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The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and

produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.


Main articles: Paper machine and papermaking

The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing
and drying.
Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which
is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water. Whereas, when making paper by hand, a
blotter sheet is used instead.

Drying involves using air or heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of paper making, this
was done by hanging the sheets like laundry. In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are
used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam heated can dryer.

The commercial planting of domesticated mulberry trees to make pulp for papermaking is attested as early as the 6th
century.[1] Due to advances in printing technology, the Chinese paper industry continued to grow under the Song
dynasty to meet the rising demand for printed books. Demand for paper was also stimulated by the Song
government, which needed a large supply of paper for printing paper money and exchange certificates.[2] The first
mechanised paper machine was installed at Frogmore Paper Mill, Apsley, Hertfordshire in 1803, followed by
another in 1804.[3] The site operates currently as a museum.[4].
Environmental effect Edit

The pulp and paper industry has been criticized by environmental groups like the Natural Resources Defense
Council for unsustainable deforestation and clearcutting of old-growth forest.[5] The industry trend is to
expand globally to countries like Russia, China and Indonesia with low wages and low environmental
oversight.[6] According to Greenpeace, farmers in Central America illegally rip up vast tracts of native forest
for cattle and soybean production without any consequences,[7] and companies who buy timber from private
land owners contribute to massive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest.[8] On the other hand, the
situation is quite different where forest growth has been on the increase for a number of years. It is estimated
for instance that since 1990 forests have grown in Europe by a size equivalent to that of Switzerland (44,160
KM) which has been supported through the practice of sustainable forest management by the industry. In
Sweden, for every tree that is felled, two are planted.[9]

The pulp and paper industry consumes a significative amount of water and energy and produces wastewater
with a high concentration of COD; recent studies underline as an appropriate pre-treatment of the
wastewater (e.g. the coagulation) is cost-effective solution for the removal of COD and the reduction of the
pressures on the aquatic environment[10]. According to ancient writings paper was first made by a eunuch in the
court of the Chinese emperor Ho Ti. He is thought to have used the bark from a mulberry tree. The earliest known
paper that still exists was made from rags in about a.d. 150. China was the only area where paper was made until the
technique surfaced in Japan and then in Central Asia. The Egyptians did not make paper until a.d. 900. Around 1150
a papermaking mill was built in Spain and the art of papermaking spread throughout Europe. The English built their
first mill in 1495; it was 200 years after this that paper was first manufactured in America. In 1690 the fist paper mill
in the American colonies was constructed in Germantown, Pennsylvania. It was built on the banks of the
Monoshone Creek by William Rittenhouse, a papermaker trained in Germany and one of the first Germans to settle
in the New World. His ambition was to make fine white paper from the raw material of rags. During the American
Revolution (1775–1783) the Rittenhouse mill donated paper for pamphlets and newspapers. Paper was also used to
make gun wadding and cartridges used in the war.

Papermills sprang up to meet the demands of a growing market. New mills thrived that were near cities and towns
and that had a plentiful supply of rags for the basic raw material. A new job title emerged for those seeking
employment in the paper industry. For lack of any more sophisticated name, the word "ragpicker" was coined for
those that scurried around the cities collecting rags for the papermakers. There were approximately 185 paper mills
in the United States by 1810. The supply of rags used to make paper was running low and papermakers began
looking for alternative materials. On January 14, 1863, the Boston Weekly Journal became the first U.S. newspaper
to be printed on paper made from ground wood pulp.

As the United States grew in size so did the paper industry. Technology kept up with the need for faster production.
The first practical machine for papermaking was invented in 1798 by Frenchman Nicholas Louis Robert. An
improved machine constructed by British brothers Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier appeared in 1803. The first machine
that produced paper in a continuous sheet was installed by Thomas Gilpin in Wilmington, Delaware in 1817. Straw
and wood were being used as raw materials and machine speeds were greatly increasing. Paper was now being made
in longer and wider dimensions.

By the late 1990s the United States and Canada were the largest producers of pulp, paper, and paper products in the
world. The U.S. paper industry was accountable for approximately one percent of the U.S. national income. In the
1990s the United States employed 750,000 workers in the paper industry alone.

Towards the end of the twentieth century conservationists became concerned with the impact of paper production
on the environment. Paper mills had the unfortunate tendency to foul the water supply and destroy wildlife. The
industry set a goal to recover 50 percent of all used paper via recycling by the end of the twentieth century. By 1999
it appeared that this estimate was low; twice as much paper was recovered for recycling as was sent to landfills.
Another economic and social issue affecting the paper industry at the turn of the century was the promise of a
"paperless" world by those who believed that technology and commerce would shape every facet of society. Instead
of this outcome, technological growth seemed to be followed by an increase in the demand for paper. This growth
appeared to be based on the premise that paper is universal and relatively inexpensive; replacing it with electronic
apparatus makes communication exclusive and, in some cases, too expensive
Growth and Development:
Paper manufacturing has been carried on in India since tenth century as a small cottage industry by the
traditional craftsmen called kagzis. They used gunny bags, rags, ropes, etc. for making paper. This
industry could not survive the onslaught of the machine made paper and declined considerably. However,
a part of it has managed to survive and even today, a large number of small units are producing handmade
paper.

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The beginning of modern paper industry goes back to 1816 when a factory was set up near Chennai. This
venture proved abortive. Another papermill was set up in 1832 at Serampore on the bank of Hugli in West
Bengal. This venture also failed and the first successful effort was made in 1870 with the setting up of the
Royal Bengal Paper mills at Ballyganj near Kolkata.