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Reduce Norm Method

Namra Akram 1 , Rahila Malik 1 , Mehboob Alam 2 , Rashida Hussain 1 , Shah Muhammad 1

1 Department of Mathematics, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur - 10250, AJK,

Pakistan

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Mirpur University of Science and Technology(MUST), Mirpur - 10250,

AJK, Pakistan; m.alam@ieee.org

1 Abstract: Modeling and design of on-chip interconnect, the connection between the components

2 of an integrated circuit, continues to be a fundamental roadblock to realizing high-performance

3 integrated systems. The scaling of interconnect in nanometer regime had shifted the paradime

4 from device-dominated to interconnect-dominated design methodology. Driven by the expanding

5 complexity, a passivity preserving model order reduction is essential for estimating and controlling

6 various parameters for the reliable performance of the integrated circuit. In this work, we developed a

7 new reduce-norm frequency selective projection method, which optimally select interpolation points

8 as a subset of the system’s spectral zeros. The proposed reduce-norm scheme, dynamically select

9 spectral zeros, which simultaneously guarantee stability and passivity, while creating the reduce

10 order models that are accurate across a wide-range of frequencies. The results indicates preservation

11 of passivity and greater accuracy than other krylov and singular value decomposition based methods

12 of model order reduction.

13 Keywords: Model order reduction; Passivity; Spectral-zeros; Integrated circuit, VLSI; Interconnect.

14 1. Introduction

15 In today’s science and technological world, physical processes are described mainly by

16 mathematical models, which are used to simulate the behavior of the physical system [21]. In on-chip

17 electronics, exponential growth is seen in the development of physical architecture requiring complex

18 designs of interconnects [REF]. While design automation in the devices has advanced rapidly over

19 the past decade, interconnect design automation trails and presents a great challenge. The automated

20 design of on-chip interconnect is crucial for meeting the growing demand of integrated circuits [REF].

21 The complex design space also necessitates efficient modeling techniques to allow design automation

22 tools to rapidly optimize and synthesize interconnect that meet the required specifications. Model

23 Order Reduction (MOR) is essential to overcome the exceptional computational resource requirements

24 of full simulations of the integrated circuit [REF]. The basic motivation for approximation using MOR

25 is the need to develop simplified models, which reduces the simulation time and also capture the main

26 features of the complex original model. In large scale on-chip interconnect problems, the simplified

27 reduced model is used in place of the original complex model to accelerate simulation and design

28 optimization.

29 MOR methods, which are widely used and successful for large scale linear systems, fall

30 into two main types i.e. projection and non-projection based methods [REF]. Krylov-subspace

31 and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) based methods are the well-known projection methods

32 and Hankle-norm approximation is a popular example of non-projections model order reduction

33 methods [REF]. In model order reduction, there are multiple requirement to be satisfied by the reduced

Version November 14, 2019 submitted to Appl. Sci. 2 of 11

34 order model, while extracting description from the original system. The reduced number of states

35 variable and accurate representation, by correctly following the terminal behaviour of the original

36 system are two important factors. In this work, we will only consider passive and stable systems, it is

37 therefore desirable that reduce models preserve the important properties of stability and passivity. It is

38 important to note that stable but not passive system may lead to a unstable system, once connected to

39 other passive components.

40 In this work, we are focusing on modern processor, which operates on dual frequencies to account

41 for its low power operations. In these high speed integrated circuits, the scaling and increasing

42 operating frequencies has a great influence on the performance [10], with the central point of focused

43 research efforts being the model order reduction of on-chip interconnect [11], [12], [13].

44 Text in Red needs to befixed For interconnect systems in model reduction passivity preserving

45 has been extensively studied. To preserve passivity in MOR, we have two approaches, one is

46 through balance approximation and other is via congruence transformations provided that the

47 description of the original system has special symmetries [5]. Passivity preservation via congruence

48 transformations include PRIMA [12] and its structure-preserving variant SPRIM [14] can be applied

49 efficiently. Algorithms based on balanced approximations are PMTBR [15,16], PRTBR [17] and FABT

50 [18,19] have been proposed for interconnect MOR. It is important to note that SVD methods are

51 not suitable for reducing high order systems, as they are computational complex methods requiring

52 dense computations of the order of n2 and n3 [REF]. For large scale systems, moment matching

53 projection methods gives a good approximation alternative to SVD. Generally, projection methods uses

54 reachability subspaces (krylov subspaces) that is spanned by a sequence of vectors. These methods,

55 for the moment matching of the systems, gives an iterative approximations of the eigenvalues [20].

56 There is a number of krylov based projection methods exists. Computationally, these methods are

57 less expensive and their iterative nature makes them attractive than balanced approximations [22,23].

58 However, unlike balanced approximations methods, generally there is no guarantee of the stability or

59 an upper error bound [REF].

60 In this paper, we concentrate on the computationally complex problems of passivity preserving in

61 the future high speed integrated circuits and a frequency selective reduce norm projection method

62 based on subset of spectral-zeros of the system is proposed. In the proposed method, the frequency of

63 interest is divided into regular interval and interpolation points are the selected SZ, which provides the

64 best estimation in the minimum-norm sense. Passivity and stability properties of the original system

65 are preserved in reduced model. Selected interpolation points as a subset of stable SZ guarantee that

66 the system’s passivity is preserved.The simulation results obtained by our method show more accurate

67 approximations and less absolute error compared to other model order reduction methods.

68 In next section, we discuss model order reduction and important passivity preserving techniques.

69 The proposed reduced-norm frequency selective technique is given in Section 3. In Section 4, we

70 discuss simulation and analysis of results and the paper is finally concluded in Section 5.

72 In a RLC networks model of an on-chip interconnect, preserving of the passivity is very essential.

73 However, it is important to note that all passive systems are stable but on the contrary all stable systems

74 are not guarantied to be passive. This section discusses the preliminaries of model order reduction and

75 preservation of stability and passivity in on-chip interconnects.

77 In the model order reduction of the on-chip interconnect, the state space representation of the

78 original system in descriptor-form is given as

y(t) = Cx(t) + Du(t), (1)

Version November 14, 2019 submitted to Appl. Sci. 3 of 11

79 where x(t) ∈ Rn represent the internal states of the system, u(t)∈ Rm and y(t)∈ R p are the system input

80 and output. Correspondingly, E, A ∈ Rn×n , (A, E) is generalized eigenvalues, B ∈ Rn×m , C ∈ R p×n ,

81 D ∈ R p×m are the matrices defining linear maps between inputs, output and internal states. The

82 associated reduced order model ∑ ˆ (Ê, Â, B̂, Ĉ, D) is given as

ŷ(t) = Ĉx̂(t) + Du(t), (2)

83 where x̂ ∈ Rk , Ê ∈ Rk×k , Â ∈ Rk×k , B̂ ∈ Rk×m , Ĉ ∈ R p×k , D ∈ R p×m and k << n. The reduced

84 model should preserve some important properties of stability and passivity of the original system. The

85 theory of stability plays an important role in model order reduction, and for a dynamical system, the

86 concept is explained in terms of internal and external stability of the system. Similarly, for passivity, a

87 reduced order model is passive, if it does not generate any energy. Passivity in reduced order model is

88 sometime ensured by positive realness of the system transfer function [REF].

89 In projection based model order reduction method consisting of the projection matrices V and W,

90 the reduced model is obtained such that V, W ∈ Rn×k and WT V = Ik . A careful selection of V and

91 W, by properly deciding projection subspace ensures that reduce order model not only preserve the

92 stability and passivity, but also retains the dynamical characteristic of the original system response.

93 The reduced system matrices using these projectors are represented as:

94 The accuracy of reduce order model is completely determine by the choices of the projection matrices

95 V and W. These projectors controls the way original system properties are preserved by the reduced

96 system and also determines the accuracy of the approximation [REF]. It is important to note that in

97 the applications of circuit simulation, both invertible and non-invertible matrix E arises in the system

98 simulation. A singular matrix E give rise to new set of challenges as some of the system poles and

99 spectral zeros lies at infinity. In MOR, invertible and non-invertible E are handled differently [7] and

100 [8], however in this work, E is a ??? matrix, and ...

101

103 Please discuss with me what modification needed here

104 Some basic parameters of system and its properties which we used in this paper are discussed here.

105 Given a descriptor system described by (1).

106 Definition 2.1: The transfer function of the system ∑ is defined by

108 Definition 2.2: Poles of the system ∑ are all s ∈ C, where H(s) →∞(the generalized eigenvalues of the

109 pair(A, E). Assume that the matrix (A − ΛE) is non-singular throughout for some Λ ∈ C [9], which is

110 represented as a matrix pencil (A, E) in mathematical terms.

111 Corollary 2.1: The system ∑ is said to be stable if and only if all finite poles are lying in left half of the

112 complex plane, i.e., Re(Λ)< 0 with |Λ| 6= ∞.

113 Definition 2.3: The spectral zeros of ∑ are all s∈ C such that det [H(s) + HT (−s)]=0

114 where

116 This definition shows that each SZ has the mirror image in the complex plane with respect to imaginary

117 axis. Real SZ si come in pairs (si ,-si ) whereas complex SZ come in quadruples (si , siT ,-si , -siT ).

118 Definition 2.4: A system which cannot produce energy internally is called passive system and is called

119 strictly passive if it consumes energy, i.e., Re(s)6=0.

Version November 14, 2019 submitted to Appl. Sci. 4 of 11

121 In this paper, we proposed a method of model reduction which is based on the reduce norm

122 frequency selective interpolation points of linear time invariant systems. To pick up the desired points

123 of interest, we are using the minimum value of the SZ by norm. By using these interpolation points, we

124 can produce the lower order model which is passive and produces less absolute error when compared

125 with techniques such as PRIMA and SZ method. As a result, we find a positive real interpolation

126 points.

127 Passivity Condition: Passivity of the LTI system is preserved if and only if its transfer function, H(s), is

128 positive real. Positive realness of H(s) means that

130 • H(s̄)= H(s) for all s ∈ C,

131 • H(s)+H(s)T ≥ 0 for Real(s)>0.

132 For real systems second condition is stasified automatically and third condition shows the existence

133 of stable rational matrix function V(s)(with stable inverse) such that H(s) + HT (−s)=V(s)VT (−s)

134 where H is the spectral factorization and the V is the the spectral factor of H. SZ of H are obtained

135 from the zeros of V, i.e Λi , i=1,...,n, such that det V(Λi )=0.

Interconnects are the integrated circuit models that consists of linear RLC large networks and

nonlinear transistor models. In this area a lot of research have been done with advance progress on

RLC network during the last decade. For faster and smaller operations, systems and integrated circuits

are continuously designed. RLC interconnect effects on signal propagation has a more assertive impact

than ever before. In interconnect modeling, parasitic coupling effects and reduced power supply

voltage levels plays an important role. This type of interconnect models can contains millions of firmly

connected R–L–C components, reduced-order macromodels are essential [1]-[4]. A big stride in circuit

analysis is that an interconnect modeling is followed by the model reduction. Interconnect models

have millions of internal variables that can not be simulated in full dimension. To approximate these

models we need to require the reduced model in lower dimension, so that we approximate the original

system behaviour and replacing the original during simulation [5]. Interconnect systems involves

capacitors, inductors, resistors, or controlled sources, assosiated systems are passive, with real positive

transfer functions [6].

Model order reduction(MOR) techniques has become the latest technology for rapid simulation of the

highly dimensions interconnect circuits. In our reduced norm method, we constructed the matrix H̄

and Ē from the state space model which is given below as:

A B

H̄ := −AT −CT

C BT D + DT

and

I

Ē := I .

0

137 Then the (finite) SZ of H̄ are the set of all (finite) complex numbers Λ such that Rank (H̄-ΛĒ)<2n+p.

138 i.e., the finite generalized eigenvalues Λ(H̄,Ē).

139 Using qr factorization to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvector matrix. Basically eigenvalues

140 are the spectral zeros that are lying on the left half plane. If D + DT is singular, then we solved a

141 generalized eigenvalue problem for the computation of spectral zeros using reduce norm method.

142 Therefore, the finite generalized eigenvalues Λ(H̄, Ē) are the spectral zeros of a given system. For the

Version November 14, 2019 submitted to Appl. Sci. 5 of 11

143 accuracy of the original system in the interested area of frequency, we require to choose the appropriate

144 SZ to use as interpolation points. For our interested area, we divide the frequency interval in between

145 the clockspeed and Turbo Speed of the Intel Core i7-2920XM into N interval. Frequency interval is in

146 the following form:

f n = f 1 : ( f 1 + f 2 )/( N ∗ OrderS) : f 2

147 where N is interval length and OrderS is the reduced order of the system.

148 Algorithm for the selection of spectral zeros using reduce norm method is shown in figure 1. The

149 frequency selection is performed using the reduce norm spectral zeros. Using these SZ, we finds the

150 eigenvectors corresponding to each eigenvalues which are used to construct the projectors V and W of

151 the system. Dynamically, these projectors satisfy the orthogonality condition and generate reduced

152 order model.

153

INPUT= (A, B, C, D, E),

OUTPUT= (An , Bn , Cn , Dn , En ),

Construct H̄ and Ē from (A, B, C, D, E)

Perform [Q,R]=qr(H̄,Ē); QR factorization of R

SZ = diag(R); Spectral Zeros of R

Define f1 and f2; Limits of frequency

N: Order of reduced system

Divide |f2-f1| in to N interval

Select SZ

for k=1,2,...,N

SZk = | || f n (k )|| − ||imag(SZ )|| |min

154 end for

Generate S and Q using SZ and eigenvectors ,

[Qx, S, Qy]=svd(XT Y)

Construct V,W(projection matrices),

V=XQS−1

W=YQS−1

Generate Reduce order Model

An =WT AV

Bn =W T B

Cn =CV

Dn =D

En =W T EV.

155

156 Table. 1. Pseudocode of SZ Reduce Norm Selective Passivity Preserving MOR Algorithm

158 In this section, we demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our proposed reduce norm method

159 using spectral zero method for model order reduction. We take examples of interconnect structures

160 including interconnect bus and a RLC circuit network. First of all, the models are created using the

161 field solvers FastCap [24] and FastHenry [25] for capacitance and inductance extraction respectively. A

162 combination of modified nodal analysis created state space representation (1).

163 Firstly, we take the example of a low order 79 RLC network and compared the result of reduce

164 order modeling using PRIMA, interpolation via SZ and Reduce Norm SZ. The original system of

165 RLC network is plotted in Fig. 1. The comparison results in Fig. 2 shows a close match of Reduce

166 Norm SZ, with an overlapping peaks and response compared to the original system. However, a

167 significant deviation is observed in case of SZ method using interpolation at selected spectral zeros

Version November 14, 2019 submitted to Appl. Sci. 6 of 11

20

0

Magnitude(dbs)

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

108 109 1010

Frequency(Ghz)

20

Reduce Norm SZ

0 Original

Interested area

-20

Magnitude(dbs)

-40

-60

SZ

-80

PRIMA

-100

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6

Frequency(Ghz)

Figure 2. System frequency response

168 and PRIMA. A comparison of the absolute error in dB is plotted in Fig 4. The error plot shows that our

169 proposed method of Reduce Norm SZ method has significantly less error as compared to the PRIMA

170 and interpolation via SZ.

171 The second example is a state space model of interconnect bus. The original system response

172 of the bus is plotted in Fig. 1. The example is taken, keeping in mind the state of art processor. The

173 extraction tools creates this example keeping in mind Intel Core i7-2920XM modern processor [REF].

Version November 14, 2019 submitted to Appl. Sci. 7 of 11

0

SZ

-10

-20

Magnitude(dbs)

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70 PRIMA

-80

-90

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Frequency(Ghz)

Figure 3. from clock to turbo frequency range of Intel Core i7-2920XM

50

SZ

PRIMA

0

Absolute error(dB)

-50

-100

Reduce Norm SZ

-150

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Frequency(Ghz)

174 Note that i7-2920XM works on two frequencies i.e. 2.5Ghz and 3.5Ghz (turbo mode), which actually

175 defines the frequency of interest in this simulation. Fig. 6 displays the frequency response of the

176 original 1076 order interconnect bus, with reduced order 100 using PRIMA [12], SZ [26] and proposed

177 Reduce Norm SZ methods.

178 The result of this comparison shows that an order 100 approximation using proposed

179 Reduce Norm SZ method accurately capture the behaviour of the system. However, the PRIMA

Version November 14, 2019 submitted to Appl. Sci. 8 of 11

-25

-30

Magnitude(dbs)

-35

-40

-45

108 109 1010

Frequency(Ghz)

Figure 5. Original System

180 implementation misses most of the resonance peaks and does not accurately characterize the original

181 system response. It is important to note that the Arnoldi based PRIMA matches the low frequency

182 response first and a reduced order 100 is not sufficient to cover the entire range of interest. The error

183 plot shown in Fig. 8 highlights the strength of our method with proposed Reduce Norm SZ showing

184 the minimum error over the entire range of frequency i.e. from 2.5 Ghz to 3.5 Ghz. Note that the reduce

185 error is due to the dynamically selection of spectral zeros based on reduce norm criterion proposed in

186 Table 1. The selection of spectral zeros methods based on interpolation at the selected spectral zeros

187 [26] performs better than PRIMA. However, Fig. 8 shows that for the frequency of interest i.e. 2.5 Ghz

188 to 3.5 Ghz, the minimum (???db) and maximum (???db) errors of interpolation via SZ [26] compared

189 to proposed Reduce Norm SZ methods are still much higher.

190 5. Conclusion

191 Over the last few decades, scaling in deep submicron had shifted the paradime from

192 device-dominated to interconnect-dominated design methodology. Modeling and design of on-chip

193 interconnect, the connection between the components of an integrated circuit, continues to be a

194 fundamental roadblock to realizing high-performance integrated systems. In this work, we develop

195 new reduce-norm frequency selective projection method by using interpolation point based on

196 spectral-zeros of the system. The proposed reduce-norm frequency selective scheme dynamically

197 select spectral zeros, which simultaneously guarantee stability and passivity, while creating the reduce

198 order models that are accurate across either a wide-range of frequencies. The results indicates greater

199 accuracy that other krylov and singular value decomposition based methods of model order reduction.

200 Acknowledgments: This work is supported by Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur -

201 10250, AJK, Pakistan.

202 Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

203 Abbreviations

204 The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript:

205

Version November 14, 2019 submitted to Appl. Sci. 9 of 11

-25

Interested area

Original PRIMA

-30

Magnitude(dbs)

-35

-40

SZ

-45

Reduce Norm SZ

-50

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6

Frequency(Ghz)

Figure 6. Frequency response with original system n=1076, reduced system p=100

-25

Reduce Norm SZ

-30

Original SZ

Magnitude(dbs)

-35

-40

PRIMA

-45

-50

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Frequency(Ghz)

Figure 7. Response from clock to turbo frequency range of Intel Core i7-2920XM

Version November 14, 2019 submitted to Appl. Sci. 10 of 11

-50

Absolute error(dB)

-100

PRIMA

-150

SZ

-200

-250

Reduce Norm SZ

-300

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Frequency(Ghz)

Figure 8. Absolute error

C The set of complex numbers, i.e. s-plane

206 Λ Eigenvalues

SZ Spectral Zeros

LTIs Linear time invariant system

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c 2019 by the authors. Submitted to Appl. Sci. for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions

264 of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).