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# CIVIL ENGINEERING

CORRELATION COURSE
___ Term S.Y. 20__-20__

Module #09
Elementary Surveying

Subject Area:
MATHEMATICS, SURVEYING AND TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

Name: ____________________________________________________________

## Contact No./ Email Address: ______________________________________

TOPIC 1 – PACE FACTOR ................................................................. 3
Esplana, D.F. (2009). Practice Problems for Civil Engineering Board Exams. CALQ
TOPIC 2 – TYPES OF ERRORS/CORRECTION ...................................... 5 Publishing.
TOPIC 3 – ERRORS AND MISTAKES ................................................... 8 Besavilla, V. (1984). Surveying for Civil and Geodetic Licensure Exam. VIB
TOPIC 4 – EARTH’S CURVATURE AND REFRACTION (hcr) .................. 10 Publishing.
https://www.mathalino.com/
TOPIC 5 – LEVELING ..................................................................... 12
TOPIC 6 – TWO PEG TEST .............................................................. 14
TOPIC 7 – ERROR OF CLOSURE ...................................................... 18
TOPIC 8 – AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE .......................................... 23
TOPIC 9 – MISSING DATA .............................................................. 25
TOPIC 10 – SUBDIVISION .............................................................. 29
TOPIC 11 – AREAS OF IRREGULAR BOUNDARIES .............................. 33
REFERENCES .............................................................................. 35

## K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 2 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 35

44. Determine the area included between the transit line and the curve using TOPIC 1 – PACE FACTOR
Trapezoidal Rule.
a. 270.90 m2 c. 276.30 m2 MEASUREMENT OF DISTANCE BY PACING
b. 275.90 m2 d. 280.90 m2 Pacing is a reasonably easy and quick method of measuring distance in the
45. Compute the difference between Simpson’s One Third Rule and Trapezoidal field. It is used to measure a distance and is often used with a sighting or a hand
Rule. compass. Most commonly, pacing is split up into segments, such as chains, which are
a. 5.4 sq.m c. 7.4 sq.m set measures of distance. By determining one's own pace, distance can easily be
b. 6.4 sq.m d. 8.4 sq.m estimated

Lengthline
Pace Factor =
Paceaverage

SITUATION 1
A line 100 m long was paced by a surveyor for four times with the following
data. 142, 145, 145.5 and 146. Then another line was paced for four times again
with the following results, 893, 893.5, 891 and 895.5.
1. Determine the pace factor.
a. 0.591 c. 0.791
b. 0.691 d. 0.891
2. Determine the number of paces for the new line.
a. 893.25 c. 893.75
b. 893.50 d. 894.00
3. Determine the distance of the new line.
a. 617.236 m c. 619.236 m
b. 618.236 m d. 620.236 m

## K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 34 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 3

TOPIC 11 – AREAS OF IRREGULAR BOUNDARIES
METHODS OF COMPUTING AREAS OF IRREGULAR BOUNDARIES AT
REGULAR INTERVALS
1. Trapezoidal Rule

⎡h + h ⎤
A = d ⎢ 1 n + ∑ h⎥
⎣ 2 ⎦
where:
d = common interval
h1 = first offset
h2 = last offset
Σh = sum of intermediate offsets

## 2. Simpson’s One-Third Rule

- Applicable only to even intervals or odd offsets
d
A= ⎡( h1 + hn ) + 2∑ hodd + 4 ∑ heven ⎤⎦
3⎣
SITUATION 14
A series of perpendicular offsets were taken from a transit line to a curved
boundary line. These offsets were taken 9m apart and were taken in the following
order: 2m, 3.2m, 4m, 3.5m, 5m, 4.5m, 6m, 7m.

43. Determine the area included between the transit line and the curve using
Simpson’s One Third Rule.
a. 270.90 m2 c. 276.30 m2
b. 275.90 m2 d. 280.90 m2

## K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 4 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 33

TOPIC 2 – TYPES OF ERRORS/CORRECTION
TAPE TOO SHORT/TAPE TOO LONG

⎛ ML ⎞
TL = ML ± c ⎜ ⎟
⎝ LengthTape ⎠
where:
TL = True length
ML = Measured Length
c = correction

CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE

CT = α LΔT
where:
ü If positive add to the ML
ü If negative subtract to the ML
ü α = coefficient of thermal expansion
ü α = 11.6x10-6/ 0C

CHANGE IN PULL

ΔPL
CP =
AE

CP =
( P2 − P1 ) L
AE
where:
ü If positive add to the ML
ü If negative subtract to the ML
ü P2 = Actual pull during the measurement
ü P1 = Applied pull when the length of tape is L1
ü A = Cross – sectional area of the tape
ü E = modulus of elasticity of the tape

DUE TO SAG

w 2 L3
CSAG =
24P 2
K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 32 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 5

where: SITUATION 13
ü Always subtract A parcel of land, with boundaries as described below is to be subdivided into two
ü w = weight per linear meter lots of equal areas. The dividing line is to pass through a point midway between
ü L = unsupported length corner A and E and through a point along the boundary BC.
ü P = applied pull Lines Bearing Distance
AB N 150 30’ E 60 m
CHANGE IN SLOPE BC S 820 23’ E 72.69 m
CD S 170 20’ E 44.83 m
h2
Cs = DE
EA
S 700 36’ W
N 740 30’ W
56.45 m
50.00 m
2S
40. Find the area of each lot.
H = S − Cs a. 2,568.50 m2 c. 2,856.50 m2
b. 2,586.50 m2 d. 2,865.50 m2
41. Find the distance of the dividing line.
where:
a. 75.55 m c. 73.33 m
ü H = horizontal distance or corrected distance
b. 74.44 m d. 72.22 m
ü S = inclined distance
42. Find the bearing of the dividing line.
ü h = difference in elevation at the end of the tape
a. N 41017’ E c. N 43017’ E
b. N 42017’ E d. N 44017’ E
SEA LEVEL CORRECTION
h
Re duction.Factor = 1−
R

⎛ h⎞
B' = B ⎜ 1− ⎟
⎝ R⎠
where:
ü B = horizontal distance corrected for temperature, sag and pull
ü B’ = sea level distance
ü h = average altitude or observation
ü R = radius of curvature

SITUATION 2
A 50m steel tape was standardized and supported throughout its whole length
and found to be 0.00205m longer at an observed temperature of 31.8 degrees celsius
and a pull of 10 kg. This tape was used to measure a line which was found to be
662.702m at an average temperature of 24.6 degrees celsius using the same pull.
Use the coefficient of thermal expansion of 0.0000116 m per degree centigrade.
4. Compute the standard temperature
a. 29.77 0C c. 28.77 0C
b. 29.27 0C d. 28.27 0C
K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 6 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 31

5. Compute the total temperature correction.
a. 0.02723 m c. 0.02823 m
b. 0.02723 m d. 0.02923 m
6. Compute the correct length of the line.
a. 662.67377 m c. 662.87377 m
b. 662.77377 m d. 662.97377 m

K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 30 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 7

TOPIC 3 – ERRORS AND MISTAKES TOPIC 10 – SUBDIVISION
PROBABLE ERROR OF A SINGLE OBSERVATION SITUATION 13

PES = ±0.6745 ( SD )
A lot is bounded by 3 straight sides A, B and C. AB is N45 degrees E, 95m long
and AC is due East, 88m long. From point D, 43m from A on side AB, a dividing line
where: runs to E which is on side CA. The area of ADE is to be 1/7 of the total area of the
ü SD = Standard Deviation lot.
ü Use mode 3-1.
37. Determine the distance DE.
PROBABLE ERROR OF THE MEAN (PEM) a. 33.52 m c. 31.52 m
b. 32.52 m d. 30.52 m
PES
PEM = 38. Determine the bearing of side BC.
a. S 15014’ E c. S 17014’ E
n 0
b. S 16 14’ E d. S 18014’ E
where: 39. Determine the distance AE.
ü n = no. of observations a. 27.77 m c. 29.99 m
b. 28.88 m d. 30.00 m
MOST PROBABLE VALUE (MPV)

MPV ( Mean ) =
∑x
n

MPV (Weighted.Mean ) =
∑ wx
∑w
SITUATION 3
The following interior angles of a triangle traverse were measured with the
same precision.
Angle Value (Degrees) No. of Measurements
A 41 5
B 77 6
C 63 2
7. Determine the most probable value of angle A.
a. 40046.16’ c. 41046.16’
b. 40026.16’ d. 41026.16’
8. Determine the most probable value of angle B.
a. 76048.46’ c. 77048.46’
b. 76038.46’ d. 77038.46’
9. Determine the most probable value of angle C.
a. 62025.38’ c. 63025.38’
0
b. 62 05.38’ d. 63005.38’
K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 8 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 29

K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 28 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 9

TOPIC 4 – EARTH’S CURVATURE AND REFRACTION SITUATION 12
From the given data of closed traverse with missing sides of a commercial lot in
(hcr)
Valenzuela.
Lines Bearing Distance
EARTH’S CURVATURE AND REFRACTION
1-2 N 320 E 56.5 m
2-3 Unknown Unknown
3-4 Unknown Unknown
4-1 N 500 W 240 m
1-3 N 680 E 260 m

## 34. Compute the area of the lot in square meters.

a. 38,938.48 m2 c. 38,389.48 m2
b. 38,983.48 m2 d. 38,398.48 m2
35. Compute the distance of line 2-3.
a. 165.41 m c. 169.41 m
b. 167.41 m d. 171.41 m
36. Compute the distance of line 3-4.
a. 258.09 m c. 262.09 m
D2
h = h2 +
D1 + D2
( h1 − h2 ) − 0.067D1D2 b. 260.09 m d. 264.09 m

where:
ü hcr = in meters
ü K = in km

SITUATION 4
Given:
Station Elevation (m) Distance (km)
Alpha 680 Alpha to Bravo = 12 km
Bravo 645 Bravo to Charlie = 15 km
Charlie 620
10. Compute the elevation of the line of sight at station Bravo with the instrument
placed at station Alpha such that station Charlie would be visible from station
Alpha considering the effect of curvature and refraction correction.
a. 642.27 m c. 640.27 m
b. 641.27 m d. 639.27 m
11. Assuming that station Bravo will obstruct the line of sight from station Alpha
while observing station Charlie and a 4m tower is constructed on top of station
Bravo. Compute the height of equal towers at station Alpha and station Charlie
in order that both three stations as observed from station Alpha will still be
intervisible.
a. 8.8 m c. 6.6 m
b. 7.7 m d. 5.5 m
K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 10 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 27

12. Without constructing any tower at station Bravo, what height of tower must be
constructed at station Charlie so that both station Bravo and Charlie would be
visible from station Alpha.
a. 8.33 m c. 6.33 m
b. 7.33 m d. 5.33 m

## K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 26 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 11

TOPIC 5 – LEVELING TOPIC 9 – MISSING DATA
DIFFERENTIAL LEVELING SITUATION 11
Given the following descriptions of a four sided lot.
Lines Bearing Distance
AB N 300 30’ E 56.5 m
BC N 750 30’ W 46.5 m
CD S 450 30’ W 87.5 m
DA Unknown Unknown

## 31. What is the length of line DA?

a. 78.83 m c. 79.83 m
b. 78.33 m d. 79.33 m
32. What is the bearing of line DA?
a. N 78002’ E c. N 79002’ E
b. N 78032’ E d. N 79032’ E
33. Compute the area of the enclosed traverse.
a. 3,649.91 m2 c. 3,469.91 m2
SITUATION 5 b. 3,694.91 m2 d. 3,496.91 m2
The figure shows a schematic diagram arrangement of a profile level route
from BM1 and BM2. The values indicated represent backlight, foresight and
intermediate foresight reading taken on stations along the route. Elevation of BM1 =
328.70 m.

## K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 12 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 25

13. Find the difference in elevation between stations 5 and 9.
a. 2.44 m c. 2.24 m
b. 2.04 m d. 2.74 m
14. Find the elevation of TP2.
a. 327.30 m c. 328.30 m
b. 327.80 m d. 328.80 m
15. Find the elevation of BM2.
a. 327.07 m c. 328.07 m
b. 327.57 m d. 328.57 m

Solution:

BM1
1
2
3
4
TP1
5
6
7
TP2
8
9
10
11
BM2

## K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 24 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 13

TOPIC 6 – TWO PEG TEST TOPIC 8 – AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE
SITUATION 6 DOUBLE MERIDIAN DISTANCE
In the two - peg test method of dumpy level the following observations were The computation of double meridian distance are as follows:
taken: 1. D.M.D. of the first course is equal to the departure of that course.
Instrument Set Up near A Instrument Set up Near B 2. D.M.D. of any course is equal to the D.M.D. of any other course is equal to the
Rod reading on A 1.505 m 0.938 m DMD of the preceding course, plus the departure of the preceding course plus
Rod reading on B 2.054 m 1.449 m the departure of the course itself.
3. D.M.D. of the last course is numerically equal to the departure of the last course
but opposite in sign.
Double.Area = ( DMD ) ( Latitude)
DOUBLE PARALLEL DISTANCE
The computation of double parallel distance are as follows:
1. D.P.D. of the first course is equal to the latitude of that course.
2. D.P.D. of any course is equal to the D.P.D. of the preceding course, plus the
latitude of the preceding course, plus the latitude of the course itself.
3. D.P.D. of the last course is numerically equal to the latitude of the last course but
opposite in sign.
Double.Area = ( DPD ) ( Departure)
SITUATION 10
Given the corrected latitudes and departures of a closed traverse.
Lines Latitude Departure
1-2 +80.16 -40.12
16. What is the difference in elevation between A and B? 2-3 -40.13 -36.82
a. 0.83 m c. 0.63 m 3-4 +70.18 +50.42
b. 0.73 m d. 0.53 m 4-5 -30.14 +30.36
17. If the line of sight is not in adjustment, determine the correct rod reading on A 5-6 +60.20 -52.34
with the instrument still set up at B. 6-1 -140.27 +48.50
a. 0.919 m c. 0.717 m
b. 0.818 m d. 0.616 m 28. Compute the DMD of line 3-4.
18. Determine the error in the line of sight. a. -101.46 c. -103.46
a. 0.019 m c. 0.029 m b. -102.46 d. -104.46
b. 0.024 m d. 0.034 m 29. Compute the DPD of line 4-5.
a. +190.28 c. +192.28
b. +191.28 d. +193.28
30. Compute the area of the closed traverse in acres.
a. 0.121 acres c. 0.221 acres
b. 0.171 acres d. 0.271 acres

## K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 14 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 23

K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 22 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 15

SITUATION 7 SITUATION 9
In a two peg test using model Wild NA2 dumpy level, the following observations were From the given technical description of a lot:
taken: Lines Distance Bearing
Instrument at C Instrument at D AB N 48020’ E 529.60 m
Rod reading on A 1.103 0.568 BC N 87000’ E 592.00 m
Rod reading on B 0.991 0.289 CD S 7059’ E 563.60 m
DE S 80000’ W 753.40 m
Point C is equidistant from A and B, and D is 12m from A and 72 m from B.
EA N 48012’ W 428.20 m
19. What is the true difference in elevation between A and B?
a. 0.112 m c. 0.152 m 25. Find the corrected bearing of line BC using transit rule.
b. 0.132 m d. 0.172 m a. N 86057’ E c. N 86017’ E
0
20. With the level in the same position at D, to what rod reading on B should the line b. N 86 37’ E d. N 85057’ E
of sight be adjusted? 26. Find the corrected bearing of line DE using transit rule.
a. 0.4294 m c. 0.4694 m a. S 80030’ W c. S 79050’ W
b. 0.4494 m d. 0.4894 m b. S 80010’ W d. S 79030’ W
21. What is the corresponding rod reading on A for a horizontal line of sight with 27. Find the corrected distance of line EA using transit rule.
instrument still at D? a. 428.52 m c. 430.52 m
a. 0.5414 m c. 0.5814 m b. 429.52 m d. 431.52 m
b. 0.5614 m d. 0.6014 m

## K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 16 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 21

K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 20 K.M. DE JESUS, CE, MSCE 17

TOPIC 7 – ERROR OF CLOSURE 23. Determine the corrected bearing of CD.
a. c.
METHOD OF BALANCING A CLOSED TRAVERSE b. d.
1. Compass Rule 24. Determine the adjusted bearing of BC.
The correction to be applied to the latitude or departure of any course is to a. c.
the total correction in latitude or departure as the length of the course is to the b. d.
length of the traverse.
dist AB
Correction.DEPAB = eDEP
∑ Dist.
dist AB
Correction.LATAB = eLAT
∑ Dist.
2. Transit Rule
The correction to be applied to the latitude or departure of any course is to
the total correction in latitude or departure as the latitude or departure of that
course is to the arithmetical sum of all the latitudes or departures in the traverse
without regards to sign.
Lat AB
Correction.LATAB = eLAT
∑ Lat
DEPAB
Correction.DEPAB = eDEP
∑ Dep
SITUATION 8
From the given data of a closed traverse:
Lines Distance Bearing
AB 368.76 m N 15018’ E
BC 645.38 m S 85046’ E
CD 467.86 m S 18030’ W
DA 593.00 m N 77035’ W
Using compass rule of balancing a traverse:

## 22. Determine the corrected bearing of BC.

a. S 84058’ E c. S 85038’ E
0
b. S 85 18’ E d. S 85058’ E