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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM

Rationale

Globalized competition induces vulnerability among nations whose industries

and services cannot meet international standards of quality and cost-

effectiveness/cost-competitiveness. Even public organizations, in as much as they

shape policy and provide various kinds of support to private development activities,

must meet these criteria to avoid becoming irrelevant. In relation to local

government, globalization has the following impacts on organizational improvement

and it creates pressure to maximize organizational performance.

Organizations that ignore constant improvement lose out and eventually die

down. The repercussions for government organizations may be less dire, in the

sense that governments are not meant to create profit. Nonetheless, their

experience illustrate attainable management reforms towards maximizing the

potentials of organizations, including local governments and it makes more people

aware of the choices open to them. Joaquin (1997)

Information technology enables a great segment of the population to be

more informed of the activities of the government and the economy. Such

awareness educates them of their opportunities for political participation. This also

empowers the public to identify crucial gaps in local government services. If not

addressed, it may compel their constituents to seek from the private sector, often at

the cost of political support.


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Globally competitive organizations tend to be leaner, personnel-wise and

management wise. Higher production is registered by companies even with lesser

layers of management and sizes of human resources. These characteristics are

related to a host of management innovations that they continually improve.

The challenge to improve and develop local government organization comes

from the external environment as well as the additional responsibilities brought

about by devolution. The remaining task now is to identify what specific aspects of

the organization need reforms and what resources are available to accomplish

them. Consciousness and will are only the beginning, but they will keep LGU on

track. Mistal, (1997)

Managers nowadays do not actually do what a manager really should do

back in the eighties. Changes that occurred in the new economy, the increasing use

of technology in business, and the effects of globalization towards business world

have led management into a whole new dimension. New managers are expected to

be able to manage on an international scale, act strategically, utilize technology,

establish values, and of course, act responsibly as well. (Crainer, 1998) Henry

Mintzberg once asked, "What do managers do?" After conducting his research based

on a study of five CEOs, he concluded that managerial work involves interpersonal

role, decisional role and informational role. And the fact is that, managers get things

done through other people. Therefore, managers are required to possess certain

skills and competencies which allow them to play these roles effectively and

efficiently throughout the four functions of management. (Mintzberg, 1998) Futurist

Mallinger (1998) predicted, “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who
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cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn”. Toffler’s

statement frames the new educational paradigm emerging as schools transition from

a traditional bricks-and-mortar teaching classroom environment to a 21st-century

learning environment.

The new paradigm for the 21st-century management demands higher order

learning skills for students and teachers alike, and school leaders are expected to

facilitate these changes. The role of educational leaders, especially in schools, has

changed considerably as many countries have transformed their education systems

and schools to better prepare young people for today’s world of economic

globalization and increased mobility of people (Pont, Nusche, & Moorman, 2008).

The leadership role of Administrative Officers is demonstrated in all aspects

of the general duties of the local government administration. Leadership has to do

with the initiation, organization, motivation and direction of the actions of the

members of a group in a specific situation towards the achievement of the

objectives of group. These roles must be concerned with the quality of services as

well as the service seeker’s welfare, the moral and spiritual tone of the local

government unit and the maintenance of discipline.

Stoltz (2008) stressed the importance of conducting researches among local

government leaders to find out how they respond to different issues that are carried

along with their responsibility and role as administrative officers managers. This

means that the way the administrative officers with the adversities brought about

by both external and internal factors could greatly affect his multi-faceted role as

manager which could result to inability of fulfilling his potential which in


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consequence, lowers his performance in terms of resourcefulness, adjustment to

change with new ideas, problem solving, decision making, optimism and

healthiness.

Managing a provincial government department’s is an increasingly important

in today’s complex society. Not all administrator officers perform exactly the same

problems, however; all administrators deal and interact with the different

environments-economic, technological, social, political, legal and ethical-in which

they operate. Despite the differences, all administrators share certain features and

experiences.

Relatedly, Stones and Nielson (2001) gave the definition of management.

“The process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling


the effort of organizational members and of using all other
organizational resources to achieve stated organizational
goals.”

As implied in this definition, there is the unifying task to be done by the

people in charge of managing other people, usually those in the higher hierarchy in

the organization such as chief of the department, head units or administrators in a

local government setting.

Administrators’ work with the administrative personnel to accomplish local

government goals, thus, understanding behavioural sciences and human behaviour is

necessary. Local government administrators need to be more sensitive in dealing

with subordinates by offering new insights in important areas as leadership, conflict

resolution, and communication. In short, the local government administrator should


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analyze his staffs problems by considering their lapses for deeper study and in

offering solutions or giving appropriate actions.

Provincial government department administrators in the different local

government institutions of the province, as well as departments heads that promote

constitute the hierarchy of goal setters which society has evolved for the objectives

of national development. As a goal setter, they will need cooperation of large

number of people, both within and outside the goal setting institutions, to achieve

those objectives which are entrusted to them by virtue of their positions. These tasks

can be merely legal or it can have strong elements of popular demand of confidence.

Administrator Officers of the provincial government institution like Pangasinan

Provincial Government have their gargantuan tasks in determining the character,

effectively and ultimately the quality of services in their respective department that

they handle. While administrative officers are responsible for the prudent handling of

the department physical plant, facilities and equipment, this study is mainly

concerned about the managerial skills. The central focus is the administrators and

staffs who comprise an important component of the local government system.

Pangasinan Provincial Government administrative officers are not exempted

in exercising their management skills in order to effect quality services . It is along

this idea that this study will be undertaken.


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Statement of the Problem

This study entitled 21st Century Management Skills of Administrative Officers in

the Provincial Government in Pangasinan and aims to assess the level of

Management Skills of Administrative Officers in various department of this province.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of various department administrative officers respondent

in terms of:

1.1 age;

1.2 sex;

1.3 civil status

1.4 highest educational attainment;

1.5 Career Service Eligibility;

1.6 Number of years as Administrative Officer; and

1.7 Number of seminars/trainings attended relative to

management?

2. What is the level of competence of Administrative Officers in their

management skills as perceived by the immediate supervisor, administrative

staff and themselves along:

2.1 creativity and innovation;

2.2 critical thinking and problem solving;

2.3 communication and collaboration;

2.4 flexibility and adaptability;

2.5 initiative and self-direction;


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2.6 productivity and accountability, and;

2.7 Leadership and responsibility?

3. Is there a significant difference in the level of competencies of the

administrative officers and the administrative staff themselves?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents’ profile and their

level of competence along management skills?

Null Hypotheses

On the basis of the problems raised, below are the research hypotheses.

1. There is no significant difference between the perceptions of the

administrative officers and the non-teaching personnel on the level of

competence of administrative officers in their 21st century management

skills”

2. There is no significant relationship between the administrative officers

profile and their level of competence along 21st century management

skills”.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be beneficial to the following:

Provincial Government. The study will attempt an empirical basis to

determined the present management skills in Pangasinan Provincial Government.

The findings of this study may used therefore, by the provincial government

administrators as a basis for designing intervention programs to enhanced the

managerial skills of administrators. Moreover, this can be used as reference or


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baseline information by other local government unit managers in other institution.

To the administrative staff themselves, the result of this study would serve as a

challenge that would encourage them to exert effort in helping other provincial

government employees acquire more skills, knowledge and experiences which will

enable them to become effective, upright and productive members of the society.

Chief Administrative Officers. The current data collected as a feedback

from respondents of the study on the managerial skills would help the supervisors-

whose responsibility is to give the necessary leadership in their effort to help guide

the destiny and perhaps, maximize the efforts of administrative Officers.

Next Researchers. This study will bring fourth valuable insights on the

changing context of the managers and employees relations. Further, researchers

who would wish to thread along the idea or parameters treated in this study and

who would verify the findings in some other regions might be guided somehow.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The research is delimited to the management skills of administrative officers

in eight (8) departments of the Provincial Government of Pangasinan. The research

will include the Administrative Officers who occupy the positions with at least five

(5) years in their respective assignment.

The study will focus on the profile of administrative officers as well as their

level of competence along the management principles.

Definition of Terms
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The following terms are operationally defined to ensure common

understanding among readers of this paper.

21st Century Skills. These are the characteristics to a broad set of

knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits that are believed by employers,

and others—to be critically important to success in today’s world, particularly in

their careers and workplaces. In this study this refers to level of competence of

administrative officers along creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem

solving, communication and collaboration, flexibility and adaptability’ initiative and

self-direction,productivity and accountability, and leadership and responsibility.

Provincial Government. It refers to a level of local government operation

as embodied in the local government code of 1991, wherein the provincial

government were given blanket authority to create, managed their own resources in

the governance of their respective areas of concern.

Competency. This term refers to skills or knowledge that leads to superior

performance. This is formed through an individual/organization's knowledge, skills

and abilities and provides a framework for distinguishing between poor

performances through to exceptional performance. In this study the level of

competence is measured in a five point likert scale as Very Highly Competent

(VHC), Highly Competent (HC), Moderately Competent (MC), Slightly Competent

(SC), Not Competent (NC) as the administrative officers discharge their duties and

responsibilities in their respective department.


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Administrative Leadership. It is a process in a provincial government and

dealing with administrative matters which yields control of department affairs by

consensus among service providers, service seekers, stakeholders, administrators

and laymen and others upon principles which govern administrative operation and

management of provincial government.

Management. It is a role performed by a leader in an organization, which is

concerned with the direction of others to accomplish planned or desired objectives.

In this study, this refers to the administrative management skills and they

manifested in conformity with the duties and responsibilities.

Management Skills. It refers to the ability of the department

administrative officer in the provincial government in performing their management

functions along planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, controlling and

evaluating. In this study, management skills refers to the skills embodied in the 21 st

century skills and adopted as guiding principles in assessing the competence of

administrative officers as they manifested.

Administrative Officers. These are the administrative personnel in any

organization public and private. In this study this refers to the department

administrative Officers who occupy a position based on the position classification

and pay plan of the Provincial Government of Pangasinan, which are the subjects of

the study.

Training Program. It refers to the training activities to be undertaken to

enhance the management skills of administrative Officers in the Provincial

Government of Pangasinan based on the results of the study.


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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

A review of both local and foreign literature and studies directed to

environmental programs is presented and discussed from the viewpoint of

similarities and differences relevant to the present study. This provided the

researcher a broad discernment and a more vivid insight regarding the problem.

Further, this serves as a basis for the conceptual framework of the study.

RELATED LITERATURE

Martinez (1991) pointed out that a pressure is a physiological agent that

influences the individual to react to certain changes. It can cause undue anxiety,

fear, trauma, tension, and can be growth search. Pressures, therefore, could neither

be friend or foe.

He also discusses the different symptoms that affect behavior and job

performance. Some of these symptoms are: digestive problems, high blood

pressure, nervousness/tension, chronic worry, feeling of inability to cope, emotional

instability, excessive use of alcohol, drugs, smoking, problems with sleep (insomnia)

uncooperative attitude, and inability to relax. Anything and everything could be a

source of pressures. The individual is its bigger factor. While one person can live

with pressures, another can live by it and use it to deal with environment.

Differences in vulnerability to pressures are due perceptions, experiences,

orientation and goals. Pressures like conflict, has also its benefits. Therefore, it

should be managed at a comfortable and not eliminated.


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According to Sison (2001), a pressure is the biggest threat to a man’s health

and he reveals from his study that 90-95% of all illness commonest, most

troublesome and most worrying consequences. After twenty years of research he

comes up with the findings that in addition to well-organized illness he found toxic

stress which he named, “The twentieth Century Blues” as something specific and

something that has never been recognized as an individual syndrome. He found out

this the most common disease in the developed world and which he found it far

more damaging disease in the common ailment. The victims range from manager

and executive to anyone else as potential victims. For victims, the only common

factor is that they become caring and sensitive individuals. The unintelligent and the

uncaring are not, however, immune to the power of toxic stress. He further states

that much modern hooliganism and vandalism is the result of toxic stress by

becoming unhappy and confused while the insensitive and unintelligent respond to

toxic stress by becoming angry, aggressive and violent. The twentieth century Blues

or toxic stress is an insidious, morally and spiritually destructive disease. It eats

away the soul but it is a disease of the soul rather than the mind; a disorder of the

spirit rather than the body. It cannot be cured by traditional therapy.

The Cause of Harmful Pressure

The following are examples of what cause excessive pressure at work:

 Prolonged conflict with others, harassment or bullying;

 Under or over-promotion and overloading or little to do;

 Torn loyalties between work and home;

 A high degree of uncertainty about jobs and career prospect;


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 Uncomfortable working conditions and inflexible/over-demanding work

schedules.

Research has shown that lower grades of staff are more likely than higher

management to suffer stresses related ill health. Working women with children have

particular problems of pressure because of the need to juggle work, childcare and

domestic responsibilities. Significant life events outside work such as bereavement,

divorce, ill health and death can cause stress. Although there is no legal duty to

prevent stress caused by problems outside work, it is sensible to show

understanding. On an everyday basis, work, home life and health are

interdependent. It may need to be acknowledged that sometimes it is difficult to

assess whether the main cause of stress is work related or due to private

circumstances.

Impact of Stress on Employee Productivity and Performance

Winter S.G. ( 2003) stresses that the term stress refers to sum of physical

mental emotional strains or tensions on a person or feelings of stress which result

from interactions between people and their environment that are perceived as

straining or exceeding their adaptive capacities and threatening their well-being. He

added that stress has a wide psychological and physical effect as cardiovascular,

musculoskeletal systems, headache, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance

and depression. Further researched that health sector has to face usually large

amount of stress. Stress among doctors is high, the medical profession is suffering

from increased stress, but most of the attention has been focused on junior doctors

and their excessive hours of work (Schonberger ,1994).


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Schonberger (1994) explained that doctors in the field of medicine have to

usually face a lot of hurdles and one of the most evident factors which originates

and impacts directly their personal and professional lives is stress. Low job

satisfaction correlated with contemplation of giving up work due to stress, physicians

and surgeons were more likely to have lower job satisfaction scores if they felt

unable to remain competent in their field of work. Likewise, Kasmi Rubina (2007)

cited that there is a negative correlation between job stress and job performance.

Those subjects affected males more than females, in case of certain situation. The

kind of stress towards which the doctors are exposed to usually result in such

negative factor that places at the life of the innocents which they attend. And such

stresses increases the chances of fatal errors lowering job performance.

According to Korten, (2001) occupational stress inadvertently consequences

low organizational performance. Job stress although has belittling impact on any

organization and individual’s performance but can shape dire consequences when

related to health care, Mimura et al, (2003). Job stress is considered rising and has

become challenge for the employer and because high level stress results in low

productivity, increased absenteesim and collection to other employee problems like

alcoholism, drug abuse, hypertension and host of cardiovascular problems.

Personally factors have shown inclination towards stress, anxiety and other

occupational outcomes in different areas of medicine, and these factors may

contribute to feelings of job dissatisfaction and stress, Mimura (2003).

Davis (2001) cited the importance of stress is highlighted nowadays by the

employers to manage and reduce stress through practical guidelines in public sector

but not in private organizations. Positive correlation has been shown by the
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literature between incentives and performance as both are related with satisfaction

of employees, however every time the case is not same non-monetary incentives

like career advancement, prestige, and public recognition can also increase

performance because low morale, high turnover, and interdepartmental struggle

were baselines of many cases, Malen and Ongawa (2007).

Management of Pressure at Work

Research has shown that there are three particular factors that put people

under increased risk from stress:

 Lack of control over the job;

 Quantitative or qualitative job overload or under load;

 Lack of support from managers and colleagues.

Sometimes a degree of stress is unavoidable. Strategies can be used to

respond to work pressures. Steps that managers can take to prevent or reduce

excessive pressure can be found in the guidelines for managers. Stress levels can

be checked by discussion as part of good thing management. Sickness absence

and annual leave sheets may also indicate an issue.

To minimize pressure, line managers can facilitate team support and model

effective stress management themselves. Individuals are responsible for taking care

of their own physical health and checking the balance between their work and non-

work activities is healthy for them.

Good time management can lead to effective workload organization.

Examples include: checking priorities on a daily basis; setting realistic goals;

planning work to foresee particularly busy periods; taking steps to reduce conflicting
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priorities in good time; and delegating where possible and appropriate. Annual leave

can be planned carefully to gain the maximum benefit from these breaks from work.

Training needs should be assessed to help to do the job more effectively and

manage behavior positively e.g. time management and assertiveness training may

be helpful. Short workshops on managing stress are occasionally organized by

Human Resources.

Talking through the pressures and getting support from others at work, e.g.

managers, colleagues, Human Resources Officers, Trade Union representatives,

family and friends, may be helpful.

If the workload is judged to be excessive, this should be brought to the

attention of the manager, as should any ill health that is stress related.

Villamayor (1992) in his study, environmental pressure has transformed the

context of public education and educational administration. The changing world

economy, declining confidence in the welfare state, and adverse social trends have

generated strong pressures for change in education systems, and for nothing less

than a paradigm shift in educational management. Together, these social forces

have produced three interconnected imperatives for educational administrators: a

productivity imperative, an accountability imperative, and a community imperative.

Efforts to respond to these imperatives generate tensions between competing

paradigms in educational management. This article discusses the environmental

pressures, the resulting three imperatives, and the tensions flowing from these

developments. Except in very small schools, the principal is likely to delegate

aspects of the management systems to other staff which include planning,


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administration, delegation, fitting on your own learning and managing other’s time

agenda.

Planning

Plan your appointment and weekly schedule a week in advance rather

than from day to day. Add in time for the unexpected. Keep an eye on the calendar

and establish patterns for regular activities, such as board reports.

Take a long-term view. Sometimes strategic tasks like a building project

need to be worked on over months. Such tasks need close attention, so plan time in

advance for them.

List long-term and short-term priorities and pin them up for easy

reference. Make all your time decisions with these in mind.

Anticipate and keep ahead. Note how you handle annual routines and think

how you might handle them next time. For example, in dairy farming districts there

can be a significant roll change at the beginning of June, while in other places

enrolments outside the start of the year or at the start of a term often involve

transient students or those with a chequered school history.

Don’t procrastinate. Large jobs are more manageable when they’re broken

into smaller tasks. Putting off a big task now will only cost you more time later.

Use a to-do list. Most principals swear by these. Writing down tasks and

prioritizing them will help focus your time. Reprioritize as circumstances change-do

this with long-and short-term priorities in mind.


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Administration

Keep the papers moving. Every piece of paper lands on your desk, do

something with it. Either file it to deal with at another time, pass it along, bin it, or act

on it. Try to handle things only once. Be systematic and use your administration

support so that you are not the only one who knows the things are.

Be highly productive in short burst. This gets paperwork done. Know your

own best times for getting things done. –use them, and make sure others know this

is how you work.

Use your laptop to save time by establishing clear and simple files and

folders for storing and retrieving data, ideas, plans, budgets, letters, and so on.

Control Interruptions. Try to respond to voicemail and email messages only

once or twice a day, if possible. Identify and maintain ‘closed door’ times like early

morning and after 4:30 pm. Use these as high-productivity sessions.

Delegation

Delegate. You don’t have to do everything. Many system process such as

finance, property, and support staff management can be delegated. Get someone

else to lead a meeting or write a policy. This also helps to build leadership capability

in others. For example, make sure you delegate effectively to your teachers and, if

you have them, your management team members, and then leave them to it. They

are often better than you at some tasks. Know and trust their capabilities, but make

sure they report back to you –delegation is not abdication.

Trust your staff. Control your staff flow through your door by building their

confidence and independence. Give genuine responsibility and delegated tasks your
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strong support, even if they are not done exactly the way you would have done

them. Try to reduce any over-dependence on your decision making. Use even the

smallest time allowance to empower your administrative staff to keep routines

moving by making decisions within their responsibilities. Treat these close

supporters with the utmost respect and consideration, and trust them to do their best

for the school.

Use a team approach staff. Setting this expectation makes it easier to share

workloads and reduces likelihood of having to rework something later on. Regularly

discuss teaching and learning issues with others so that the daily decisions and

actions they make are in accordance with school goals and plans.

Get help. If your budget allows, consider employing additional support staff

or rearranging their responsibilities and time to free up your time for working on

team development, teaching and learning, and relationship building.

Fitting in your own learning

Take your learning seriously. As an educational leader, you need to build

time in for your own learning. At the start of the year, identify the areas of skill or

knowledge that you want to improve or develop over the coming year. Make these

priorities, or part of your appraisal process.

Remove yourself. Successful reflection requires time and space. Some

suggest that leaving the school altogether enables better reflection. Even spending

10 minutes in your office away from your table can clear your head and give you

thinking time. Go for a walk around the school and see what’s happening. Treat

reflection time and mentoring or professional learning group opportunities as time


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saving activities that help develop the capacity of your team and reduce time

pressures on you in the long term.

Refresh your mind. Regularly allocating time for mental and physical

refreshment gives your brain the best chance to be receptive to learning and

problem solving. Investment in refreshment helps increase productivity.

Access easy links to learning sources. Save learning time by using

systems to record or save useful sources that are relevant to your learning. Learning

sources can be other people, online, or written. Aim to have access to these

resources within a few clicks of your mouse or a phone call.

Managing Others’ Time Agenda

Managing time pressures created by others deserves special mention. Often

priorities need to change and be adjusted to fit the unexpected. Phone calls,

unscheduled visitors, mail you did not ask for, and even some meetings fit into this

category. Staff and board members passing the buck can also be an issue here.

You’re in charge, so keep things in perspective and don’t rush.

Education is not and emergency industry, so remind others of this regularly. Don’t

be forced into ‘quick’ decisions because of someone else’s time agenda. Say, “I’ll

get back to you in an hour [or whatever, but do specify a time] about that.’ This is

particularly true if you are contracted by an organization like the media who want a

response to something. They can wait. You need to think things through.

Close the open door sometimes. Parents and visitors do not always need

to see you. Use newsletters or an email tree, managed by another staff member, to

educate the wider school community about who to contact about things. In larger
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schools, a secretary can direct visitors elsewhere. However, principals in small

schools often find much of their release time taken up with scheduled and

unscheduled appointments. Try to educate your community that there are times

when you are simply not available, except for emergencies.

Listen and focus. Active and critical listening is a crucial part of the job –

practice it frequently as it can save time. Tell the person who has come to talk to

you how much time you have available. –and give them a time that suits you: “I

have set aside 20 minutes [for example] –is that okay with you? “ Specifying a

length of time means you can focus on what they have to say and, hopefully, they

will be able to be concise in their message.

Keep responsibilities where they should be. Always help staff and board

members to solve their problems, but stick to the delegation principles above.

Other Related Literature

Sison, (2001) a noted local authority on management practices has this to

say: To meet the challenges of today, leaders and managers must increase their

self-confidence and self-awareness-enhance their personal authority and

assertiveness. To do these, they must learn to communicate their personal

strengths and weaknesses and make the changes that will increase their personal

effectiveness: improve their ability to deal with confrontations and cope with

demands placed upon them by others; prevent misunderstanding by development

active listening skills and analyzing the real meaning behind what is said; deal with

aggressive, passive and sarcastic behavior without stress or guilt convey positive

expectations, communicate clearly, and delegate effectively when dealing with


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subordinates and peers; break through common obstacles to assertiveness such as

negative self-statements, fear of manipulation by others, and internalized rejections,

overcome their fears, insecurities, and anxieties by applying self awareness and

image-enhancing techniques and gain the on-the-job recognition and respect they

deserve. Moreover, Sison was emphatic that: The leaders’ and managers

success depends upon their ability to function in an interpersonal level daily. At the

heart of each interaction is their understanding of what makes the individuals whom

they manage to what they want them to do as well as their ability to deal

effectively…on one-on-one and in group settings. They must have the strategies,

tactics and insights they need to put themselves firmly in control of tough

conflicting situations. Resolving conflicts is one of their responsibilities as managers

and leaders of people. They must control tough situations and resolve conflicts

effectively, spot the difference between healthy . . . and destructive competition.

It is only the “con-do-managers” who can meet the challenges of

today. They are the managers who get things done by solving problems, and

making decisions quickly and confidently, exhibiting enthusiasm, energy and

ingenuity and inspiring their people to be as creative, innovative and

productive as they can be. Finally, being self-aware and self-assured, they

are seen by others as true leaders.

As stressed by Andres, a manager possesses a reservoir of skills and sterling

qualities in order that the people being managed or supervised attain what is ideal

and planned.
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In addition, the world’s most successful managers share certain personality

traits. They are ambitious and hardworking, well organized, and very well informed.

Kenneth Godhsall of the “Kiplinger Washington Letter” stressed in point:

That organization and information are the secret weapons of the

successful. A manager has little time and so he must be well organized.

There is much new business information generated every day and it is critical

for him to master it. These all boil to proper time management.

In like manner, John Milne of Brisbane, Australia recommends the following

tips for time management (Management Minutes): 1. Make sure you work your

priority lists daily.2. Set your own agenda – plan a fruitful day. 3. Use the 80/20 rule

to work on valuable tasks. 4. Handle each piece of paper only once. . Make your

telephone calls in a block. 6. Date to delegate.7. Make meetings work for you. 8. Do

the hard job first.9. Use your primetime for big projects.10. Let die moments be a

joy.

He further affirmed that the secret of time management lies in managing

ourselves better. Thus, every manager should choose well the way he will manage

his day to day chores or activities. A managers’ perception of time may determine

his success in his chosen career.

This was shared by B.C. Forbes who recommended that every man carrying

heavy responsibilities should take a genuine vocation, throw off the cares of daily

tasks at least once a year – better still – and leave business cares behind.
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He further stressed that the men who get at the top are those who remained

boys at heart, who have cultivated a sense of humor, who have learned to like

people, and get long harmoniously, pleasantly with them (World Executives’ Digest).

In another development Davis, tried to draw the line between the necessity

and usefulness of the appointment of an “assistant-to” and at the same time its

apparent and seeming failure to make the position work effectively (Management

Review, 2002). He said in part:

“Assistant-to’s are justified by felt need of high executives to secure

aid in the discharge of their responsibilities which, otherwise, cannot

be sought from their line subordinates. This is so’ because the

standard pattern of organization is functional. As such, each

department with its own views and professional biases would have to

be integrated with the activities of each operating division. Hence, this

throws upon the chief executive a tremendous burden of coordination.

Most of which must pass through the chief executive’s office. But he

cannot be deskbound by all these, and it is this fact that makes the

“assistant-to” not only a useful but an essential appointment.

Personnel managers tend to be stifled in terms of personal development

because of several factors. Among these are family, peers, associates and

relationships with other people. These you can categorize under the all –

encompassing term “environment”. The environment tends to mold the individual

into the present pattern of cultural heritage which is bound by what see to be
25

psycho-sociological barriers. Another and more important in the development or

deterioration of the personnel manager is the self: his imagination, attitudes, and

personally accepted set of limitations that determine his capabilities.

Self-esteem and self-confidence are necessary in order to attain our goals.

But too much self-esteem and too much self-confidence can cause deterioration.

The overt behavior of some personnel managers reveals this sort of mental and

psychological deterioration. This happens when the personnel manager overtly

shows himself as capable of solving personnel problems but deep inside he knows

that he has not developed the management tools to cope with them. Because he

know he is incapable of surmounting the obstacle of fear, he reverts to his

negatively developing complexes. It becomes a vicious cycle when anxiety, guilt,

and inferiority complex make him has attitudes which develop into a downward

slide to self-defeat. So the individual sinks deeper and deeper into a psychological

rut.

Further, Lowell Miller succinctly pointed out in his work Mental Calisthenics

the following:

We alter our minds by altering our bodies, because ‘mind’ and ‘body’

are resulting functions of a single energy – single energy that

animates all organic life.” It is his belief that there is no mental and

physical dichotomy – do disease in the mind that does not affect the

body and no disease in the body that does not affect the mind.
26

The school manager must destine himself to succeed. He is equipped with all

that is necessary to make him succeed. Nature has provided him with talent, sense,

abilities, pleasure, instincts, and sensations. If he has handicaps that produce

failure, it is self-imposed because these all exists in mind.

The personal development of personnel manager is their dependent on

efficient and effective self-management. The failure-prone personnel manager must

realize and be aware of his present state. He must widen his threshold of

development and horizon of self-imposed limitations by pushing back the barriers, if

not eliminating them; he must realize and understand the reasons for his failure,

namely, his environment and himself. He must believe that he is capable of success

by utilizing his natural talents and abilities.

Moreover, OgMandino, in his famous work “The Greatest Miracle in the

World”, simply put this: “Remember them, the four laws of happiness of success:

Count your blessings;


Proclaim your rarity;
Go another mile;
Use wisely your power of choice;
And one more, to fulfill the other or four
Do all things with love”

Related Studies

In the study of Mataragnon (2006) on personnel management, he stressed

that manager (leaders) must be positive thinkers and that there is a necessity that

the things that are to be accomplished must be built on love.


27

Another authority stressed the need of an effective instruction who is actively

involved with teachers to improve instructions, if that school is to be effective. More

importantly that leader must have to and safeguard instructional time. An effective

school states clearly its objective and existence. The leader as well as the teachers

are aware of the purpose and objective of the school.

The performance of the students and the teachers are evaluated and

monitored often wherein priorities as what Roberts described transformational

leadership as:

The collective action that transforming leadership generates and

empowers those who participate in the process. There is hope, there

is optimism, and there is energy. In essence, transforming leadership

is a leadership that facilitates the redefinition of a people’s mission

and vision, a renewal of their commitment, and restructuring of their

system for goals and accomplishment”

In addition, Jackson (2005) presented the three fundamental goals of

transformational leadership in a collaborative, professional school culture; 1. help

staff members develop and maintain a collaborative, professional school culture; 2.

foster teacher development; and 3. help them solve problems together more

effectively.

Moreover, Shuster and Wetaler as quoted by Leithwood claimed that the

school principals in the United States have assumed a significant role of leadership
28

in the administration and development of elementary education. As they

emphasized:

Today’s dynamic society demands from the principal definite

knowledge and leadership competencies for maximum educational

achievement. Certainly, there are idealistic goals to be set by all

serious thinking educators, but the realistic administrator seeks to

some grips with his definite, concrete problems in practical ways.

Thus, an administrative officer of the elementary school who is close

to the children, teacher, parents and citizens of the community must

know how to demonstrate his leadership skills in giving direction and

imagination to the school.

This study concerns morale that has been defined in this chapter as a state

of mind and spirit, affecting willingness to work, which in turn affects organizational

and individual objectives. Morale may range from very high to very low and is not

absolute but is subject to change depending on the effect of management practices

on the individuals in a group.

The above definition puts premium on willingness to work which is very

important to the teaching profession. Some teacher may do only enough to get by

while others may to achieve more. Since teachers deal with human being, doing

more than what is required is very important and, therefore, keeping high morale in

the schools is mandatory.

Morale then is an individual or a group manifestation conditioned by the

teacher’s understanding of the relation between personal interests and


29

management interests. When their personal interests are being served fairly well,

they have a favorable attitude of mind. Conversely, their attitude is poor when they

perceive an unfair treatment of their interests.

Concomitantly, Sison (2001) stressed the following:

Morale is the mental attitude which makes the teacher perform his
work willingly and enthusiastically and his intangible state of mind is
manifested by this attitudes and reactions to his job, his working
conditions, the Ministry’s policies and programs, his fellow teachers, his
administrators and supervisors, his salary, his opportunities for
promotion and his general environment. The qualities indicating morale
are known by such terms as enthusiasm, personal satisfaction, team
spirit, pride of achievement, and willingness to work.

In addition, this vein, the study sought to present how morale can be

affected by various management skills and practices.

Along this vein, the study conducted by Malen (2007) is particularly relevant

to one of the specific problems treated in the present investigation; one is

concerned with the qualities of an education leader. This particular study afforded

the investigator insights on the possible items to be included on her research

instrument. However, it did not relate the qualities of education leaders to its effect

on the morale of their constituents.

The Commission on Teacher Education of the American Council of Education,

in an extensive study of the qualities of a good college dean, listed the following

dimensions: (1) respect for personality; (2) community-mindedness; (3) rational

behavior; (4) emotional surefootedness; (5) creative power; (6) skill in cooperation;

(7) increasing knowledge, breadth and integration of scholarship; (8) social


30

understanding and behavior; (9) skill in evaluation; and finally, (10) good

disposition.

In another local investigation, Wadman (2003) centered his study on the

characteristics of school administrators as effective manager. The study concluded

that certain characteristics that are most useful to managers in any enterprise are

grouped under five headings: (a) knowledge, decision-making, (c) self-reliance and

self-assertion, (d) regard for others and social sensitivity, and (e) emotional

stability.

Along this premise, Velasco discussed certain qualities of a “good school

head” which he posited: It is important that the school head possesses sterling

qualities for her occupies an exalted position which carries with it numerous ticklish

problems and responsibilities. The school head is entrusted with the mission to

implement government policies pertaining to education, enriched by his own

probing, observations, studies and research.

In another related development, Lacsamana (2005) researched on teacher

feedback on supervisory practice and staff morale factors in the Division of La

Union. The study found that supervisory staff in the division was adjusted to be only

“fairly good” on the basis of conduct attitudes, personal qualities, ways of working

and dealing with teachers, providing free time and adequate facilities and

equipment, and insuring satisfactory conditions of work for the teachers.

Still on qualities of supervisions, Sanchez (2003) found that the qualities liked

by teachers are “the constructive, cooperative, scientific, philosophic and democratic

type to supervision was the one favored most”.


31

Study conducted on 21st Century Management Skills, Liquiran (2017)

revealed that the campus administrative officers of Pangasinan State University are

most of them are married and possess the qualifications of an administrative officer.

They are provided with opportunities to attend in-service trainings in the local,

regional, national and even in the international level. They are Highly Competent

in terms of the 21st Century Managerial Skills along Creativity and Innovation,

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Communication and Collaboration, Flexibility

and Adaptability, Initiative and Self-Direction, Productivity and Accountability and

Leadership and Responsibility.

The administrative officers’ level of competence along Creativity and

Innovation is significantly related to civil status, and length of service as

administrative officer; Critical Thinking and Problem Solving is significantly related to

age, highest educational attainment, and length of service as an administrative

officer; Communication and Collaboration is significantly related to civil status and

length of service as administrative officer.

Their level of competence along flexibility and adaptability is significantly

related to age, civil status, highest educational attainment, and present position

held; Initiative and Self-Direction is significantly related to length of service as

administrative officer; Productivity and Accountability is not significantly related

to age, civil status, highest educational attainment, length of service as

administrative officer, present position held and number of trainings attended related

to management; and finally, the administrative officers’ level of competence along

leadership and responsibility is significantly related to civil status, highest

educational attainment, and length of service as administrative officer.


32

Another related study was conducted by Maniquiz (2016) which delineated in

her study the 21st century management skills of Technical Vocational Schools in

Pangasinan criteria on the level of competence and effectiveness of school

administrators who made the following recommendations: Administrators who have

not finished their master’s degree should do so, considering that the majority of

them believe it is needed for effective principalship. Teachers who are slated for

promotion to head teachership or principalship should be given them some

experiences in this area.

Finally, another researcher delved on teacher’s judgment of the supervisory

practices of elementary school supervisors in the Sixth Congressional District of

Pangasinan where the technical and vocational schools located. Her study

concluded that: During the meetings and conferences, mutual problems of teachers

should be attended to; and Teachers’ freedom in the choice of effective teaching

methods, techniques and instructional aids and materials should not prevent

supervisors from encouraging mastery of techniques and broad resourcefulness

through one’s own stock of experience and knowledge.

The foregoing literature and studies will helped the researcher in the

interpretation of the findings of this study.

Conceptual Framework

Based on the reviewed literature and studies, it is pragmatic to mention at

this point that the problem can be described by the conceptual framework for better

understanding at hand.
33

The study centered on the managerial skills of Provincial Government

Administrative Officers for the purpose of improving their performance in the

different areas of management.

Moreover, management must be psychologically sound. The administrative

officers should have a philosophy of local governance, which he can apply to

concrete situations.

As we view the performance of administrative officers today, there is a need

to look in to their respective roles and expectations not only of the administrators

but also of the various personnel of the administrators and staff but also of the

various personnel within the organization. This essential since administrators and

teachers interact with the organizational activities each day.

In addition, provincial government administrators have expectations of their

administrative staff. Because of the authority and power which their positions carry,

it is easy for the school administrators to be authoritarian, to demand compliance,

not to mention subservience whenever there is the implied need. As a result,

however, they have failed to consider that every teacher has expectations of their

superiors and such expectations also require appropriate action or answer.

Anent to this, it is believed that agency or organizational performance can be

much more improved if expectations are formally analyzed from top to bottom and

from the bottom up. In this process expectations can be examined, scrutinized and

considered mutually through meetings of the minds or proper dialogues.

It can be noted that instead of a one-way traffic of expectations, there is a

two-way lance which establishes linkage and facilitative communication. In this way,
34

responsibilities are identified and defined. In the final analysis, in case of elapses,

no single person receives the blame or is singly accountable for such blame.

Accountability becomes a cooperative responsibility each actor with set of

responsibilities to perform.

For instance, superior expect their subordinates to effectively contribute to

the achievement of national education goals. Subordinates, on the other hand,

expect from their superiors prompt and honest service, humane treatment, fairness,

support and encouragement. If both managers and employees are mutually aware

of each other’s expectations, working together becomes the concern of all the

managers providing the environment, support, encouragement and recognition, and

the employees fulfilling their obligations and responsibilities as integral part of their

behavior pattern towards achieving the provincial government goals.

This poses a challenge to provincial government administrators. They should

develop and apply their leadership abilities and management skills. In effect, the

pay-offs for effective school administrators or leaders could be immense. With

expectation spelled out, clarified and mutually agreed upon, each actor in the

management process becomes a responsible, participating member of the

organizations. Both department administrators and staff actualizing their abilities,

mental as well as physical, providing opportunities and conditions for both to see

and experience a close relationship between organizational success and one’s own

personal success.

Thus, an environment of mutual trust and confidence can be established

which is conducive to higher commitment and dedication for all actors in the
35

organization. Self-development, high standards of performance and a high measure

of self-expression, initiative, and creativity in one’s work become goals sought

voluntarily rather than demanded or imposed by authoritarian sources.

The concept of this study will strengthened by the interplay of the input

variables, process variables, process variables and the output variable.

This study adopted the IPO (input-process-output) model.

The input variables include the (1) profile of administrative officers in terms

of their (a) age, (b) sex, (c) civil status (d) highest educational attainment (e)

length of service as an administrative officers, (e) career service eligibility (f)

number of seminars/training related to management.

The process variable include the analysis on the profile variables, level of

competence and strategies employed by the provincial government administrative

officers in enhancing their managerial skills as perceived by the immediate

supervisor, administrative staff and themselves.

The output variable is to propose a human resource and training

development program to enhance the management skills of the Administrative

Officers of the Provincial Government of Pangasinan .


36
37

Figure 2. Paradigm of the Study


38

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents brief discussions of the method and procedures that will

be used in this study. Specifically, it includes the research design, respondents of

the study, the description of the research instrument, data gathering process and

the statistical treatment of the data that were going to use in the investigation.

Research Design

This descriptive-correlational method of research will be utilized in this study.

The descriptive method is a fact finding study with adequate and accurate

interpretation of findings. It describes with emphasis what actually exist such as

correct conditions, practices, situations, or any phenomena. Fraenkell and Wallen

(2003) assert that studies of this descriptive correlational research designs

investigate the possibility of variable relationships without manipulating them.

Moreover, this method allows a flexible approach, thus, when important new issues

and questions arise during the duration of the study, further investigation may be

conducted.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study will composed of Chief of the Departments,

Administrative Staffs and Administrative Officers themselves.

The most appropriate type will be used to determine the number of

respondents across the three groups is purposive sampling since it is the desire of
39

the researcher to include all administrative officers and staff that have been in the

service for at least five (5) and three (3) years respectively.

Table 1. present the distribution of respondents

Table 1

Distribution of Respondents by Department

Office Chief of the Administrative Administrative Total


Department Officers Staff
Respondents Respondent Respondents

Provincial Veterinary Office 1 1

Provincial General 1 1
Service Office
Provincial Governors Office 1 1

Provincial Accountant 1 1

Provincial Human Resource 1 1


Development Office
Provincial Treasury Office 1 1

Provincial Budget Office 1 1

Pangasinan Provincial 1 1
Hospital

TOTAL

Research Instrument

The main instrument that will be used to gather the needed data is a five-

point likert type of questionnaire checklist.

This take the form of a list of questions that will be given to respondents to

answer with the rationale of getting data on the topic under study. The questions in
40

the questionnaire will be close ended questions. The close ended questions offer a

set of alternative answers from which the respondents will be asked to choose the

one that most closely represents their view.

Data Gathering Instrument and Its Validation

The instrument will be evaluated by the researcher’s adviser and critic reader

for comments and suggestion.

The validation of the questionnaire, will be subjected to the examination of

the qualifying statement and pattern to the 21st century skills framework and rubrics

and (Mallinger, 1998) study of Maniquez (2016) and Liquiran (2017).

Data Gathering Instrument

The researcher will use of a questionnaire-checklist as main tool in gathering

the needed data. The questionnaire consist of three parts.

Part I- will gather information on the profile of administrative officers in terms

respondents of age, gender, civil status, highest education attainment, length of

service as an administrative officer, , in service/training attended related to

management.

Part II- will look into the level of competence of administrative officers in

management’s skills along Creativity and Innovation; Critical Thinking and Problem

Solving; Communication and Collaboration; Flexibility and Adaptability; Initiative and

Self Direction; Productivity and Accountability, and; Leadership and Responsibility.


41

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher will secure permission of the Office of the Provincial

Governor prior to the conduct of the study and will personally conduct and

administer the questionnaire to the respondents.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The analyses of the data will be done at the end of the data collection. The

responses will be classified and summarized on the basis of the information

provided by the respondents.

For the descriptive statistics, the current version of Statistical Product and

Services Solution (SPSS) data analysis program will be used.

For the five point likert type of questionnaire, average weighted mean will be

used based on the response of the respondents. Further, responses will be

described as follows:

Numerical Values Statistical Limits Descriptive Ratings (DR)

5 4.51 – 5.00 Very Highly Competent (VHC)

4 3.41 – 4.20 Highly Competent (HC)

3 2.61 – 3.40 Moderately Competent (MC)

2 1.81 – 2.60 Slightly Competent (SC)

1 1.00 – 1.80 Very Slightly Competent (NC)

T-test will be used to determine the significant difference in the perception of

the respondents on the level of competence along level of 21st century management

skills.
42

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LYCEUM NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY


INSTITUTE OF GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES
Dagupan City
47

November 15, 2019

HON. AMADO I. ESPINO, III


Governor
Province of Pangasinan
Lingayen

Sir:

I am presently conducting a study titled “21st CENTURY MANAGEMENT

SKILLS OF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS IN THE PROVINCE OF

PANGASINAN” in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor in

Public Administration.

In this regard, I have the honor to request permission to conduct an

assessment of the management skills of administrative officers in various provincial

government offices of this province . The data gathered will be kept confidential and

be used only for the purposes of this study.

I earnestly hope that this request merits your kind and favorable response.

Very truly yours,

JOSEFINA GRACE VOCAL


Researcher

Noted:

PERLA E. LEGASPI, DPA


Adviser

LYCEUM NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY


INSTITUTE OF GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES
Dagupan City
48

November 15, 2016

Dear Respondents:

Greetings!

The undersigned is a graduate student of Lyceum Northwestern


University Institute Of Graduate And Professional Studies, Dagupan City
and conducting a study entitled “21st CENTURY MANAGEMENT SKILLS OF
ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS IN THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT OF
PANGASINAN”.
In view of this, I have the honor to request your benevolence and utmost

cooperation to be my partner in this research endeavor by accomplishing the

attached questionnaires. The success of this study depends much on your real

perceptions and sincerest answers. Rest assured your responses will be kept in

strict confidentiality.

I earnestly hope that this request merits your kind and favorable response.

Very truly yours,

JOSEFINA GRACE VOCAL


Researcher

Noted:

PERLA E. LEGASPI, DPA


Adviser

“QUESTIONNAIRE ON: “21st CENTURY MANAGEMENT SKILLS OF


ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS IN THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT OF
PANGASINAN”. (For Administrative Officer Respondents)
49

Nam e (Optional) _________________________________________________


Officel _________________________________________________________
PART I - PROFILE OF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS
Direction: Please check the items that best describe you.
A. Age
_____ 24 years old & below _____ 41-45 years old
_____ 25-30 years old _____ 46-50 years old
_____ 31-35 years old _____ 51-55 years old
_____ 36-40 years old _____ 56 years old

B. Civil Status
_____ Single _____ Married _____ Widow

C. Highest Educational Attainment


_____ DPA/Ed.D./Ph.D. Graduate _____ With MA units
_____ With Doctoral Units _____ BSE/BSBA/BSC
_____ M.A/,MDM Graduate _____ Other, please specify

D. Career Service Elibility

_____ Career Service Professional

_____ Career Executive Service Officer

_____ Others

D. Length of Service as Administrative Officer


_____ 5 years and below _____ 16-20 years
_____ 6-10 year’s _____ 21-25 years
_____ 11-15 years old _____ 26 years & above

F. Number Seminar/Trainings Attended Relative to Management

________ Local

________Regional

________National

________International

Part II – LEVEL OF COMPETENCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER


Direction: Please check your perceptions on the level of your competence in
management skills along the different areas of management using the given
scale:
50

5 – Very Highly Competent (VHC)


4 – Highly Competent (HC)
3 – Moderately Competent (MC)
2 – Fairly Competent (FC)
1 – Not Competent (NC)

Areas of Management 5 4 3 2 1
A. Creativity and Innovation
As Administrative Officer I…
1. Use a wide range of idea creation techniques
(brainstorming etc…)
2. Create new and worthwhile ideas using both
incremental and radical concepts
3. Elaborate, refines, analyzes and evaluates their
own ideas in order to improve and maximize
creative efforts
4. Develop, implement and communicate new ideas
to others effectively
5. Be open and responsive to new and diverse
perspectives; incorporate group input and feedback
into the work
6. Demonstrate originality and inventiveness in work
and understand the real world limits to adopting
new ideas
7. View failure as an opportunity to learn;
understand that creativity and innovation is a long-
term, cyclical process of small successes and
frequent mistakes
8. Act on creative ideas to make a tangible and
useful contribution to the field in which the
innovation will occur
B. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
As Administrative Officer I…
1. Use various types of reasoning as appropriate to
the situation
2. Analyze how parts of a whole interact with each
other to produce overall outcomes in complex
systems
3. Effectively analyze and evaluate evidence,
arguments, claims and beliefs
4. Effectively analyze and evaluate major
alternative points of view
5. Effectively synthesizes and makes connections
between information and arguments
6. Effectively interpret information and draw
conclusions based on the best analysis
7. Reflect critically on learning experiences and
processes
8. Effectively solve different kinds of non-familiar
problems in both conventional and innovative ways
51

9. Effectively identify and ask significant questions


that clarify various points of view and lead to better
solutions
C. Communication and Collaboration
As Administrative Officer I…
1. Articulate thoughts and ideas effectively using
oral, written and nonverbal communication skills in
a variety of forms and contexts
2. Listen effectively to decipher meaning, including
knowledge, values, attitudes and intentions
3. Use communication for a range of purposes (e.g.
to inform, instruct, motivate and persuade)
4. Utilize multiple media and technologies, and
know how to judge their effectiveness as well as
assess their impact
5. Communicate effectively in diverse environments
(including multi-lingual)
6. Demonstrate ability to work effectively and
respectfully with diverse teams
7. Exercises flexibility and willingness to be helpful
in making necessary compromises to accomplish a
common goal
8. Assume shared responsibility for collaborative
work, and value the individual contributions made
by each team member
D. Flexibility and Adaptability
As Administrative Officer … I
1. Adapt to varied roles, job responsibilities,
schedules and contexts
2. Work effectively in a climate of ambiguity and
changing priorities
3. Incorporate feedback effectively
4. Deal positively with praise, setbacks and criticism
5. Understand, negotiate and balance diverse views
and beliefs to reach workable solutions, particularly
in multi-cultural environments
E. Initiative and Self-Direction
As Administrative Officer I..
1. Set goals with tangible and intangible success
criteria
2. Balance short-term and long-term goals
3. Utilize time and manage workload efficiently
4. Monitor, define, prioritize and complete tasks
without direct oversight
5. Go beyond basic mastery of skills and/or
curriculum to explore and expand one‘s own
learning and opportunities to gain expertise
6. Demonstrate initiative to advance skill levels
towards a professional level
8. Demonstrate commitment to learning as a
52

lifelong process
8. Reflect critically on past experiences in order to
inform future progress
F. Productivity and Accountability
As Administrative Officer. I.
1. Set and meet goals
2. Prioritize, plans and manages work to achieve
the intended result
3. Work positively and ethically
4. Manage time and projects effectively
5. Demonstrate the ability to multi-task
6. Participate actively, as well as be reliable and
punctual
7. Present oneself professionally and with proper
etiquette
8. Collaborate and cooperate effectively with teams
9. Respect and appreciates team diversity
10. Is accountable for results
G. Leadership and Responsibility
As Administrative Officer..I..
1. Use interpersonal and problem-solving skills to
influence and guide others toward a goal
2. Leverage the strengths of others to accomplish a
common goal
3. Inspired others to reach their very best via
example and selflessness
4. Demonstrate integrity and ethical behavior in
using influence and power
5. Act responsible with the interests of the larger
community in mind

“QUESTIONNAIRE ON: “21st CENTURY MANAGEMENT SKILLS OF


ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS IN THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNEMNT OF
PANGASINAN”. (For Immediate Supervisor/Administrative Staff
Respondents)

Part II – LEVEL OF COMPETENCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS


53

Direction: Please check your perceptions on the level of your campus


administrative officer competence in the management skills along the
following dimension using the given scale:
5 – Very Highly Competent (VHC)
4 – Highly Competent (HC)
3 – Moderately Competent (MC)
2 – Fairly Competent (FC)
1 – Not Competent (NC)

Areas of Management 5 4 3 2 1
A. Creativity and Innovation
The Administrative Officer.
1. Uses a wide range of idea creation
techniques (brainstorming etc…)
2. Creates new and worthwhile ideas using
both incremental and radical concepts
3. Elaborates, refines, analyzes and evaluates
their own ideas in order to improve and
maximize creative efforts
4. Develops, implement and communicate new
ideas to others effectively
5. Be open and responsive to new and diverse
perspectives; incorporate group input and
feedback into the work
6. Demonstrates originality and inventiveness
in work and understand the real world limits to
adopting new ideas
7. Views failure as an opportunity to learn;
understand that creativity and innovation is a
long-term, cyclical process of small successes
and frequent mistakes
8. Acts on creative ideas to make a tangible
and useful contribution to the field in which the
innovation will occur
B. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
The Administrative Officer
1. Uses various types of reasoning as
appropriate to the situation
2. Analyzes how parts of a whole interact with
each other to produce overall outcomes in
complex systems
3. Effectively analyze and evaluate evidence,
arguments, claims and beliefs
4. Effectively analyze and evaluate major
alternative points of view
5. Effectively synthesizes and makes
54

connections between information and


arguments
6. Effectively interpret information and draw
conclusions based on the best analysis
7. Reflects critically on learning experiences
and processes
8. Effectively solve different kinds of non-
familiar problems in both conventional and
innovative ways
9. Effectively identify and ask significant
questions that clarify various points of view and
lead to better solutions
C. Communication and Collaboration
The Administrative Officer …
1. Articulates thoughts and ideas effectively
using oral, written and nonverbal
communication skills in a variety of forms and
contexts
2. Listens effectively to decipher meaning,
including knowledge, values, attitudes and
intentions
3. Uses communication for a range of purposes
(e.g. to inform, instruct, motivate and persuade)
4. Utilizes multiple media and technologies, and
know how to judge their effectiveness as well
as assess their impact
5. Communicates effectively in diverse
environments (including multi-lingual)
6. Demonstrates ability to work effectively and
respectfully with diverse teams
7. Exercises flexibility and willingness to be
helpful in making necessary compromises to
accomplish a common goal
8. Assumes shared responsibility for
collaborative work, and value the individual
contributions made by each team member
D. Flexibility and Adaptability
The Administrative Officer
1. Adapts to varied roles, job responsibilities,
schedules and contexts
2. Works effectively in a climate of ambiguity
and changing priorities
3. Incorporates feedback effectively
4. Deals positively with praise, setbacks and
criticism
5. Understands, negotiate and balance diverse
55

views and beliefs to reach workable solutions,


particularly in multi-cultural environments
E. Initiative and Self-Direction
The Administrative Officer..
1. Sets goals with tangible and intangible
success criteria
2. Balances short-term and long-term goals
3. Utilizes time and manage workload efficiently
4. Monitor, define, prioritize and complete tasks
without direct oversight
5. Goes beyond basic mastery of skills and/or
curriculum to explore and expand one‘s own
learning and opportunities to gain expertise
6. Demonstrates initiative to advance skill
levels towards a professional level
8. Demonstrates commitment to learning as a
lifelong process
8. Reflects critically on past experiences in
order to inform future progress
F. Productivity and Accountability
The Administrative Officer
1. Set and meet goals
2. Prioritizes, plans and manages work to
achieve the intended result
3. Works positively and ethically
4. Manages time and projects effectively
5. Demonstrates the ability to multi-task
6. Participates actively, as well as be reliable
and punctual
7. Presents oneself professionally and with
proper etiquette
8. Collaborates and cooperate effectively with
teams
9. Respects and appreciates team diversity
10. Is accountable for results
G. Leadership and Responsibility
The Administrative Officer...
1. Uses interpersonal and problem-solving
skills to influence and guide others toward a
goal
2. Leverages the strengths of others to
accomplish a common goal
3. Inspire others to reach their very best via
example and selflessness
4. Demonstrates integrity and ethical behavior
in using influence and power
56

5. Acts responsibly with the interests of the


larger community in mind

Thank you…