19 157.52 166.10 194.23
196.81 175.79 183.68 212.72
220.55 195.81 202.86 232.73
246.58 217.71 223.75 254.37
275.04 241.60 246.46 277.76
306.12 267.64 271.13 303.02
339.97 295.96 297.87 330.27
376.78 326.70 326.84 359.65
416.74 360.04 358.16 391.28
460.06 396.12 391.98 425.31
506.92 435.11 428.46 461.88
557.54 477.18 467.75 501.14
612.15 522.53 510.01 543.26