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1.

VALIDITY AND EQUIVALENT FORMS


RELIABILITY
RELIABILITY It measures
consistency of two
RELIABILITY different measuring
REFERS TO HOW CONSISTENT IS tools
THE MEASURE OF A CERTAIN CONCEPT. administered to the
same group
EXAMPLE: Don and
Rafghar always use the
same measuring VALIDITY
apparatus on their pee REFERS TO THE EXTENT A
MEASUREMENT TOOL MEASURES A
pee, they get the same CERTAIN CONCEPT.
length everytime.
Therefore, it is EXAMPLE: Don is
reliabke measuring his pee pee.
He uses a meter stick
TYPES OF to measure it as it is
the best measuring
RELIABILITY tool available for
him. Therefore, the
INTER - RATER measurement is valid.
RELIABILITY
It measures TYPES OF VALIDITY
consistency between
two or more
independent observers
FACE VALIDITY
of the same concept. It is the weakest
and easiest validity.
It considers how
TEST - RETEST suitable the tool is
RELIABILITY on the surface –sa
itsura
It measures
consistency between CONTENT VALIDITY
two measurement tools
of the same concept to It assesses if the
the same group on two measurement
different points in tool can be a
time representative for
all aspects of the
SPLIT -HALF RELIABILITY construct
It measures
consistency between CONSTRUCT VALIDITY
two halves of a It evaluates if the
construct measure. measurement
2. DATA COLLECTION 3. DATA PREPARATION
It is a process of & ORGANIZATION
collecting information
regarding the
variables
that the researcher DATA PREPARATION
sought to examine,
and to answer the DATA CODING
objective/s of the Involves translating
research entries on
questionnaires (or
interviews) and code
TWO TYPES OF DATA (experimental) sheets
to
PRIMARY DATA letters or numbers.
DATA COLLECTED FIRST
HAND FOR A SPECIFIC DATA ENTRY
REASON Involves the
transfer of
SECONDARY DATA information from
Data availed by questionnaires,
reviewing existing schedules or code
documents stored by sheets to computer
others and made files for processing.
accessible to
researchers.
DATA TRANSFORM
Involves
transforming data
before they can be
meaningfully
interpreted.

DATA CLEANSING
Involves double checking
the data entries on the
computer files