Sei sulla pagina 1di 26

# Measurement: Geogebra make files

Index

Measurement1 Perimeter

## Use measurement 12 to 15 to make nets and explore area

Measurement1 Perimeter

1 ToolBar 5th icon. Do polygon/triangle(3 Pts & clicks then back to start) ABC
2 ToolBar 8th icon. Do Distance/length for each side to get their lengths. Add for the Perimeter.
3 Activity: use 1st icon Move/drag sides to make the perimeter approximately 10 units

4 ToolBar 5th icon. Do polygon/quadrilateral(4 Pts & clicks then back to start) DEFG
5 ToolBar 8th icon. Drop Down. Do Distance/length for each side to get their lengths. Add for the
Perimeter.
6 Activity: use 1st icon Move/drag sides to make the perimeter approximately 20 units

Questions
Use 5th icon regular polygons to make an equilateral triangle. Use 8th icon to measure sides.
Then drag A or B to adjust length to make the triangle’s perimeter about 30 units.
Measurement2 Rectangle Area and Perimeter

Have Grid ON

## 1 do interval AB Use 3rd icon

2 do Perpendicular at A and at B Use 4th icon
3 do point C on perpendicular from B Use 32nd icon
4 do Parallel to AB at C Use 4th icon
5 do point where the parallel cuts the perpendicular from A Use 2nd icon
6 hide 2 perpendiculars and the parallel (use right click/ untick “show object”)
7 do intervals B to C; C to D and D to A Use 3rd icon
8 Measure angles in rectangle Use 8th icon
9 Measure Distance/length of the sides Use 8th icon
10 move/drag points A, B or C to vary the rectangle Use 1st icon
(to show area use 8th icon)

Questions
What are the dimensions of 2 different rectangles …
..With an area of 20
..With a perimeter of 20
Measurement3 Triangle Area and Perimeter

Have Grid ON

## 1 do a line through A and B Use 3rd icon

2 do a point C on AB Use 2nd icon
3 do a perpendicular line at C Use 4th icon
4 do a Point on the Perpendicular (D) Use 2nd icon
5 do intervals joining A to D and joining B to D Use 3rd icon
6 do an Interval joining C to D Use 3rd icon
7 measure angle BCD Use 8th icon
8 measure distance/length of CD (height) and AB (base) Use 8th icon
9 measure Area of triangle Use 8th icon
drag points and lines Use 1st icon

Questions
Make 2 different triangles with these areas
..area = 40. What is your base and height for each triangle?
..area = 25. What is your base and height for each triangle?
Make 2 triangles: with Height CD, past point A or Point B.
Draw the triangles & show each height, base and area
Measurement4 Parallelogram Area and Perimeter

Have Grid ON

## 1. ToolBar. 3rd icon. Drop-down. Do interval AB

2. ToolBar 2nd icon. Do point C (under interval AB)
3. ToolBar 4th icon Drop-down. Do 2 parallels: Through Point C parallel to AB;
2nd parallel is through point B & parallel to AC

## 4. ToolBar . 2nd icon. Do point D where 2 parallels cut

5. Hide 2 parallels: right-click each; un-tick “show object”

## 6. ToolBar. 3rd icon. Do intervals CD and BD

7. ToolBar 2nd icon Do a Point on CD (Pt E)

## 8. ToolBar 4th icon. Do a RightAngle Perpendicular at Point E to base CD

9. ToolBar. 2nd icon Do a Point where perpendicular cuts top AB
10. hide the perpendicular (right click untick “showlabel”) & Use 3rd icon to do interval EF (height)

## 11. ToolBar 8th icon. Do angle DEF in the Parallelogram.

12. ToolBar 8th icon drop-down. Do Distance/length for the base CD (or AB)
note: To Hide an angle-size or side length: right click a green angle/side;
Then Un-tick “show label” in the menu (hides the angle’s or side’s size)
note: do not drag corner B past the corner C, etc

Questions
Make 2 parallelograms with
(i) area = 20 What are the base and height of each?
(ii) area = 25 What are the base and height of each?
Measurement5 Rhombus Area and Perimeter

Have Grid ON

1 ToolBar. 7th icon. Do Circle (click A for centre; then drag & click for outside circumference)
2 ToolBar. 2nd icon. Do new Point C on outside of circle :
3 ToolBar. 3rd icon. Do Intervals AB & AC
4 ToolBar. 4th icon. Do 2 Parallels :1st through B parallel to AC; 2nd is through C & parallel to AB
5 ToolBar. 2nd icon. Do Point D at intersection of the 2 parallels just drawn
6 Hide the 2 parallels drawn; For each parallel, Right click; then un-tick”show object”
7 ToolBar. 3rd icon drop-down. Do intervals CD & BD to complete the Rhombus (check all 4 sides are
equal )

## 8 ToolBar 3rd icon do Intervals, Diagonals AD and BC

9 ToolBar. 8th icon drop down. Length/Distance each diagonal of the rhombus AD and BC
10 ToolBar. 8th icon Do Area of rhombus
11 ToolBar.1st icon. Move/Drag point B or point A

## note:Hide an angle-size: right click a green angle;

Then Un-tick “show label” in the menu (hides the angle’s size)
note: do not drag corner B past the corner C, etc
note: you can hide the circle (right click circle; then un-tick “show object”)

Questions
How do we use the diagonals to find the area of a rhombus?
Make 2 different rhombus with these areas
(i) area = 20 Give the lengths of the 2 diagonals and do sketch
(ii) area = 30 Give the lengths of the 2 diagonals and do sketch
Measurement6 Trapezium Area and Perimeter

Have Grid ON

## 1 do a line through A and B; use 3rd icon

2 do a point C above AB; use 2nd icon
3 do a parallel to AB at C ; use 4th icon
4 do a new Point D on the Parallel; use 2nd icon
5 do intervals joining A to C and joining B to D to complete the trapezium; use 3rd icon
6 do a new point E on base AB; use 2nd icon
7 do a right Angle Perpendicular on AB at E ; use 4th icon
8 do a Point F where the Perpendicular cuts the top parallel ; use 2nd icon
9 do an Interval joining E to F (height of trapezium); use 3rd icon
10 measure distance/length AB (base) and EF (height); use 8th icon
11 measure Area of trapezium; use 8th icon
Move/drag points to vary the Top, Base and Height; use 1st icon

Questions
How do we use the Top, the Base and the Height to find the area of a Trapezium?
Make 2 different Trapezia with these areas
(iii) area = 20 Give the lengths of the Top, the Base and the Height and do sketch
(iv) area = 30 Give the lengths of the the Top, the Base and the Height and do sketch
Measurement7 Regular Pentagon Area and Perimeter

Have Grid ON

1 use 5th icon. Do a regular Polygon/pentagon ( click 2 vertices then dialogue box =5 sides)
2 use 8th icon. measure the distance/length of the 5 sides
3 use 1st icon. use move/drag to vary the equal sides

Questions
How would you split a pentagon? What 2 simpler shapes can be joined to make a pentagon. Do a diagram
Can you do a regular hexagon? What are the angles and the angle sum?
Can you do a regular octagon? What are the angles and the angle sum?
Measurement 8: Circles1. Finding Pi Use Geogebra to make the file

## 1. Use 6th icon symbol

Use CIRCLES tool & Draw 3 circles: small medium big (click for centre, then click for outside of circle)

## 2. Use 3rd icon; 2nd in drop down menu

Use LINE INTERVAL tool : draw radius for each circle (centre point to outside point)

## 3. Use 8th icon; 3rd in drop down menu

Use DISTANCE measure tool: click circumference & click radius for each circle

## Complete this table: diameter = 2 x radius

CIRCLE CIRCUMFERENCE DIAMETER Circum divided by Diam
small
medium
big

## Draw another circle ;

Measure its radius: predict its circumference using the special number; check it’s right (measure circumference)

## Conclusion: how can you work out a circle’s circumference?

What is the special number you use to work out circles
What is it called? What is its special symbol? Where is it on the calculator?
Measurement9 Circles 2. Circumference Formula Use Geogebra to make the file

## 1 Use 6th icon symbol

Use CIRCLES tool & Draw 3 circles: small medium big (click for centre, then click for outside of circle)

## 2 Use 3rd icon; 2nd in drop down menu

Use LINE INTERVAL tool : draw radius for each circle (centre point to outside point)

## 3 Use 8th icon; 3rd in drop down menu

Use DISTANCE measure tool: click circumference & click radius for each circle

small
medium
big

## Draw another circle ;

Measure its radius: predict its circumference using 2 x PI x Radius; check it’s right (measure circumference)

Conclusions:
How can you work out a circle’s circumference if you have the Radius?
How can you work out a circle’s circumference if you have the Diameter?
What is PI? What is its special symbol? Where is it on the calculator? What is it used for?
Measurement10: Circles 3. Area use Geogebra
1 Use 6th icon symbol

Use CIRCLES tool & Draw 3 circles: small medium big (click for centre, then click for outside of circle)

## 2 Use 3rd icon; 2nd in drop down menu

Use LINE INTERVAL tool : draw radius for each circle (centre point to outside point)

## 3 Use 8th icon; 3rd in drop down menu

Use DISTANCE measure tool: click click radius for each circle

## 5. Complete this table:

small
medium
big
What do you see about the AREA & the result of Pi x Radius^2?

## Draw another circle ;

Measure its radius: predict its Area using PI x Radius^2; check it’s right (measure AREA)
Conclusion:
How can you work out a circle’s AREA if you have the Radius?
Measurement11: Circles 4. Sectors. What is a sector? Area. Use Geogebra
1 Use 6th icon symbol; 2nd last in drop down menu

Use CIRCLE SECTOR tool & Draw 1 SECTOR: (click centre, then move out & click; drag to  1/2 full.circle.

## 2 Use 3rd icon; 2nd in drop down menu

Use LINE INTERVAL tool : draw radius for the circle the sector comes from (centre point to an outside point)

## 3 Use 8th icon; 3rd in drop down menu

Use DISTANCE measure tool: click the radius for the circle the sector comes from.

## 4. Use 8th icon; 4th in drop down menu

Use AREA measure tool: click Outside of the Sector of the circle

## Complete this table:

SECTOR Fraction of Angle at Radius of full Area of Full Circle Area of the Sector
full circle centre of circle
Sector

Half circle
Quarter Circle
Draw another Sector; measure the angle at the centre; and Measure its radius:
Predict its Area using a Fraction of its Full Circle; check it’s right (measure AREA)
Conclusion:
How can you work out a Sector’s AREA if you have the Angle or fraction?
How can you work out a Sector’s ARC (circumference) if you have the Angle or fraction?
Measurement12 Rectangular Prism net (no lid)

Have Grid ON
Do full steps below for net …OR… For easier version. use joined points & intervals. See Measurement12B

## 1. do line through A and B Use 3rd icon

2. do perpendicular at A to AB Use 4th icon
3. do Point on this perpendicular below A: Pt C Use 2nd icon
4. do perpendicular at C to AC Use 4th icon
5. do perpendicular at B to AB Use 4th icon
6. do Point at Intersection of the 2 perpendiculars: Pt D Use 2nd icon

## 7. do point on AB to Left of A: point E Use 2nd icon

8. do point on AB to right of B: point F Use 2nd icon
9. do perpendicular at E to AB Use 4th icon
10. do perpendicular at F to AB Use 4th icon
11. do Point at Intersection of the perpendicular from C with CD line: Pt G Use 2nd icon
12. do Point at Intersection of the perpendicular from D with CD line: Pt H Use 2nd icon

## 13. do point on AC Below C: point I Use 2nd icon

14. do point on AC Above A: point J Use 2nd icon
15. do perpendicular at I to AC Use 4th icon
16. do perpendicular at J to AC Use 4th icon
17. do Point at Intersection of the perpendicular from I with BD line: Pt K Use 2nd icon
18. do Point at Intersection of the perpendicular from J with BD line: Pt L Use 2nd icon

19. hide all lines (via “object Properties” : for all lines: untick “show object”)
20. join points around outside & Base ABDC with Intervals. Then Move/drag vertices so net will join properly

Questions :Move/drag vertices to make nets with these dimensions. Find the closed solids surface area
(i) base = 3 x 2; height = 1
(ii) base = 2 x 2; height = 3
(iii) cube with all sides =2
Measurement12B Rectangular Prism net (no lid). Easier version

Have Grid ON

Easier Alternative: Net (with no drag). Just points & intervals: Base = 3 x 4 height = 2

Enter coordinates of points via the Input Bar (at bottom of Geogebra screen)

## 1. Plot points for base ABCD

(4,6) (8,6) (8,3) (4,3)

## 2. Plot points to finish side rectangles ABFE & DCIJ

(4,8) (8,8) and (4,1) (8,1)

## 3. Plot points to finish side rectangles ADLK & BCHG

(2,6) (2,3) and (10,6) (10,3)

4. Use 3rd Icon for Intervals joining 2 points, to join points to form the lines for the net (see below)

Questions
Can you find the surface area of this rectangular prism?
Can you move points so the height is 3 units? So the Base is 2 x 5 units?
Can you make it into a cube?
Can you add a lid? Where can you attach the lid?
Use the Isometric grid in geogebra to make a rectangular prism with base =2 x 3, & height = 4

## Measurement13 Triangular Prism net (Right triangles at ends)

Have Grid ON (for easier version just use points & intervals. See Measurement13B )

## 1 do line through A and B Use 3rd icon

2 do perpendicular at A to AB Use 4th icon
3 do Point on this perpendicular below A: Pt C Use 2nd icon
4 do perpendicular at C to AC Use 4th icon
5 do perpendicular at B to AB Use 4th icon
6 do Point at Intersection of the 2 perpendiculars: Pt D Use 2nd icon

## 7 do point on AB to Left of A: point E Use 2nd icon

8 do point on AB to right of B: point F Use 2nd icon
9 do perpendicular at E to AB Use 4th icon
10 do perpendicular at F to AB Use 4th icon
11 do Point at Intersection of the perpendicular from C with CD line: Pt G Use 2nd icon
12 .do Point at Intersection of the perpendicular from D with CD line: Pt H Use 2nd icon

## 13. do point on DB above B: point I Use 2nd icon

14. join A to I with Interval Use 3rd icon
15. do point on DB below D: point J Use 2nd icon
16. join C to J with Interval Use 3rd icon

17 hide all lines (via “object Properties”: all lines: untick “show object”)
18 join points around outside & base ABDC with Intervals. Move/drag vertices so net will join properly

Questions
Which sides join together and must be the same length to fit properly to make the triangular Prism
Move/drag vertices to make nets with these dimensions
(i) base = 3 x 2; triangular end height = 1
(ii) base = 2 x 2; triangular end height = 3
Make the net have an Isosceles triangular end? Draw an Isosceles end prism using geogebra isometric grid.
Find the closed solids’ surface areas
Easier Alternative: see 13B

Measurement13B Triangular Prism net (Right triangles at ends). Easier Plot-Points version
Have Grid ON
Enter coordinates of points via the Input Bar (at bottom of Geogebra screen)

## 1. Plot points for base ABCD

(5,6) (5,7) (9,7) (9,5)

(5,10) (5,2)

(2,5) (2,7)

## 4. Plot points to finish front rectangle CDFI

(14,5) (14,7)

5. Use 3rd Icon for Intervals joining 2 points, to join points to form the lines for the net (see below)

Questions
Find the surface area of this net for a triangular prism.
You can count squares in the diagram, or use formulas for areas of rectangles & triangles shown.
Which sides join to other sides when you fold up the net? Are the joining sides the same lengths?
Can you modify this net? Move points to make the base smaller. Change the triangles & 2 rectangles to fit
Can you do a different type of triangular prism net? With Isosceles triangles at the sides/ends
Use the geogebra isometric grid to draw a 3d perspective image of the triangular prism

Measurement14 Cylinder
Have Grid ON (for easier version, just use points & intervals, with the 2 circles. See Measurement14B )

## 1 do line through A and B. Use 3rd icon

2 do perpendicular at A to AB. Use 4th icon
3 do Point on this perpendicular below A: Pt C .Use 2nd icon
4 do perpendicular at C to AC. Use 4th icon
5 do perpendicular at B to AB. Use 4th icon
6 do Point at Intersection of the 2 perpendiculars: Pt D. Use 2nd icon

7 hide all lines (via “object Properties”: all lines: untick “show object”)
8 join points around rectangular section (curved surface) ABDC with Intervals. Use 3rd icon
Can Move/drag vertices Use 1st icon
9. measure distance/length of top and bottom AB & CD. Use 8th icon

10 do mid-point of top AB and bottom CD. Use 2nd icon Pts E and F
11 do straight line through mid-points ( E & F). Use 3rd icon

12 do top circle with centre through point above AB, on the MidPoints-Line EF. Use 6th icon
13 measure circumference of circle using Distance/length. Use 8th icon
14 drag centre G so circle touches top AB; & Drag Pt H on outside so circumference = length AB. Use 1st
15
16 Repeat steps 12,13,14 for bottom circle with centre on EF, under CD
17 You can hide the MidPoints-Line (via “object properties & Untick “show object)

Questions Make these nets for cylinders. Find the closed cylinders’ surface areas:
(i) curved surface rectangle: width = 4 base = 5; so top & bottom circles have circumference = 4
(ii) Use C = 2 x pi x radius to get the circle circumference & rectangle width, if top circle has radius = 2

Measurement14B Cylinder. Easier version using points & intervals, with the 2 circles
Have Grid ON

Enter coordinates of points via the Input Bar (at bottom of Geogebra screen)

## 1. Plot points for curved surface, rectangle ABCD

(3,7) (15,7) (15,4) (3,4)

## 2. Click 6th icon, Do circle top

Click centre point (9,9). Then drag out and click so circle touches rectangle

## 3. Click 6th icon, Do circle bottom

Click centre point (9,2). Then drag out and click so circle touches rectangle

4. Use 3rd Icon for Intervals joining 2 points, to join points to form the rectangle lines ABCD

5.

Questions
Find the surface area of this net for a cylinder;
You can count squares in the diagram, or use formulas for areas of rectangles & circles shown.
Is the circle’s circumference the same as the rectangle side it joins to? (Make AB & CD exactly right)
Can you modify this net? Move points to make AB & CD smaller. Change the circles sizes to fit (Pts F & H)
What happens if you make the cylinder taller? (longer AD & CB).
Do you need to change the circles’ positions? The circles’ size?

## Measurement15 Pyramid net and Slant Height of a face

Have Grid ON: Use the grid to place points appropriately. Count squares for lengths

## 1. do a Square with each side =2. Do 4 points & intervals

2. do an isosceles triangle on each side with height =3.
3. do midpoints of each side of the base ; from each mid-point, do height = 3 & mark apex (top) point
4. do intervals joining apex of triangular face to ends of base
5. measure angles made by intervals with base of triangular faces( face slant height)
6. use Pythagoras to figure out the length of the triangular face SlantHeight

Questions
Vary the diagram (drag vertices ) so the base is a rectangle.
Will the 4 triangle face be the same? What do you know will be different about the faces
Find the solids surface area

## Measurement15B Pyramid net and Slant Height of a face. Easier version

Have Grid ON: Use the grid to place points appropriately.

Enter coordinates of points via the Input Bar (at bottom of Geogebra screen)

## 1. Plot points for base, square ABCD

(5,5 ) (7,5) (7,3) (5,3)

## 2. Plot points for tops of 4 triangular faces,

(6,7) (9,4) (6,1) (3,4)

## 3. Use 3rd Icon for Intervals joining 2 points,

to join points to form the rectangle base ABCD
and the 4 triangular faces

## Note: to show the slant heights of the triangular faces

Mark the Mid Point of each side of the base (use 2nd icon/Mid Point)
Join each Mid-Point of each Base-side to the top of its joined triangle-face by an Interval (3rd icon)

Questions
Can you find the length of the triangle faces’ slant heights from the diagram?
Can you make the pyramid’s base a square = 3 x 3?
Can you make the base a rectangle = 2 x 3? Would the triangle-faces have different or same Slant heights?
Which triangle-faces have the same slant heights? Which have different slant heights?
Make a pyramid with base = 2 x 3 and slant heights = 3 and 4.
(The longer base sides have joined triangles with the shorter slant height)

## Measurement16 Pyramid Height & Slant Height of a face

Have Grid ON (3D perspective diagram)

1 do 4 sides of a parallelogram (as base ABCD of Rectangular Pyramid). Use grid to place points
2 do a point above AB (to be Apex of Pyramid). Pt E
3 join apex Point E to the 4 corners of the base: do Intervals EA EB EC ED . Use 3rd icon
4 do mid points of 4 sides Use 2nd icon
5 do intervals to join Opposite mid-points: join G to H; and F to I. use 3rd icon
6 do point for intersection of the midpoint joining lines: GH & FI (middle of base)
7 do interval joining apex E to Middle of base point J (height of Pyramid)
8 do interval joining apex E to F (midPoint of base BD of triangular face EBD):Slant Height of face

note: for right pyramids, the line joining the apex to the face base midpoint, will be perpendicular
(Due to perspective, angles don’t measure as 90 degrees )

Questions
Drag Apex E left and right to see different orientations; up and down for different heights
If the base = square (each side =8) and pyramid-height = 3, use Pythagoras to figure the slant height
Find the solids surface area

## Measurement17 Cone Height & Slant Height of a face

Have Grid ON (3D perspective diagram)

## 1. do ellipse (2 focii points & 1 on ellipse) . 7th icon

2. do line through Focii A & B. Use 3rd icon
3. do intersection points of line and ellipse: Points D & E. Use 2nd icon
4. hide line through AB and hide Points A & B; Use right click
5. do interval joining D & E. Use 3rd icon
6. do perpendicular bisector of DE. Use 4th icon
7. do point on the perpendicular bisector, F. Use 2nd icon
8. do intervals joining F to D and F to E. Use 3rd icon
9. hide FG if desired; use right click on FG
10. drag F to vary height; drag C to vary the orientation of the circular base . Use 1st icon (move)

Questions
FE is slant height of cone. Find FE if radius of circular base = 8 and cone height = 6

## Measurement18 Volume Regular prisms (triangular prism)

Have Grid ON (3D perspective diagram)

## 1. do Poygon/triangle ABC. Use 5th icon

2. do 2 Points D and E (below triangle). Use 2nd icon
3. do Vector line between 2 points D and E. Use 3rd icon.
4. do Translation of triangle by vector Line. 9Use th icon.
5. do Intervals joining matching corners: A to A’; B to B’; C to C’. Use 3rd icon
6. measure area of end triangle. Use 8th icon
7. measure distance/length of CC’ between the 2 ends of the Reguar prism. Use 8th icon
8. drag A,B or C to vary the end triangles. Drag vector DE to vary distance between the triangular ends
9. to calculate Prism Volume use volume = end-area x distance between the ends

Questions
Can you re-do the figure with a quadrilateral ABCD at the end instead of triangle ABC? (just vary step 1)

## Measurement19 Rectangular prism and matching pyramid

Have Grid ON (3D perspective diagram). Use grid to place points appropriately

## 1. Place 4 points which make a 3 x 5 rectangle ABCD

2. Place another 4 points which make 3 x 5 rectangle, (which overlaps the 1st rectangle) EFGH
3. do intervals which join the points to make a rectangular prism (top & base; Left & right sides)

4. find the middle of the top of the prism (intersection point of the 2 diagonals of the top) I
5. do a pyramid inside the rectangular prism
by doing intervals to join each corner of the base to the middle of the top, Point I

drag Points A,B,G & E UP to vary the height . Use 1st icon to move
if you drag A,B,G or E left or right you must also vary the base CDEF, to match the top

Questions
What is the height of the Pyramid in the rectangular prism? What is its base length and width?
Compare the volumes of the rectangular Prism and the matching pyramid
Isometric 3D drawings in geogebra Graphics/right click/grid/isometric