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PROMOTING STUDENTS’ HORTATORY EXPOSITION WRITING SKILL

USING PLAN TECHNIQUE IN SMA NEGERI 5 MAGELANG


Yolanda Oktavia
Prima Ferri Karma

The study has been carried to find out two points. The first is to discover whether PLAN
(Preview, List, Assign, and Note) technique is able to enhance the students’ motivation.
Meanwhile the second is to investigate how great the improvement of the learning motivation and
the hortatory exposition text writing skill of the second graders (XI IPA 4) of SMA N 5 Magelang,
who are taught by the PLAN technique.
This research is Classroom Action Research. It consists of Pre-cycle, cycle I, and cycle II.
The subject of this research is the second graders of IPA 4 of SMA N 5 Magelang in the school
year 2017/2018. The result of this research shows there is an improvement of the students’
motivation in writing hortatory exposition text and also improvement of the hortatory exposition
text writing skill
The conclusion is the use of the PLAN technique can improve the students learning
motivation and the hortatory exposition text writing skill. The writer suggests that the PLAN
technique can be applied by the teacher and the students in teaching and learning process of writing
English.
Keywords: preview, list, assign, note, technique

BACKGROUND
Teaching English should be done in an interesting way to avoid students’ boredom. One of
the ways to make the student interested is using Preview, List, Assign, Note (PLAN) technique.
The PLAN technique is designend to helpwriters use self instruction to plan and produce
expository text. The PLAN technique help students to think critically about a topic and take a state
on it.
Writing as one English language skills is an important aspect of communication (Chakraverty and
Gautum 2000, Crowhurst 1990). It can help the people to communicate and organize the thoughts
together so the words that say come out also organized. Writing is more complex than other
language skills since it involves structure, vocabulary, coherence, and cohesion. All students can
be taught to express their ideas clearly and correctly.
Based on the observation to the eleventh grade students of SMA Negeri 5 Magelang, the
achievement of writing is still unsatisfactory. In writing hortatory exposition text, the students need
to put their topic and ideas, but they have difficult to describe them into sentences. The students’
average score of the writing is test was 70, whereas the standard score is 76. It proves that students’
writing skill has not reached the standard yet.

There are two factors that influence the student writing test score, they are internal and
external factors. The internal factors are from the students themselves. They are passive, they do
not give active participation in the English lesson given by teacher. Most of them are silent and
afraid to give comment during the teaching and learning process. Then they do not fully
comprehend the class discussion. They worried to make mistakes when trying to express their
ideas in English written from especially. They are also can not understand the teacher’s explanation
and instruction during the lesson. This condition makes the teaching and learning process do not
meet the teacher’s expectation.
There are two objectives of this study, the first is to know whether the use of the PLAN
technique can increase the learning motivation in hortatory exposition text writing of the second
graders of SMA Negeri 5 Magelang in the school year 2017/2018. While the second one is to know
how great the improvement of the students’ writing skill hortatory exposition text taught using the
PLAN technique of the second graders of SMA N 5 Magelang is.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


The Preview, List, Assign, Note (PLAN) Technique
Ellis (2001) states that PLAN technique is a technique designed to help novice writers use
self-instruction to plan and produce expository text. The technique provides a series steps students
follow that are consistent with the writing process of planning, producing, and then editing and
revising one’s work. Barton and Jordan (2001) defines that PLAN technique is a technique to
encourage students to develop what they know about a topic. They also state that the PLAN
provides an opportunity for students to explain and elaborate on what they know about of the topic
of expository text. The Steps of Using the PLAN Technique are: 1) The students prepare the think-
sheet (three main idea frame). 2) Preview, the students brainstorm a list of as many key words
related to the topic as they can identify. The students must to list topic and briefly describe what
the topic is about. 3) List main ideas, the students must to think of what to say, organize the ideas,
and actually express the ideas in writing. In writing main ideas, it can be three main ideas,
sometimes there may be only two, and some time there may be considerably more than three.
There are steps to note : Note the main ideas, Note essential details that will be used when
discussing each main idea, Note the order in which each main idea will be discussed. Note the
order in which each detail will be presented when discussing the main idea, and Note ideas for a
summary. 4) Assign numbers to indicate order, the students indicates numbers in the upper right-
hand corner. These numbers indicate the order in which each main idea will be discussed later
when producing the document. Once the author has indicated the order for expressing all of the
ideas on the think-sheet, the process of actually producing the written text can begin. 5) Note ideas
in sentences by following your plan, the students should introduce the topic in the opening
paragraph using the (i) the ‘is about’ information expressed at the top of think-sheet; the opening
paragraph should also introduce each of the main ideas of the text. Once the students has completed
the discussion of the first main idea and its supporting points, they begin a new paragraph to discuss
the next main idea on their think-sheet.

Writing
Brown (1987) states that writing is the ability of decoding ideas, interest of feeling in written
codes. There should be purposed to communicate with the readers to express ideas without
pressure and to explore experience. Allen (1981) defines that writing is much more than an
orthographic symbolization of speech; it is most importantly, a purposeful selection and
organization of experience.
Hortatory Exposition Text
A text is determined by genre (and other semiotic systems which are parts of the context of
culture) and register (the meanings associated with the context of situation – field, tenor and mode).
Furthermore, the oral and written text which people create also act upon an influence of the
contexts (genres and registers) which are part of the environment of all speakers and writers
(Literacy and Education Research Network.
According to Hartono (2005:7) hortatory exposition is to persuade the reader or listener
that something should or should not be the case. Grace and Sudarwati, Th. M. (2005: 167) point
out hortatory exposition is to persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not
be the case. From the statement above it can can concluded that hortatory exposition is a type of
spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or readers that something should or
should not happen or be done.
RESEARCH METHOD
The type of this research was Classroom Action Research. It means that classroom action research
was to know whether using the PLAN technique can improve the hortatory exposition text writing skill
of the students or not.
The subject of this research was the eleventh graders of SMA N 5 Magelang in the school year
2017/2018. The researcher chose XI IPA 4. There are 21 students which consist of 7 males and 14
females. This research was held in SMA N 5 Magelang which located in Jalan Barito no. 2, Sidotopo,
Magelang.
The research is conducted by using Classroom Action Research through Pre-cycle, and continued to
Cycle I and Cycle II, each cycle consists of four steps as follow:
1. Pre-cycle
In pre-cycle, the research started through a class observation which the researcher observed the
teaching and learning process of English writing class to know the students’ motivation through the
learning process.
2. Cycle I
Based on the result of Pre-cycle test, the researcher gave the action in Cycle I by using the PLAN
technique with planning, acting, observing and reflecting.
3. Cycle II
Based on the reflection in Cycle I, the researcher decided to continue the treatment in Cycle II. The
process was similar to cycle I but in cycle II the topic was different. In cycle II, the researcher has
four stages such as planning, acting, observing and reflecting. The data are collected using two
techniques, they are test and non-test such as observation, questionnaire and documentation.

DISCUSSION
1. The Result of Pre-cycle
It showed that average score in pre-cycle test was 59.76 and it belonged to the poor category. It
showed that most of students score was lower than 76. The researcher needed to do action to help
them in improving their hortatory exposition text writing skill by using the PLAN technique.
2. The Result of Cycle I
Table 1. The Result of Cycle I
No Category Score Sum of Score Frequency Percentage (%) Average Score
1. Very Good 85-100 0 0 0 1399/21=
2. Good 70-84 972 13 61.90 66.61
3. Fair 60-69 316 5 23.82 Fair category
4. Poor 50-59 111 2 9.52
5. Very Poor 0-50 0 1 4.76
Sum 1399 21 100

The average score of Cycle I was 66.61 and it belongs to fair category. From the data above, it
showed that the PLAN technique had increased the students’ writing skill in hortatory exposition
text but the increasing had not fulfilled the requirement score. Then the researcher did Cycle II to
increase the students’ writing skill.
3. The Result of Cycle II
Table 2. The Result of Cycle II
No Category Score Sum of Score Frequency Percentage Average
(%) Score
1. Very Good 85-100 255 3 14.29 1620/21=
2. Good 70-84 1365 17 80.95 77.14
3. Fair 60-69 - 0 0 Good
4. Poor 50-59 - 0 0 category
5. Very Poor 0-50 0 1 4.76
Sum 1620 21 100

The average score in cycle II was 77.14. It belongs to good category. It means that the PLAN
technique was a new strategy which could make them improve their motivation in writing.
4. The Improvement of Students’ Learning Motivation
According to the students’ answered in pre-cycle questionnaire, many of the students had not
understood about the hortatory exposition text. Because they are still not concern in material. That
is why they could not understand the material well. At the cycle I, The students’ curiosity to the
material that explained by the teacher also increased, it was proved because the students asked and
commented on the material which explained by the teacher. At the cycle II, the students had better
understand how to apply annotation strategy on the text. They also had better attitude, self
confidence in order to give their opinions. The researcher also give another treatment by walking
around the class.

5. The Improvement of Writing Skill Text Hortatory Exposition


Table 3. The Result of Reading Test
Assessment
No Aspect Mean of Score Improvement
PC CI CII PC-CI CI-CII PC-CII
1 Writing
59.76 66.61 77.14 6.85 10.53 17.38

Based on the table above, the researcher found that there is an improvement in students writing
skill in every cycles. The students’ mean score in Pre-cycle is 59.76. Then the researcher started
to use the PLAN technique in the learning process and the result of cycle I test is 66.61. The
treatment was continued to cycle II, the result of the cycle II test is 77.14 or improved 10.53 from
cycle I.

CONCLUSION
Using the PLAN technique can increase the learning motivation of the hortatory exposition
writing skill of the eleventh graders of SMA Negeri 5 Magelang in the school year 2017/2018.
The result of the observation and questionnaire in both cycles show that the students’ motivation
gradually increases. In cycle I, the students’ motivation belong to high category, the average
score only 77.13%. In cycle II, the students’ motivation can reach the very high category or
93.33%. Using the PLAN technique can improve the hortatory exposition writing skill of the
eleventh graders of SMA Negeri 5 Magelang in the school year 2017/2018. The mean of
pre-cycle test score is 59.76. It increases to 66,61 in cycle I. Finally, in cycle II the mean of
the test scores 77.14. It has reached the minimum achievement criteria of 76. And more 75%
of the students get the score of 76 in hortatory exposition text.

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