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Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual

Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Module 6
Materials and Hardware
6.8 Bearings

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Knowledge Levels — Category A, B1, B2 and C Aircraft Maintenance Licence

Basic knowledge for categories A, B1 and B2 are indicated by the allocation of knowledge levels indicators (1, 2 or 3) against each applicable
subject. Category C applicants must meet either the category B1 or the category B2 basic knowledge levels.
The knowledge level indicators are defined as follows:

LEVEL 1
 A familiarization with the principal elements of the subject.
Objectives: The applicant should be familiar with the basic elements of the subject.
 The applicant should be able to give a simple description of the whole subject, using common words and examples.
 The applicant should be able to use typical terms.

LEVEL 2
 A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject.
 An ability to apply that knowledge.
Objectives: The applicant should be able to understand the theoretical fundamentals of the subject.
 The applicant should be able to give a general description of the subject using, as appropriate, typical examples.
 The applicant should be able to use mathematical formulae in conjunction with physical laws describing the subject.
 The applicant should be able to read and understand sketches, drawings and schematics describing the subject.
 The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical manner using detailed procedures.

LEVEL 3
 A detailed knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject.
 A capacity to combine and apply the separate elements of knowledge in a logical and comprehensive manner.
Objectives: The applicant should know the theory of the subject and interrelationships with other subjects.
 The applicant should be able to give a detailed description of the subject using theoretical fundamentals and specific examples.
 The applicant should understand and be able to use mathematical formulae related to the subject.
 The applicant should be able to read, understand and prepare sketches, simple drawings and schematics describing the subject.
 The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical manner using manufacturer's instructions.
 The applicant should be able to interpret results from various sources and measurements and apply corrective action where appropriate.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

INTRODUCTION

A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts. The
design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may
prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts. Many bearings also facilitate the desired motion as
much as possible, such as by minimizing friction. Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation (Sliding and Rolling), the
motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts.

The term "bearing" is derived from the verb "to bear" a bearing being a machine element that allows one part to bear (i.e., to support) another.
The simplest bearings are bearing surfaces, cut or formed into a part, with varying degrees of control over the form, size, roughness and location
of the surface. Other bearings are separate devices installed into a machine or machine part. The most sophisticated bearings for the most
demanding applications are very precise devices; their manufacture requires some of the highest standards of current technology.

Every form of antifriction Bearing consists of four basic parts:

 An Inner Ring

This is the smaller of the two bearing rings and gets its name from the position it holds. It has a groove on its outside diameter to form a
path for the balls. The surface of this path is precision finished to extremely tight tolerances and is honed to a very smooth, mirror-like
surface finish. The inner ring is mounted on the shaft and is usually the rotating element.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

 An Outer Ring

This is the larger of the two rings and, like its counterpart the inner ring, its name is derived from the position it holds. Conversely, there
is a groove on its inside diameter to form a pathway for the balls. This surface also has the same high precision finish of the inner ring. The
outer ring is normally placed into a housing and is usually held stationery.

 Rolling Elements

These are the rolling elements that separate the inner and outer ring and permit the bearing to rotate with minimal friction. Rolling elements
can be either Balls, Cylindrical Rollers, Spherical Rollers, Tapered Rollers and Oil in case of Journal type of Bearings.

 A Cage

The main purpose of the cage is to separate the balls, maintaining an even and consistent spacing, to accurately guide the balls in the paths,
or raceways, during rotation, and to prevent the balls from falling out. Cage may be of Steel, Brass, Bronze, or Phenolic composition,
depending upon the type and application of the bearings.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Bearings are designed in such a way that they offer following advantages:

 Low Friction - Particularly low starting friction.

 The ability to support both radial and thrust load and high speeds of rotation.

 Accurate performance under changing load and speed.

 High Load Carrying capacity

 Operating ability under extreme conditions of speed and performance.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
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Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

 Practically no wear in running.

 Simple methods of Lubrication.

 Inherently Precision Mechanisms.

 The above advantages clearly justify the ubiquitous presence of Bearings in our life.

Generally speaking, a bearing is a device that is used to enable rotational or linear movement, while reducing friction and handling stress.
Resembling wheels, bearings literally enable devices to roll, which reduces the friction between the surface of the bearing and the surface it’s
rolling over. It’s significantly easier to move, both in a rotary or linear fashion, when friction is reducedthis also enhances speed and efficiency.

In order to serve all these functions, bearings make use of a relatively simple structure: a ball with internal and external smooth metal surfaces,
to aid in rolling. The ball itself carries the weight of the load—the force of the load’s weight is what drives the bearing’s rotation. However, not
all loads put force on a bearing in the same manner. There are two different kinds of loading: radial and thrust.

A radial load, as in a pulley, simply puts weight on the bearing in a manner that causes the bearing to roll or rotate as a result of tension. A
thrust load is significantly different, and puts stress on the bearing in an entirely different way. If a bearing (think of a tire) is flipped on its side
(think now of a tire swing) and subject to complete force at that angle (think of three children sitting on the tire swing), this is called thrust load.
A bearing that is used to support a bar stool is an example of a bearing that is subject only to thrust load.

Many bearings are prone to experiencing both radial and thrust loads. Car tires, for example, carry a radial load when driving in a straight line:

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

the tires roll forward in a rotational manner as a result of tension and the weight they are supporting. However, when a car goes around a corner,
it is subject to thrust load because the tires are no longer moving solely in a radial fashion and cornering force weighs on the side of the bearing.

Bearings are, broadly, classified by the type of rolling element used in their construction. Ball bearings employ steel balls, which rotate in
grooved raceways, whilst Roller bearings utilize cylindrical, tapered and spherical rollers running in suitably shaped raceways (refer to figure
6.8.1.01).

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
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Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Although these notes give information on the uses of the various types of ball and roller bearings, - together with general information on
installation, maintenance and inspection, the Aircraft Maintenance Manual
(AMM) should be the final arbiter for specific installations.

Ball bearings and tapered roller bearings accept both radial and axial loads,
whilst the other types of roller bearings may accept only radial loads.

Those bearings, which are contained in cages, are, in general, used for engine
and gearbox applications with rotational speeds in excess of approximately 100
rpm. Most other bearings, on an aircraft or in an engine, are intended for
oscillating or slow rotation conditions and do not have a cage. They are
generally shielded or sealed and pre-packed with grease, although some have
external lubrication facilities.

Beraing calssifications: Sliding Bearings and Rolling Bearings (Ball, Roller, and Needle), in this lecture will discuse about Rolling Bearing. The
sliding contact bearings having surface contact and are coming under lower kinematic pair.

Bearing classification based on type of load carried

a. Radial bearings

b. Thrust bearings or axial bearings

c. Radial – thrust bearings

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

ROLLING BEARINGS

BALL BEARINGS

Ball bearings are the most common and most used type of bearing found in a number of objects. Also known as anti-friction bearings, ball
bearings are small metallic or ceramic spheres used to reduce friction between axles and shafts in numerous applications. These bearings are
able to handle both thrust and radial loads, and are used for applications where the load is relatively small. Load in a ball bearing is transmitted
from the outer surface to the ball and from the ball to the inner surface. Since the ball is spherical in shape, it contacts the inner and outer race
at a very small point, which helps it spin evenly and smoothly. But the contact area holding that load is very small, so if the bearing is overloaded
then the balls can deform, ruining the bearing. Ball bearings are often used in individual cages to reduce friction in axle assemblies or in a series
to absorb the weight placed on a moving part.

Ball bearings are extremely common because they can handle both radial and thrust loads,but can only handle a small amount of weight. They
are found in a wide array ofapplications, such as roller blades and even hard drives, but are prone to deforming if theyare overloaded.

A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races. The purpose of a ball
bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and
transmit the loads through the balls. In most applications, one race is stationary and the other is attached to the rotating assembly. As one of
the bearing races rotates it causes the balls to rotate as well. Because the balls are rolling they have a much lower coefficient of friction than if
two flat surfaces were sliding against each other.Ball bearings tend to have lower load capacity for their size than other kinds of rolling-element
bearings due to the smaller contact area between the balls and races. However, they can tolerate some misalignment of the inner and outer races.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

These consist of an inner and outer race separated by hardened steel balls. This class of bearing relies on the motion of the balls to reduce friction
between the inner race carried on the shaft of the machine and the outer race which is
normally fitted inside housing on the stationary part of the machine.

The bearing may be constructed using single or double rows of balls, each row controlled by
bronze or brass cage, but bearings which do not have a cage are often used. Ball bearings are
designed for RADIAL or THRUST loads or a combination of both and are able to operate
in either direction of rotation. Ball bearings can be of rigid or self-aligning type depending
on the requirement, this being determined at the time of manufacture.

Ball bearings may be divided into four main types that define the way in which the bearings are used. The main types of Ball bearings are:

 Radial Bearings.
 Angular-Contact Bearings.
 Thrust Bearings.
 Instrument Precision Bearings.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
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Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Radial Ball Bearingsare the most widely used type of rolling element bearing in the world due to their versatility and overall performance. In
a cross sectional view of a typical radial ball bearings are produced with high quality materials and exacting tolerances. Each of the individual
components such as the rings, balls, cage, shield or seal, and lubricant contributeto the bearings ability to perform in a variety of applications
and environments. The designer can choose from an array of materials, precision levels, lubricants, and internal designs to achieve the desired
life and performance.

Radial ball bearings are easily damaged when subjected to shock or impact loads. Radial ball bearings require lubrication and interior surface
must be protected from contaminants or other debris. Shields or seals are highly recommended.

Radial bearings are the most common type of bearing and can be found in all types of transmission assemblies such as shafts, gears, control rods
and end fittings. They are manufactured with either a single or double row of balls, rigid for normal applications and self-aligning for positions
where accurate alignment cannot be maintained, such as in control rod ends.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

An AngularContact Ball Bearing uses axially asymmetric races. An axial load passes in a straight line through the bearing, whereas a radial
load takes an oblique path that tends to want to separate the races axially. So the angle of contact on the inner race is the same as that on the
outer race. Angular contact bearings better support "combined loads" (loading in both the radial and axial directions) and the contact angle of
the bearing should be matched to the relative proportions of each. The larger the contact angle (typically in the range 10 to 45 degrees), the
higher the axial load supported, but the lower the radial load. In high speed applications, such as turbines, jet engines, and dentistry equipment,
the centrifugal forces generated by the balls changes the contact angle at the inner and outer race. Ceramics such as silicon nitride are now
regularly used in such applications due to their low density (40% of steel). These materials significantly reduce centrifugal force and function
well in high temperature environments. They also tend to wear in a similar way to bearing steel—rather than cracking or shattering like glass
or porcelain.

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Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Most bicycles use angular-contact bearings in the headsets because the forces on these bearings are in both the radial and axial direction.Angular-
Contact bearings are capable of accepting radial loads and axial loads in one direction only. The outer ring is recessed on one side to allow the
ball and cage assembly to be installed, thus enabling more balls to be used and the cage to be in one piece. The axial load capacity depends on
the contact angle.

In applications where axial loads will always be in one direction, a single angular-contact bearing may be used but, where they vary in direction,
an opposed pair of bearings may be used.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

A ball thrust bearingis a particular type of rotary ball bearing. Like other ball bearings, they permit rotation between parts, but they are
designed to support a high axial load while doing this (parallel to the shaft). Higher speed applications require oil lubrication. Generally, they
are composed of two washers (raceways) which may be grooved the rolling balls elements which are typically caged. As opposed to roller thrust
bearings, ball thrust bearings can generally operate at higher speeds but at lower loads.

Thrust bearings are designed for axial loading only. They will usually be found in use together with roller or radial ball bearings. The balls are
retained in a cage and run on flat or grooved washers. These bearings are adversely affected by centrifugal force and so work best underhigh-
load, low-speed situations.

A thrust bearing is a particular type of rotary rolling-element bearing. Like other bearings they permit rotation between parts, but they are
designed to support a predominately axial load.

Thrust bearings come in several varieties.

 Thrust ball bearings, composed of ball bearings supported in a ring, can be used in low thrust applications where there is little axial load.

Thrust ball bearings cannot transmit any radial loading. This type is susceptible to misalignment, and manufacturers frequently include
a sphered groove on the housing washer to reduce this possibility. While excellent for high speed applications, their performance suffers
under heavy loads.

 Cylindrical thrust roller bearings consist of small cylindrical rollers arranged flat with their axes pointing to the axis of the bearing. They
give very good carrying capacity and are cheap, but tend to wear due to the differences in radial speed and friction which is higher than
with ball bearings.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

This type of bearing fans the cylindrical rollers around the bearing axis in a perpendicular, radial fashion. These rollers must be crowned
or end-relieved to reduce stress between the rollers and outer wall of the house washer raceway. They do not require much axial space
to be deployed, and also come in double-row variations. While suitable for substantial axial loads, they are not recommended for a radial
load.

 Tapered roller thrust bearings consist of small tapered rollers arranged so that their axes all converge at a point on the axis of the bearing.
The length of the roller and the diameter of the wide and the narrow ends and the angle of rollers need to be carefully calculated to
provide the correct taper so that each end of the roller rolls smoothly on the bearing face without skidding. They can support rather
larger thrust loads than the ball type due to the larger contact area, but are more expensive to manufacture.

The angle created between the bearing axis and the line of contact between the raceway and the tapered roller determines the degree of
thrust this bearing can accommodate. If this angle is greater than 45°, the bearing is better suited for axial loads. Once the angle between
the bearing axis and roller axis reaches 90° the bearing can only sustain axial loads. These bearings require a cage, and sometimes a
flange, to retain the roller assembly.

Heavy-duty tapered roller thrust bearings are also manufactured with a second row of opposing tapered rollers. By altering the shape of
a raceway, this type of "screw-down" bearing resists mild or moderate angular misalignment.

 Spherical roller thrust bearings use asymmetrical rollers of spherical shape, rolling inside a house washer with a raceway with spherical
inner shape. They can accommodate combined radial and axial loads and also accommodate misalignment of the shafts. They are often
used together with radial spherical roller bearings. Spherical roller thrust bearings offer the highest load rating density of all thrust
bearings.

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The rolling elements are barrel-shaped and the raceways closely resemble the cone-and-cup design found in standard tapered roller
bearings. This provides the bearing with self-aligning capabilities which is beneficial in applications where shaft deflection or shock loads
can occur. They support heavy axial thrust in one direction (though variants exist for both directions), and can also tolerate moderate
radial loads. As with tapered roller thrust bearings, the angle between the roller axis and the bearing axis determines the ratio of
axial/radial loading.

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Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Fluid-film bearings are valued in high-speed, high-load applications.They are typically less expensive than rolling element-type bearings, and
have exceptionally long working lives.

 Fluid bearings, where the axial thrust is supported on a thin layer of pressurized liquid—these give low drag.

Hydrodynamic- A robust lubricant or air cushion under high pressure supports the axial load, due to bearing geometry and lubricant
viscosity. During rotation, the fluid is drawn to the bearing pad and creates a minimal-friction fluid buffer. The load is supported on
wedges of fluid created by the pad's geometry. Seals and a special type of cage are needed to maintain lubricant pressure and dispersion,
respectively. Hydrodynamic bearings can suffer from high torque, high minimum loads, and excessive bearing inertia, but this is largely
dependent on the type of fluid used.

Hydrodynamic bearings are manufactured with a tilting pad, which permits uneven thrust loads across the bearing, but maintains the
fluid seal despite this misalignment.

Hydrostatic - In this instance the lubricant or air cushion is pumped through the bearing assembly to maintain positive pressure. This
overcomes some of the inertia and torque problems experienced by hydrodynamic bearings, but this assembly requires a continuously
operating pump which should be factored into the bearing's energy efficiency. Hydrostatic bearings which utilize an air cushion have
tolerances as low as 0.2 μ m, making them the ideal choice for precision machining.

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Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

 Magnetic bearings, where the axial thrust is supported on a magnetic field. This is used where very high speeds or very low drag is needed,
for example the Zippe-type centrifuge.

These types of thrust bearings support loads by magnetic levitation. Permanent magnets are suitable for light loads, but electromagnets
are required for moderate to heavy loads--powered types of magnetic bearings are referred to as "active”. Some magnets are outfitted
with both permanent magnets and electromagnets to support static and dynamic loads, respectively. Magnetic bearings are extremely
low friction devices which do not need lubrication. With some exceptions, they are also maintenance-free. This type of bearing does not
support misaligned loads.

Instrument Precision Bearings are manufactured to high accuracy and finish. They are generally of the radial bearing type and can be found
in both instruments and communication equipment.

ROLLER BEARINGS

These consist of an inner and outer race separated by hardened steel rollers instead of balls. Roller bearings are normally only used to support
radial loads but can be designed to compensate for linear expansion of the shaft or housing, by ensuring that the inner and outer races are truly
parallel. Location and control of the rollers is achieved by a groove cut in the inner or outer races which act as recesses for the rollers. This
arrangement allows the rollers to take up lateral expansion of the shaft by allowing the rollers to slide across the surface during rotation.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Roller bearings may be divided into three main types that define their use. They are:

 Cylindrical Roller Bearings.

 Spherical Roller Bearings.

 Tapered Roller Bearings.

Cylindrical roller bearings provide the highest possible radial load capacity compared to other roller
bearing types. Four primary styles are available to meet a variety of application requirements.

Common roller bearings use cylinders of slightly greater length than diameter. Roller bearings typically

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

have higher load capacity than ball bearings, but a lower capacity and higher friction under loads perpendicular to the primary supported
direction. If the inner and outer races are misaligned, the bearing capacity often drops quickly compared to either a ball bearing or a spherical
roller bearing.

Cylindrical Roller bearings will accept greater radial loads than ball bearings of the same size. This is due to the greater contact area of the
rolling elements and, if they have ribs on both rings, cylindrical roller bearings will also accept light, intermittent, axial loads. Normally the
rollers have a length equal to their diameter, although some rollers have a length greater than their diameter to cater for special applications.

Needle roller bearings are special roller bearings having slender cylindrical rollers that enable them to bear highest load capacity for a given
radial space of all rolling-element bearings. Needle roller bearings are ideal for applications where high radial load carrying capacity is required
but radial space is limited. Such bearings also suit applications where high rotational speed is involved but cannot accommodate axial loads.

Compared to the ball bearings, needle bearing have a large surface area that is in contact with the bearing outer surfaces. Additionally they are
more compact because there is less difference between the diameter of the shaft and the diameter of the bearing. Thrust needle bearings are flat
and use a radial pattern of needles while radial needle bearings are cylindrical and use rollers parallel to the axis of the shaft.

Needle bearings are primarily used in engine components like pumps, compressors, rocker arm pivots, and transmissions.

Roller bearings, which have a length much greater than their diameter, are normally calledneedle roller bearings. These are
designed for radial loads only and are best used in situations where the movement is oscillatory rather than rotary, such as
in universal joints and control rod ends.

Spherical roller bearings have an outer ring with an internal spherical shape. The rollers are thicker in the middle and
thinner at the ends. Spherical roller bearings can thus accommodate both static and dynamic misalignment. However, spherical rollers are

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

difficult to produce and thus expensive, and the bearings have higher friction than an ideal cylindrical or tapered roller bearing since there will
be a certain amount of sliding between rolling elements and rings.

Spherical Roller bearings can be found with single or double rows of rollers, which run in a spherical raceway in the outer ring, thus enabling
the bearing to accept a small degree of misalignment. These bearings will accept high radial loads and moderate axial loads.

Rollers used in spherical roller bearings are thicker in the middle and narrow at the ends, and its race is shaped to match. They can adjust to
support misaligned loads.

The construction of spherical rollers is complex and difficult to produce so they are expensive. Apart from that these bearings have higher
friction compared to ball bearing because different parts of the spherical rollers run at different speeds on the rounded race. Thus there are
opposing forces along the bearing/race contact increasing the friction.

Spherical bearings are used in numerous applications where rotational motion changes the alignment of its axis of rotation. One of its important
examples is a tie rod on a vehicle suspension. Other important uses of spherical bearings have been in car suspensions, trackballs, computer
mouse, heavy machinery, sewing machines, drive shafts, etc.

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Taper Roller Bearings obtain their description from the shape of the inner race, this being in the shape of a cone. The tapered bearing consists
of the coned shaped inner and a cup shaped outer race. The rollers are tapered and made from hardened steel. This
class of bearing can support radial loads in one direction only. Because of this, this class of bearing will often be
found to contain two individual rows of bearings, each row using the same inner and outer races, but with the
rollers arranged with the tapers on the rollers in opposite directions, thus allowing the bearings to withstand radial
loads in either direction.

Tapered roller bearings use conical rollers that run on conical races. Most roller bearings only take radial or axial
loads, but tapered roller bearings support both radial and axial loads, and generally can carry higher loads than
ball bearings due to greater contact area. Tapered roller bearings are used, for example, as the wheel bearings of most wheeled land vehicles.
The downsides to this bearing is that due to manufacturing complexities, tapered roller bearings are usually more expensive than ball bearings;
and additionally under heavy loads the tapered roller is like a wedge and bearing loads tend to try to eject the roller; the force from the collar
which keeps the roller in the bearing adds to bearing friction compared to ball bearings.

Tapered roller bearings use conical rollers that run on conical races. Both the inner and outer raceways are segments of cones and the rollers
are also made with a taper. Unlike other roller bearings, they support both radial and axial loads, and are able to carry higher loads. The conical
geometry of tapered roller bearings provide a larger contact patch, which allows greater loads to be carried as compared to spherical (ball)
bearings. The geometry ensures that the tangential speeds of the surfaces of each of the rollers are same as their raceways along the whole
length of the contact patch and no differential scrubbing occurs. This greatly reduces rolling friction and avoids rapid wear. Taper roller bearings
are used in the wheel bearings of most trucks, buses, cars, and so on. Due to manufacturing complexities, tapered roller bearings are generally
more expensive than ball bearings.

Tapered Roller bearings are designed so that the axes of the rollers form an angle to the shaft axis. They are capable of accepting radial and

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
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Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

axial loads simultaneously, in one direction only. It is common to find tapered roller bearings mounted in pairs - back to back - so that loads can
be accepted in both directions.

NEEDLE ROLLER

Needle roller bearings use very long and thin cylinders. Often the ends of the rollers taper to points and these
are used to keep the rollers captive, or they may be hemispherical and not captive but held by the shaft itself or
a similar arrangement. Since the rollers are thin, the outside diameter of the bearing is only slightly larger than
the hole in the middle. However, the small-diameter rollers must bend sharply where they contact the races, and
thus the bearing fatigues relatively quickly.

These bearings consist of an inner and outer race separated by narrow trunion ended rollers. This class of
bearing ft normally used where space saving is an important factor as they are physically smaller in diameter
than other classes of bearing but are longer and will support the same loading as an equivalent sized ball or roller bearing. This class of bearing
combines some of the properties of ball and roller bearings in that they are able to support both radial and trust loads.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
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Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

A needle roller bearing is a bearing which uses small cylindrical rollers.The difference between a needle roller bearing and roller bearing is
the ratio of diameter and length of their rollers, when the ratio of the diameter and the
length of roller of a roller bearing is between the interval of 0.1 to 0.4, that roller bearing is
called a needle roller bearing. They are used to reduce the friction of a rotating surface.

Needle bearings have a large surface area that is in contact with the bearing outer surfaces
compared to ball bearings. Additionally there is less added clearance (difference between the
diameter of the shaft and the diameter of the bearing) so they are much more compact. The
typical structure consists of a needle cage which orients and contains the needle rollers, the
needle rollers themselves, and an outer race (sometimes the housing itself).

Thrust Bearings

Thrust bearings are particular types of rotary bearing that allow rotation between parts used but they are designed to support axial loads like
vertical shafts for which spherical, conical or cylindrical rollers are used. They are used in gearsets like in car transmissions between gears and
between the housing and the rotating shafts.

Thrust bearings are of different varieties. Ball thrust bearings are composed of ball bearings supported in a ring. They are used in low thrust
applications where the radial load is very small. Thrust roller bearings are made of small tapered rollers arranged so that their axes converge at
a point on the axis of the bearing.

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Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Other Bearing Types and Features

Self-Aligning Bearings

Which Bearings allow a limited movement of the shaft.So that the inner and outer races are not always exactly aligned with each other. The
action is, of course, achieved without impairing the operation of the bearing and is a type common to ball and roller class of bearing.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Self-aligning ball bearings, such as the Wingquist bearing shown in the picture, are constructed with the inner ring and ball assembly contained
within an outer ring that has a spherical raceway. This construction allows the bearing to tolerate a small angular misalignment resulting from
shaft or housing deflections or improper mounting. The bearing was used mainly in bearing arrangements with very long shafts, such as
transmission shafts in textile factories. One drawback of the self-aligning ball bearings is a limited load rating, as the outer raceway has very
low osculation (radius is much larger than ball radius). This lead to the invention of the spherical roller bearing, which has a similar design, but
use rollers instead of balls. Also the spherical roller thrust bearing is an invention that derives from the findings by Wingquist.

Single and Double Row Bearings

These bearings employ either a single or double row of either ball or roller bearings. Balls and rollers are never mixed within the same bearing
races.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Sealed Bearings

It is a bearing that has been provided with seals on itssides so that the bearing can be used for longer periods without greasing. Some bearings
will have a seal in the form of a circular plate fitted at one end of the bearing, this prevents the lubrication used in the bearing from escaping
into other parts of the machinery and causing contamination. These seals are designed to prevent air from being drawn through the bearing
when used in, typically, electric motors where the motor rotation pumps air that would centrifugally be drawn through the bearing. If this were
permitted, the lubricant would act as fly paper and capture all the dust that passes, rendering the lubricant uselessly contaminated.

Seal practice requires a seal to leak if it is to work. The seepage lubricates the interface between shaft and seal and without this small amount of
weeping, the seal lip would burn and develop a gap. In the presence of water on the outside, the weeping oil emulsifies and circulates back under

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

the lip to introduce moisture into the bearing. This is usually not fatal because it is only a small amount, but the displaced grease on the lip dries
out and leaves the lip unlubricated.

This type is called SEMI-SEALEDif the basic idea of a seal is applied to both ends of the bearing and the bearing is primed with the correct
amount and grade of lubricant during manufacture, then sealed, it is called a FULLY SEALED bearing. Foreign matter cannot enter this type
of bearing, but the bearing cannot be lubricated or maintained other than to wipe the bearing clean and check it for roughness or wear by
carrying out a hand rotation test.

LIMIT SYSTEM

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

For ease of manufacture and replacement it is essential that the components of similar mechanisms should be inter-changeable. For this reason
limits are imposed on the manufacturing errors to ensure that any two mating parts are manufactured to the limits stated on the drawing. The
limits are based on the tolerance and allowance applied to the dimensions of a manufactured part. The correct functioning of a component of any
mechanism depends upon their size. A rotating part must have clearance in its bearing, too large a shaft or too small a hole can lead to damage
and mechanical failure.

Due to imperfections in workmanship, it is not possible to manufacture component parts to theoretically correct dimensions, but
interchangeability of parts can be achieved if their dimensions are within certain limits, thus the need for a limits system which defines how
much bigger or smaller than the basic sizea part can be made and still be considered acceptable. Fit refers to the mating of two mechanical
components. Manufactured parts are very frequently required to mate with one another. They may be designed to slide freely against one
another or they may be designed to bind together to form a single unit. The most common fit found in the machine shop is that of a shaft in a
hole.

The limit system in use is the ISO system of limits, which is wholly metric and covers up to 3,150mm. The actual numerical values of tolerances
are listed in the form of engineering tables contained in the revised version of British Standard 1961, limits for Engineering. The limits system
used in the manufacture of a particular component should always be shown in the title block of the engineering drawing for the component.

Fits

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Fits is defined as being the difference before assembly between the sizes of two parts of two parts which are to be assembled. By using various
methods of assembly, some gentle – some extremely forceful, it is possible in engineering to obtain a fit whether or not the shaft is smaller than
the hole. When the shaft is smaller, a clearance exists between the parts; therefore the assembly is relatively easy. When the reverse is true,
interference is said to occur and force of some kind is needed to compete the assembly. From these two basic situations, three types of fits emerge,
Clearance, Transition and Interference:

 Clearance Fit. A fit which always has a positive clearance or, technically, where the tolerance zone of the hole is always above that
of the shaft.Clearance fits for when it may be desirable for the shaft to rotate or slide freely within the hole.

 Transition Fit. A fit which can be either a clearance or interference fit or where the tolerance zones of the hole and shaft over-lap. For
when it is desirable that the shaft to be held precisely, yet not so tightly that it cannot be disassembled, this is usually referred
to as a Location or Transition fit.

 Interference Fit. A fit which always has interference, or where tolerance zones of the shaft, is always above that of the hole. For when
it is desirable for the shaft to be securely held within the hole and it is acceptable that some force be necessary for assembly.

Tolerances

It is the aim of modern engineering production methods to make parts swiftly and to an acceptable degree of accuracy. No engineering
components can be made, or need to be made, exactly to size. By using high quality machine tools and a certain flexibility in dimensions, parts
can be made at a tremendous rate and at the same time, guaranteed to be fully interchangeable. This can be done by adopting a system of limits

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

which in practice, defines how much bigger or smaller than the basic size an item can be and yet still be considered acceptable. A tolerance can
be unilateral or bilateral. A unilateral tolerance is one which permits a variation in one direction only, either above or below the basic size. A
bilateral tolerance allows a variation either above or below basic size.

Bearing Clearance and Classification

Bearing internal clearance is defined as the total distance through which one bearing ring can be moved relative to the other in the radial
direction (radial internal clearance) or in the axial direction (axial internal clearance).

Internal clearance is the play within a ball bearing. It is the geometrical clearance between
the inner ring, outer ring and ball. It is a critical factor in bearing selection that will directly
impact bearing life. It is often overlooked, particularly as to how it is reduced by
interference fits.

Radial clearance is the play between the ball and raceway perpendicular to the bearing axis.
Axial clearance is the play parallel to the bearing axis and is typically at least 10 times
greater than the radial clearance. Generally, internal radial clearance will be reduced 80%
of the interference fit amount.

Too little or too much internal clearance will significantly influence factors such as heat,
vibration, noise, and fatigue life.

In extreme applications that see high or low temperatures this clearance needs to be
considered in the overall design to compensate for thermal expansion and contraction of housings and shafts.

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

The clearance inside a bearing is vital to the correct operation and long life of the bearing.

There are 4 classes of clearance:

o Group 2 (C2)

Clearance fit on both inner and outer ring. Low to noaxialloading. No preload. Low speeds. Little tolerance for play. Low temperature.

o Normal (CN)

Low torque. Standard loads. Light preload. Slight interference fit on inner or outer ring, not both. Low to medium speeds. Average
temperature.

o Group 3 (C3)

Very low torque. High loads. Heavy interference fits. High temperature.Preloaded.

o Group 4 (C4)

Very low torque. High loads. Heavy interference fits. High temperature.Preloaded.

The clearance refers to the clearance between the ball, roller or needle and the outer race and is identified by one of the two available methods:

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant
Basic Aircraft Maintenance Training Manual
Module 6 – Materials and Hardware

Dot Method

This method of marking the bearing uses a dot code (or zeros) to denote the clearance:

1) One dot indicates a range 0.00005" less than standard (Group 2 /C2 - not suited to high speed)

2) Two dots represent a standard clearance (Normal)/CN.

3) Three dots indicate a clearance 0.00005" greater than standard (Group 3/C3 -Interference fit - high speed - axial loading).

4) Four dots indicate the largest clearance (Group 4/C4 - For use where the bearingis expected to get hot).

Manual No. : BCT-0011/M6 For Training Purpose Only Rev. 0: Aug 19, 2015
Airframe Powerplant