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2.

3 Eukaryotic Cells
1. Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell.

2. Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1 with the functions of each named structure.
Free ribosomes:

• sites of protein synthesis for use within the cytoplasm


• ribosomes are constructed in the nuclear region called the nucleolus

Rough endoplasmic reticulum:

• flattened membrane sacs (cisternae)


• ribosomes attached to outside of cisternae
• proteins synthesized by ribosomes enter cisternae
• proteins collected within cisternae are packaged in vesicles
• vesicles transport proteins to Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes:

• spherical vesicles formed by Golgi apparatus


• contain hydrolytic/digestive enzymes
• enzymes for breaking down ingested food, damaged organelles, or entire cells

Golgi apparatus:

• consists of flattened membrane sacs called cisternae


• unlike ER, cisternae are curved, shorter, and lack ribosomes
• proteins received from arriving vesicles are processed
• carbohydrates added to proteins to form glycoproteins
• vesicles of glycoproteins exit Golgi for exocytosis or intracellular use
Mitochondria:

• double membrane bound


• inner membrane invaginated to form cristae
• site of aerobic respiration, producing ATP

Nucleus:

• double membrane bound, containing pores for transport of proteins and ribosomes
• contains chromosomes, made of DNA + protein
• uncoiled chromosomes = chromatin
• site of DNA replication and transcription into RNA

3. Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron cirographs of liver cells.

4. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.


Prokaryotic

• naked DNA
• DNA in cytoplasm (no nuclear membrane)
• No membrane-bound organelles (no mitochondria, ER, golgi)
• ribosome size = 70S
• Only bacteria
• Size: 1 - 10 µm
• Evolved at least 3.5 billion years ago

Eukaryotic

• DNA associated with proteins


• True nucleus (enclosed by nuclear membrane)
• Many membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria, ER, golgi) to compartmentalize functions
• ribosome size = 80S
• All cells other than bacteria
• Size: 2 - 1000 µm
• Evolved 1.5 - 2 billion years ago
5. State three differences between plant and animal cells.

Plant cells

• cellulose cell walls


• chloroplasts
• large central vacuole

Animal cells

• no cell walls
• no chloroplasts
• lacking or small vacuoles
6. Outline two roles of extracellular components.
Plant cell wall

• composition: cellulose microfibrils


• functions:

1. provides physical protection


2. prevents excessive water uptake precluding bursting in hypotonic environment
3. produces turgor pressure which holds whole plant up against the force of gravity

Animal extracellular matrix

• animal cells secrete glycoproteins that form the extracellular matrix


• functions: support, adhesion, movement