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UNIT – I

SIMPLE STRESSES

The application of laws of mechanics to find the support reactions due to applied forces is
normally covered under “Mechanics”.

In transferring, these forces from their point of application to supports the material of structure
develops resisting forces and undergoes deformation. The effect of these resisting forces, on the
structural element, is treated under the subject Mechanics of Solids”

Though several materials are used for the benefit of mankind, the designer is most interested
in the way in which materials will respond to external loads. The characteristics of material that describe
the behaviour under the action of external loads are referred as its Mechanical Properties.

STRENGTH
It is defined as the ability of the material to resist deformation, without rupture under
the action of forces.

STIFFNESS
It is the ability of material to resist deformation (or) deflection under load.

ELASTICITY

The ability of material to deform under load and regain its original shape when the
load is removed is called Elasticity.

PLASTICITY

The ability of material to deform non elastically ie. The material will not regain its
original shape after removal of load is known as plasticity.

DUCTILITY

The ability of a material to deformed plastically without rapture under tensile load.
(or)
Ability of material to draw into wires. Ex. Gold, silver, tungsten, Ms, Cu, Al, Ni, etc.

MALLEABILITY

The ability of material to be deformed plastically without rupture under compressive load.
(or)
Ability of material rolled in to thin sheets.

Ex: Rivets are made-up of malleable material.

TOUGHNESS
The ability of material to absorb energy up to fracture during plastic deformation.
BRITTLENESS

The property of sudden fracture without any visible permanent deformation.


Thus, brittle materials does not resist to shock loads.
Ex: Glass, Cast Iron

HARDNESS

The ability of material to resist Indentation (or) surface abrasion.

CREEP:
The slow and progressive deformation of material with time at constant stress is called
creep.

FATIGUE

Failure of material under repeated (or) reversal stresses is called fatigue.

MACHINABILITY:
Property which facilitates easy machining.

WELDABILITY
Ability of material to be jointed by welding .

STRESSES
The force of resistance offered by a body against the deformation is called the stress.

STRAIN
The ratio of change in length (dl) to the original length of member
dl
strain = e =
l.
TYPES OF STRESS
(i) Tensile stresses :

When the resistance offered by a section of a member is against an increase in length,.

The section is said to offer a Tensile stress.

The corresponding strain is called Tensile strain

increase in length dl
e = =
original length l

(ii) Compressive Stress


The resistance offered by a section of a member is against a decrease in length the
section is said to offer a compressive resistance (or) stress.

Decrease in length dl
compressiv e stain =
Original length l

(iii) Shear Stress


Consider a rectangular block ABCD. (of area L X b ).

Let the bottom face of block be fixed to the surface. As shown in figure.
Let force P be applied tangentially along the top face of the block. Such
force acting tangentially along a surface is called a shear force. For equilibrium of the block, The surface
will offer a tangential reaction which is equal & opposite to applied tangential force. P.

The resistance offered by a section of member (x x) is called shear resistance.

Shear Re sis tan ce P


Shear stress = =
Shear Area l ×b

Unit of Stress
N/mm2 , N/m2
1 Pascal = 1 N /m2
1 MPa = 1 N /mm2
HOOKE’ S LAW

Robert Hooke, an English mathematician concluded that stress is directly proportional


to strain with in the elastic limit.

σαe
σ = stres
e = strain

σ =E e
Hence E is the constant of proportionality of material, known as modulus of elasticity in
case
of axial loading

E is called as young’s Modulus.


Structural metal which are very stiff have high value of modulus of elasticity
For example,
Steel E = 210 GPa.
Al = 73 GPa.
Plastics = 1 GPa to 14 GPa.

tensile (or ) compresive stress


Young’s Modulus E = tensile (or ) compressiv e stain
Shear stress
=Shear Modulus (or) Rigidity Modulus C, N, (or) G.
Shear strain

τ
G =
φ

STRESS - STRAIN RELATION :

The stress – strain relation of any material is obtained by conducting tension test on
standard specimen.
Different materials behave differently

Mild steel

The standard specimen of mild steel is set for tensile test. The specimen is gripped it ends
in Universal Testing Machine (UTM)
The following salient points are observed on stress-strain curve

A : LIMIT OF PROPORTIONALITY - It is the limiting value of stress up to which stress is


proportional to strain

A1 : Elastic Limit –
This is the limiting value of stress up to which the material can regain it
original shape & size. This point is slightly beyond the proportionality limit.

B : Upper Yield Point -

This is the stress at which, the load starts reducing and the extension increases. This
phenomenon is called yielding of material.

C : Lower yield point

At this stage stress remains same but strain increase for sometime.

D : Ultimate Stress -

This is the maximum stress the material can resist.


This stress is about 370 - 400 N/mm2.
At this stage Cross sectional area at particular section starts reducing very fast. This is called
Necking.

E : Breaking Point
The stress at which finally the specimen fails is called breaking point.
Note: For Brittle materials like cast Iron. There is no yield point & no necking takes place. Ultimate stress
& breaking stress are same.

Final Extension at rupture L1 −L


Percentage Elongation = ×100 = ×100
Original length L

Where L1 = length of member at rupture


L = Original Length.
Working stress
,
The maximum stress to which any member is designed is much less than ultimate stress, and
this stress is called working stress.

Factor of Safety:

It is not possible to design a mechanical component (or) structural component


permitting stressing up to ultimate stress. Due to following reasons.

 Reliability of material may not be 100 percent. There may be small spots of flaws.
 The resulting deformation may obstruct the functional performance of the component.
 The loads taken by designer are only estimated loads. Occasionally there can be overloading.
Unexpected impact and temperature loading may act in the life time of member.
 There are certain ideal conditions assumed in analysis.

Therefore, the calculated stresses will not be 100 percent real stresses.

Hence, the maximum stress to which any member is designed is much less than ultimate
stress, and this stress is called working stress.

Ultimate Stress
Factor of safety =
Working Stress

For steel - 1.85

For concrete - 3

For timber - 4 to 6

PROBLEMS

1. An elastic rod 25mm in diameter , 200mm long extends by 0.25mm under tensile load of 40KN.
Find
stress, strain & elastic Modulus of material of rod.

Sol:- Dia of rod = d = 25 mm

Length = l = 200 mm

Tensile load = P = 40KN


P
Stress =
A
πd 2 π × 25 2
Area of rod sec tion A = = = 490 .87 mm 2
4 4

40 ×1000
Stress = =81 .49 N / mm 2
490 .87
sl 0.25
strain =e = = 0.00125
l 200
Stress 81 .49
Elastic Modulus E = = =65192 N / mm 2
strain 0.00125

= 65.192 KN/mm2

2. A circular rod of diameter 20mm and 500mm long is subjected to a tensile force 45 KN. The
modulus of elasticity for steel may be taken as 200 KN/mm2 . find elongation of bar due to
applied load.

Sol : Dia of rod = d = 20 mm

Length = l = 500 mm
Load = P = 45 KN.
Modulus of elasticity E = 200KN/mm2
π 2 π
Area of rod A= 2
d = 20 = 314 .159 mm 2
4 4
P 45 ×1000
Stress σ = = =143 .24 N / mm 2
A 314 .159

σ =Ee
P ∆
=E
A L
PL 45 ×1000 × 500
Elongation ∆= =
AE 314 .159 × 200 ×1000

= 0.358mm
*3. The following data refer to a mild steel specimen tested in a lab
(i) dia of specimen = 25mm
(ii) Length of specimen = 300 mm
(iii) Extension under load of 15KN = 0.045mm
(iv) Load at yield point = 127.65KN
(v) Max. Load = 208.60 KN
(vi) Length of specimen after failure = 375 mm
(vii) Neck dia = 17.75mm

Determine (a) Young’s Modulus (b) yield point (c ) Ultimate stress (d ) percentage of elongation
(e ) safe stress adopting FOS of 2

Sol:-
π π
Area of specimen A = d2 = 25 2 = 490 .87 mm 2
4 4

15 ×10 3
Stress at 15KN load (σ ) = P
= =30 .56 N / mm 2
A 490 .87
s l 0.045
Strain at 15 KN load (e) = = = 1.5 ×10 −4
l 300

σ
(a) young’s Modulus E =
e
30 .56
= −4
= 2.037 ×10 5 N / mm 2
1.5 ×10

Load at Yield po int 127 .65 ×10 3


(b) Yield Point = = = 260 N/mm2
A 490 .87

Max .load 208 .60 ×10 3


( c) Ultimate stress = = = 425 N/mm2.
A 490 .87

L1 − L 375 −300 75
Percentage elongation = ×100 = ×100 = ×100 =25 %
L 300 300
Yield stress 260
Safe stress = factor of safety = 2 = 130 N / mm
2

*Bars of Varying Sections:

Consider a bar consists of three lengths L1,L2, L3 with sectional areas A1, A2, A3, and
subjected to an axial load P.

Even though the total force as each section is same, the intensities of stress will be
different for three section.

P
Stress of section σ AB =
A1

P
σBC =
A2
P
σCD =
A3
σ AB
Strain of section AB e AB = ; where E = young’s Modulus
E
σ BC σ CD
eBC = ; eCD =
E E
Change in length of section AB = dLAB = eAB L1

dLBC = eBC L2
dLCD = eCD L3
Total change in length of bar = dLAB + dLBC + dLCD.
= eAB L1 + eBC L2 + eCD L3

= σ AB L + σ BC L + σCD L
1 2 3
E E E
PL 1 PL 2 PL 3
= + +
A1 E A2 E A3 E

P  L1 L2 L 
dl =  + + 3
E  A1 A2 A3 
4. Determine the stresses in three parts and the total extension of bar for a axial pull of 40KN
as shown below fig.
Take E = 2 ×10 5 N / mm 2
Sol:

Sol: Given data :

Load P = 40KN = 40 x 103 N


E = 2x105N/mm2
P 4000 4000
= = =56 .58 N / mm 2
Stress in section σ1 = A1 π π
d2 (30 ) 2
4 4
Similarly

P 4000 4000
= = =127 . 4 N / mm 2
σ2 = A2 π 2 π
d ( 20 ) 2
4 4

4000
= 48 . 21 N / mm 2
σ3 = π 2
(32 .5)
4
Total extension dl = dl1 + dl2 + dl3
P  L1 L2
= =  +
E  A1 A2
L 
+ 3  (or)
A3 
1
E
[σ 1
l1 +σ 2 l 2 +σ 3 l 3 ]
4 P  L1 L L 
=  + 22 + 23 
π E d 1 d 2 d 3 
2

4 × 40000  180 260 160 


= 2 
+ + 
π × 2 ×10 (30 ) 2
( 20 ) 2
(32 .5) 2 

= 0.255 mm
5. Find the decrease in length of steel bar loaded as shown in fig.
Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2
Sol: Stress in upper part
P1 2000
σ1 =
A1 π = 25.46N/mm2
(10 ) 2
4

Stress in lower part


P2 2000 + 5000
σ2 = =
A2 π 2 = 39.6 N/mm2
15
4
Decrease in length of bar

σ1 l1 σ 2 l 2
δl = +
E E
1
= [σ1 l1 + σ 2 l 2 ]
E
1
= [25 .46 ×180 + 39 .6 ×200 ]
2 ×10 5

= 0.0625mm

6. A steel tie rod 50mm in diameter and 2.5m long is subjected to a pull of 100KN. To what
length of rod should be bored centrally so that the total extension will increase by 15%
under same pull, the bore is being 25mm dia? Take E = 200 GN/m2
Sol:-
Given data
Dia of rod d = 50mm
Length of rod = 2.5m = 2500mm
Load P = 100KN
Dia of bore d1 = 25mm
E = 200 x 109 x 10-6 N\mm2
= 2 x 105 N\mm2
Let us assume length of bore = x mm.

P 100× 103
σ = = = 50.93N \ m m2
Stress in solid rod A π
(50) 2
4
σL 50 .93 ×2500
δl = = = 0.64 mm
E 2 ×10 5
Elongation of the rod is bored δl1 = 1.15 x δl = 1.15 x 0.64
= 0.732mm
π
Area of bored rod A1 = (50 2 − 25 2 ) =1472 .62 mm 2
4
P 100 ×10 3
Stress in bored rod σ 1
= = = 67 .9 N / mm 2
A1 1472 .62
σ( 2500 − x ) σ1 x 50 .93 ( 2500 − x ) 67 .9 X
Elongation of bored rod s l1 = + ⇒ + =0.73
E E 2 ×105 2 ×10 5
127325 +16 .97 x
0.732 = 2 x 10 5
X = 1124 mm (or) 1.124m

*BARS WITH CONTINUOUSLY VARYING CROSS – SECTIONS

*FOR A PLATE MATERIAL

 A bar of uniform thickness ‘t’ tapers uniformly from a width of b1 at one end to b2 at other
end in a length ‘L’ as shown in fig below. The expression for the change in length of bar when
subjected to an axial force P

Consider an elemental length dx at a distance x from larger end.


b −b2
Rate of change of breadth is 1
L
b1 −b2
Width at distance x is b = b1 - x
L

 b1 −b2 
b = b1 – Kx  K = 
 L 
∴Cross sec tional area of element A = bt
= t (b1 – Kx)
Pdx
Extension of element =
AE
Pdx
=
t (b1 − Kx ) E
L Pdx P L dx
Total extension of bar is = ∫O t (b − Kx ) E =tE ∫
O b1 −Kx
1

P  −1 
= [log (b1 − Kx )]OL  
tE K 
L
−P  b −b2 
= log (b1 − 1 x)
tEK  L O
−P
= (log b2 −log b1 )
tEK
P
= (log b1 −log b2 )
tEK
P b
= log 1
tEK b2

*FOR A ROD MATERIAL

 A tapering rod has diameter d1 at one end & it tapers uniformly to a diameter d2 at other end
in a length L as shown in fig. if modulus of elasticity of material is E when it subjected to axial
force P
The change in length is
Change in dia of rod throughout its length L is d1 – d2

d1 − d 2
∴ Rate of change of dia K =
L
Consider a element of bar of length dx at a distance x from larger end.

The dia of element d = d1 - Kx


π 2 π
Cross sectional area A = d = ( d1 − Kx ) 2
4 4
Pdx
Extension of element = π
(d 1 − Kx ) 2 E
4
Pdx
L
Total extension of bar = ∫
O
π
(d 1 − Kx ) 2 E
4

4P L Pdx
= πE ∫
O ( d1 − Kx ) 2
L
4P  1 
= πE  
d 1 −Kx O
L
 
4P  1  1 
= πE    
d
d 1 − 1 − d k 
2
x

 L 
O
4P  L  1 1 
= πE   d 1 −d 2  
 − 
 d
 2 d 1 

4 PL  ( d1 − d 2 ) 
=
πE (d1 − d 2 )  d1 d 2 
4 PL
= π Ed d
1 2

7. A 1.5m long steel bar is having uniform dia of 40mm for a length of 1m and in next 0.5m it
diameter gradually reduces from 40mm to 20mm as shown in fig below. Determine the elongation
of this bar when subjected to an axial tensile load of 160KN.takeE = 200GN/m2

Sol: Given Data


Load P = 160 KN
Consider the bars in two section (1) & (2)
PL 1 160 ×10 3 ×1000
∆1 = =
Extension of uniform portion A1 E π
( 40 ) 2 ×2 ×10 5
4
= 0.6366mm
4 PL 2 4 ×160 ×10 3 ×500
Extension of tapering portion ∆2 = =
π d 1 d 2 E π ×40 ×20 ×2 ×10 5
= 0.2122mm.
Total Extension of bar ∆=∆1 + ∆2

= 0.6366 + 0.2122
= 0.8488mm.
BARS OF VARYING LOADS

8. A Brass bar having a cross – Sectional area of 1000mm2 is subjected to axial forces as
shown below fig. find the total change in length of bar.
Take E = 1.05 x 105N/mm2

Sol: Given data


Cross sectional area A = 1000mm2
E = 1.05 x 105 N/mm2
Split the bar in to 3 sections

P1 l1
Extension of AB ∆AB =
AE
50 ×10 3 ×600
=
1000 ×1.05 ×10 5

= 0.2857 (extension)mm

Charge in length of BC
P2 l 2
∆BC =
AE
30 ×10 3 ×1000
=
1000 ×1.05 ×10 5
= 0.2857m(contraction)

Change in length of CD
P3 l 3 10 ×10 3 ×1200
∆CD = =
AE 1000 ×1.05 ×10 5
= 0.1143mm (contraction)
Total change in length bar ∆=∆AB + ∆BC +∆CD
= 0.2857 – 0.2857 – 0.1143
= -0.1143mm

∴Decrease in length of bar = 0.1143mm

*ELONGATION DUE TO SELF WEIGHT


9. A bar of uniform cross section A and length L is suspended from top. Find the expression for
extension of bar due to self weight only if young’s modulus is E & unit weight material is γ
Sol : Consider an element of length dx at a distance x from free and
The load acting on element P = A x γ

Pl
Extension of element ∆ =
AE
A γx dx
=
AE
γx dx
=
E
L
L γx γ  x2 
Extension of bar = ∫O dx =  
E E 
 2

O
γ L2
=
E 2
Thus this extension is half the extension of bar if the load equal to self weight is applied at end.
P =AL γ
self wt =
Pl γ ( AL ) L γL2
= =
AE AE E

BARS OF COMPOSITE SECTIONS


Suppose the cross –section of member consists of different Materials, the load applied on the member
will be shared by various components of section.
For instance, suppose a column consists of outer tube of area A1 and young’s Modulus E1 and an
Inner tube of area A2 and young’s Modulus E2. Let the length of column be L. Suppose a load P be
applied on the column. Let the unit stresses on the outer and inner tube sections be P1 and P2
Total load on the column = Load on outer tube + Load on inner tube
P = σ1 A1 + σ2 A2 _________

Let dl be the change in length of column

dl
∴Strain of each tube e=
L
σ1 σ2
e= = _____________
E1 E2
From &
σ1 , σ 2 may be computed
From

E1
σ1 = σ2
E2

* 10. A compound bar consists of circular rod of steel of dia 20mm rigidly fitted into a copper
tube of internal dia 20mm and thickness 5mm as shown in fig. if the bar, is subjected to a load of
100KN, find the stresses developed in two materials

Take E S = 2 x 105 N/mm2 , EC = 1.2 x 105 N/mm2


π 2
AS = 20 = 100 π mm 2
4

Given total load


P = 100KN

External dia of copper tube = 20 + (2x 5)


= 30 mm

π
AC = (30 2 − 20 2 ) = 125 π mm 2
4
From static equilibrium condition
Load on steel rod + load on copper tube = Total load on compound bar.
PS + PC = P
PS + PC = 100 x 103
σS AS +σC AC =100 ×10 3 ----------------
We know that load will be shared by two materials equally
σ σ
e= S = C
ES EC
σS σC
⇒ =
2 ×10 5 1.2 ×10 5
2
σS = σC
1.2
σS =1.67 σC ------------------
Substitute σ S value from in
1.67 1.67 ×100 π σC +125 π σC = 100 ×10
3

916.3 σC =100 x 103


σC = 109 N/mm2
Then σS =1.67 * 109 =182N/mm2

**11. A reinforced concrete column is 300mm x 300mm in section. the column is provided with 8 bars of
20mm diameter. The column carries a load of 360KN. Find the stresses in concrete & steel bars
Take
ES = 2x 105 N/mm2
Econ = 0.14 x 105N/mm2

Sol: Given data

Load on column = 360 KN


Total Area of column A = 3002
π
Area of steel bars AS = 8 × 20 2
4
= 2513.6mm2
= 2514mm2
Area of concrete Acon = 3002 - 2514
= 87486mm2
Strain in concrete = strain in steel
σ con σ
= S
E con ES
E 0.14
σ con = con σ S = σs
ES 2.1
σcon =0.067 σS ----------------
Total load on column = load on concrete + Load on steel
P = Pcon + PS
360 x 103 = σcon Acon + σ S AS
= 0.067 x 87486 σS + 2514 σS
360 x 10 = 8346 σS
3

σS = 43.13 N/mm2
Then
σcon = 0.067 σS
σcon = 2.87 N/mm2
 *12. A steel bolt of 16mm diameter passes centrally through a copper tube of internal diameter
20mm and external dia 30mm. the length of the whole assembly is 500mm. After tight fitting of
assembly, the nut is over tightened by quarter of a turn. What are the stresses in bolt and tube if pitch
of nut is 2mm

Take

ES = 2x 105 N/mm2
EC = 1.2 x 105 N/mm2

Sol : Since there is no external force (or) load on the assembly


Load on copper tube + Load on steel bolt = 0
PC + PS = 0
PC = - PS -------------

i.e from equal & opposite forces are introduced.


As the Nut was tightened then due to this tightening the copper tube will shortened & steel
bolt gets extended
Movement of nut is to overcome extension of bolt & shortening of tube
∆N =∆S + ∆C
1 1
Movement of nut ∆N = × pitch = × 2 = 0.5mm
4 4

PS L PC L
0.5 = +
AS E S AC E C
 
= PL 
1
+
1
 ( PS = PC )
 AS E S
 AC E C 

 1 1 
0.5 = P ×500 201 .6 ×2 ×105 + 392 .7 ×1.2 ×105 
 
π
×16 2
AS = 4

= 201.6mm2
π
(30 2 −20 2 )
AC = 4

= 392.7mm2
P = 21728.64N
P 21728 .64
σS =
= = 107 .78 N / mm 2
AS 201 .6
P 21728 .64
σC = = = 55 .3 N / mm 2
AC 392 .7
TEMPERATURE STRESSES

Every Material expands when temperature rises and contracts when temp falls. The change
in length due to change is temp is found to be directly proportional to length of the member & also to
charge in temp.

∆ α t L

Where α Coefficient of thermal expansion [ change in unit length of material due to unit change in temp]
t = change in
temp………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
L = length of member .
∆ = αt L
PL
=αt L
AE
P
= Eα t ⇒ σT = E α t
A
here σT = Temp stress

Material Coefficient of thermal expansion


steel 12 x 10-6/0C
Copper 17.5 x 10-6/0C
Stainless steel 18 x10-6/0C
Brass, Bronze 19x 10-6/0C

13. A composite bar is rigidly fitted at the supports A and B as shown in fig. Determine the reactions
at the supports when temp rises by 200C
Talke Ea = 70GN/m2
ES = 200GN/m2
αa = 11 x10-6/0C
αS = 12 x10-6/0C
Sol : Given
Temp rise t = 200
The free expansion
∆ = αa t La + αS t LS
= 11 x 10 x 20 x1000 + 12x10-6 x 20 x 3000
-6

= 0.22 + 0.72
∆ = 0.94mm
If P is support reaction at expanding end . then
P La P LS
∆= +
Aa E a AS E S
P ×1000 P ×3000
0.94 = 600 ×7 ×10 4 + 300 × 2 ×10 5 10 2
P P
0.94 = 42 ×10 3 + 2 x10 4
 1 1 
0. 94=P  +
 42000 20 ,000 

P = 12735.48N.
Temperature Stresses In Compound Bars:

When temp rises the two materials of compound bar experience different free
expansions.

Consider compound bar of length L, The rise in temp be t. Let α1 ,α2 be coeff icient of
thermal expansion & E 1, E2 be moduli of two material.
Let α1  α2
Free expansion of bar 1 = α1 t L
Bar 2 = α 2 t L
If free expansions are permitted, are at AA and BB as show in fig.
But since two bars are rigidly secured at end position of bars will be some where between AA & BB
ie. CC.

P1 = P2
From fig
α2 tL + ∆2 = α1 tL −∆1
∆1 + ∆2 = (α1 −α2 )tL

= (α1 − α2 ) ) tL
PL PL
+
A1 E1 A2 E 2
 1 1 
P +  =(α1 −α2 )t
 A1` E1 A2 E 2 
 A1 A2 E1 E 2 
P =  (α1 − α2 ) t
 A1 E1 + A2 E 2 
P  A2 E1 E 2 
Hence stress in bar 1 is σ1 = =  (α1 −α2 ) t
A1 
 A1 E1 + A2 E 2 

P  A1 E1 E 2 
Bar 2 is σ 2 = =  (α1 −α2 ) t
A2 
 A1 E1 + A2 E 2 

14. A compound bar is made of a central steel plate 60mm wide and 10mm thick to which
copper plates 40mm wide by 5mm thick are connected rigidly on each side. The length of bar at
normal temp is l metre. If the temperature is rised by 800C, determine the stresses in each metal
and the change in length.
Take ES = 200 GN/m2 EC = 100 GN/m2
αS = 12 x 10-6/oC αC =17 x 10 −6 / O C
Sol :
Given data
Temp rise t = 800C
Length of bar at normal temp L = 1 meter = 1000mm

ES = 200GN/m2 = 2 x 105 N/mm2


EC = 100GN/m2 = 1 x 105 N/mm2

A r e ao f c r o ssse ct io n
 AS = 6 0× 1 0 = 6 0 m0 m
2

s te e pl l a te 
AC = 4 0× 5 = 2 0 0m m2
From above fig copper plate has high free expansion compared to steel plate, but those two
plates are joined rigidly so tensile forces acts on steel plate & compressive forces acts on copper
plate

So tensile forces gets equilibrium with compressive forces. As. Force on each copper plate
is taken equal since area are same

∴The equilibrium forces give PS = 2PC ----------


Change in length ∆S + ∆C = α C t L −αS tL
PS L PC L
+ =αC tL −αS t L
AS E S AC E C
Substitute in above

2 PC L PC L
+ =αC t L −αS t L
AC E S AC E C
 2 1 
PC L  +  =αC tL −αS t L
A E
 S S AC E C 


PC ×1000 ×
2
+
1 
5 
(
= 17 ×10 −6 −12 ×10 −6 80 ×1000 )
600 × 2 ×10 5
200 ×1 ×10 
PC = 6000 N
PS = 2PC = 12KN
Change in length of compound bar = ∆S + αS tL
PS L
= + αS tL
AS E S
12000 ×1000
= +12 ×10 −6 × 80 ×1000
600 × 2 ×10 5

= 1.06mm

15. A rigid bar ABC is pinned at A and is connected by a steel bar CE and copper bar BD as
shown is fig. if temp of whole assembly is raised by 400C, find the stresses induced in steel and
copper rods given.
For Steel bar For copper bar
2
Area 400mm 600mm2
5 2
Modulus of elasticity 2 x 10 N/mm 1 x 105 N/mm5
Coefficient of thermal expansion 12 x 10-6 /0C 18 x 10-6/0C

Since α C > α S , expansion of Cu is more than steel. But bar ABC is rigid & is hinged.
For equilibrium take moment about A is
PS x 2 = PC x 1
PC = 2 PS ----------------------------------
As ∆le ABD ≈ ∆le ACE
αc t LC −∆C α t LS −∆S
= S
1 2
∆S + 2∆c =( 2α C LC −αS LS ) t
2 PC LC
= ( 2α C LC −αS LS ) t -------------------
PS LS
+
AS E S AC EC

Substitute in
PS LS 4 PS LC
+ = ( 2α C LC −αS LS ) t
AS E S AC E C
 600 4 × 800 
PS  + 5 
= ( 2 ×18 ×10 −6 × 800 − 12 ×10 −6 ) 40
 400 × 2 × 10 5
600 × 1 × 10 
PS = 14202.74 N
PC = 2 PS = 28405.48N.
PS 14202 .74
Stress in steel rod = = =35 .5 N / mm 2
AS 400
PC 28405 .48
Stress in copper rod = = = 47 .34 N / mm 2
AC 600
POISSON’S RATIO :
When a material undergoes changes in length, it undergoes changes of
opposite nature in lateral directions. For example, if a bar is subjected to direct tension in its axial
direction it elongates and at the same times its sides contract.

Linear Strain: the ratio of change in axial direction to original length of member in called as
Linear Stain
Lateral strain : The ratio of change in lateral direction to the original lateral dimension called as
lateral strain

Within elastic limit there is a constant ratio between lateral strain and linear strain. This
constant ratio is called Poisson’s ratio.

Lateral strain 1
Poisson ' s ratio = = (or ) µ
Linear strain m
For most of metals its value is 0.25 – 0.33
1
Steel =0.3
m
1
Concrete =0.15
m

VOLUMETRIC STRAIN :

When a member is subjected to stresses, it undergoes deformation in all


directions.
Hence there will be change in volume.

The ratio of change in volume to original volume is called volumetric. Strain.


sV
eV =
v
Volumetric strain is sum of strains in three mutually perpendicular directions.
eV = ex + ey + ez

ELASTIC CONSTANTS :
Linear stress
Modulus of Elasticity =
Linear strain
Shearing stress q
Modulus of Rigidity G = =
Shearing strain φ
identical pressure in 3 perpendicu lar directions
Bulk Modulus K =
Volumetric strain
P
K =
eV
∆V
eV = Volumetric strain
V
RELATION BETWEEN E AND G: A solid cube LMST subjected to a shearing force F.
Let τ be the shear stress produced in the face MS and LT due to shearing force.

Due to shearing load, the tube is distorted to LM’S’T, and as such, the edge M moves
to M’ S to s’ and the diagonal LS to LS1 .

SS 1
Shear strain φ =
ST
τ SS 1
Also shear strain = = ---------
G ST
On the diagonal LS’ , draw a perpendicular SN from S.
NS 1 NS 1
Now diagonal strain = = -------------
LN LS
SS 1
From ∆el NSS 1 NS 1 = SS 1 cos 45 O =
2
1
(LL S T ≈ LL ST sin e SS 1 is very small ) LS =ST 2

Substitute value of LS in ------------------


SS 1 SS 1
Diagonal strain = =
2 ST 2 2 ST
SS 1 τ
But from, =
ST G
τ σn
∴Diagonal strain = 2G = 2G -------------------
Where σn is normal stress due to shear stress τ
σn σ n
The net strain in diagonal LS = +
E mE
 LS and MT have normal tensile & compressive stress σn
σn  1 
= 1 +  -----------------
E  m

From &
σn σn  1 
⇒ = 1 + m 
2G E

 1
E = 2G 1 +  -------------------- ( I )
 m
RELATION BETWEEN E AND K :

If solid cube is subjected to σn (normal compressive stress) on all faces. The direct strain
σ
in each axis = n (comp)
E
σ
Lateral strain in other axis = n (tensile )
E
σn σn σ
∴net strain in each axis = − − n
E mE mE
σn  2
= 1− 
E  m
Volumetric strain ev = 3 x linear strain
σn  2
= 3 1− 
E  m
σ
but ev = n
K
σn σn  2
=3 1− 
K E  m
 2
E =3K 1 −  --------------- II
 m
From equation I and II by eliminating m we can get relation between E,G,K.
From I
2G
m=
E − 2G
Substitute m in II
 2 
E = 3K 1 −
 2G /( E − 2G )  
E − 2G 
3K 1 − 
 G
E G − E + 2G
=
3K G
3G − E
=
G
E E
= 3−
3K G
E E
+ =3
3K G
EG +3KE = 9KG
E (3K+G)= 9KG
9 KG
E=
3K + G
(or)
9 3 1
= +
E G K
HOOP STRESS:

If a thin steel type of internal diameter d. such a tyre can be shrunk on to a wheel of slightly
bigger diameter D. The steel tyre is heated so that its dia exceeds from d to D. In this stage the
steel tyre is slipped on to the wheel. If now the tyre be cooled it will grip the wheel.

Hence a tensile stress is induced circumferentially along the tyre. Such stress is called a Hoop
stress

πD −πd
contractio n prevented
Temp strain e = original πd
=

D −d
e =
d
 D − d
Hoop stress due to fall of temp = σ = eE =  E.
 d 

STRAIN ENERGY:

Energy absorbed (or) stored by a member when work is done on it to deform it.

Consider a bar of length L, cross – sectional area A and subjected to axial load P. Let resistance
developed is R.

When deformation is zero, resistance R= 0


When deformation is ∆ = e L, R =P
∴Work done by the resisting force = average resistance x ∆
o +P
= × eL
2
1
= P eL
2
1
= σ A eL
2
1
= σ e V ( AL = Volume)
2
But strain energy = work done by internal force R
1
SE = σ eV
2
1
= × stress × strain × volume
2
1 σ
SE = σ V
2 E

σ2
Strain energy = V
2E

Strain energy per unit volume is defined as Resilience


σ2
Resilience =
2E

The maximum strain energy which can be stored by a body without undergoing permanent
deformation is called Proof Resilience. Hence proof resilience is equal to strain energy in the body
corresponding to stress at elastic limit ( σY )
σY 2
i.e. proof Resilience =
2E

Stress analysis due to various types of loads can be done by strain energy method. In this method
strain energy is equated to work done by the loads. This procedure illustrated by various load cases
below.

(i) Gradually Applied Load


Consider a bar of length L, cross –sectional area A subjected to load.
If load P is gradually applied, the load increases from O to P as extension increases from O to ∆
gradually. Hence work done by load
= Paverage ×∆
O +P P
= ×∆ = eL
2 2
Equating it to strain energy we get,
1 P
σe V = eL
2 2 L
σ A L = PL
P
σ =
A
(ii) Suddenly Applied Load :
Due to sudden application of loads, there will be
instantaneous
High stresses and strains. The suddenly applied load P means, P is acting even when ∆ = O and acts
throughout the period of extension.

Hence
Work done by load = P∆ = P eL
The resisting force develops gradually from O to max. Value R and hence strain energy stored is =
1
= σ e AL
2

Work done by load to strain energy


1
PeL = σ e AL
2
P
σ =2
A
Thus, stress developed due to applications of a load suddenly is twice that due to same load being
applied gradually.

(iii) *Impact load – freely falling load :

In this type, the load falls through a height say h, before it acts on the body.
Fig
Shows such a loading case on a bar of length L, in which load W falls through a height h before
applying load on bar. After striking the collars, load W acts through a further distance of ∆.

Work done by load = W (h+∆)


= W (h + eL)
σ
= W (h + L)
E
σ 2
Strain energy stored = AL
2E
σ2 σ
AL = W (h + L)
2E E
2 EW σ
σ2 = (h + L)
AL E
2 EWh 2W
σ2 = + σ
AL A
(or)
2W 2 EWh
σ2 − σ− =0
A AL

1  2W 
2
  2W  2 EWh

σ= +   +
2  A  A  AL 
 

1  2W 2W 2 EWh A2 
σ=  + 1+4 
2 
 A A AL 4W 2 

W  2 EWh 
σ=  1+ 1+  -----------------------
A  WL 

Thus in this stress produced by W is more than suddenly applied case. In most of cases, compared
to L,∆ is too small. Hence if, ∆ is neglected in comparison to h
Work done by load = Wh
σ2 2ehW
Equating to strain energy AL =Wh ⇒σ = 
2E AL
2 AEh
The same result is obtained by neglecting small quantity , compared to in equation
WL

(iv) Shock Load :


Shock load is measured in terms of energy. It is an externally applied energy. If U units of
shock load is applied to bar, the stress produced in the bar can be obtained by equating strain
energy to shock energy.
σ2
AL =U
2E
2UE
σ=
AL
**16. A 100N load falls from a height of 60mm on a collar attached to a bar of 300mm
diameter and 40mm long find the instantaneous stress and extension produced in the bar. Take E =
2x 105 N/mm2. what is the percentage error, if extension of bar is neglected in final work done by
load.
Sol :
Given data
π
Area of cross – section A = 30 2
4
= 225 π mm 2

W = 100 N
E = 2x105N/mm2
W = 100N
E = 2x 105 N/mm2
h = 60mm
L = 400mm
Instantaneous stress
W  2 EWh 
σ=  1+ 1+ 
A  WL 
100  2 × 225 π × 2 ×10 5 × 60 
= 1 + 1 + 
225 π 
 100 × 400 

= 92.273 N/mm2
If extension of bar is neglected in calculating work done by load
σ2
AL = Wh
2E
2 EWh
σ2 =
AL
2 × 2 ×10 5 × 60 ×100
σ = = 92.132 N/mm2
225 π × 400
Hence, percentage error in approximating is
92 .273 − 92 .132
= ×100
92 .273
= 0.153
σ
Instantaneous extension produced = ×L
E
92 .132
= × 400
2 ×10 5
= 0.1842mm
17. A steel bar 20mm diameter and 1m long is freely suspended from a roof and is provided with a
collar at other end . If modulus of elasticity is 2x105 and Max. Permissible stress is 300N/mm2, find
(a) the Maximum load which can fall from a height of 500mm on collar
(b) The maximum height from which a 600N load can fall on collar.

Sol: Given
π
A= × 20 2 =100 π mm 2
4
L = 1m = 1000 mm
E = 2x 105 N/mm2
h = 50mm
(a) Maximum stress σ = 300N/mm2
Instantaneous extension permitted
σ
∆= ×L
E
300 ×1000
= = 1.5mm
2 ×10 5
∴work done by load W = W (50+1.5) = 51.5 W N-mm.
σ2
Strain energy = ×Volume
2E
σ2
= AL
2E
300 × 300
= ×100 π ×1000
2 × 2 ×10 5
= 45000 π N- mm
Equating work done by load to strain energy
51. 5W = 45000 π
W = 2745.08N
(b) When W = 600N
let h be the maximum height
work done by the load = W ( h+ ∆)
= 600 (h + ∆)
Equating work done by load to strain energy
600 ( h + 1.5) = 45000 π

h = 234.12mm